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Last updated 12/25/05




See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID


YADIN: (Nabatean) papyri and ostraca

(as per H. Misgav)

[B_HOUSE,R_006,NO CATNYP] “Measuring and Weighing in Ancient Times.”

Published: Haifa, Israel, 2001 by the Reuben and Edith Hecht Museum.

See Nabatean documents from Naval Hever.

P. Yadin 6

P. Yadin 7

P. Yadin 9.

P. Yadin 44


See also Lachish AKA Lakish.

See also JEWS; MASADA.


O. Masada 751: (Latin and Greek; 73 AD)


P.Masada: Masada II, The Yigael Yadin Excavations 1963-1965, Final Reports: The Latin and Greek Documents

P.Masada 722: (Greek/Latin; AD 72; Masada)



YAHOO: dot com; free email and more

YALE: (Greek) papyri and CUNEIFORM collections

(as per E. G. Turner) A Greek Yale papyrus speaks of 1804 petitions to the Prefect Subatianus, ~210 BCE.


P.Yale: Yale Papyri in the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

P.Yale 1.26. Fragment of an Antichretic Loan:

(Greek; from HIBEH)

See P. Yale 324; 344; 348; 349; 350; 351; 361; 362; 363; 378; 379; 902; 903; 904; 906; 907 within:


See BEINECKE [Library]


CATNYP# JFF 86-1171


Yale papyri in the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library II / Susan A. Stephens.”

Chico, California, 1985.

See plates

On Greek Papyri; see index; bibliography.


[O_063,rvw] NO CATNYP

BOBST# HD130 .S34 2001

“A Yale papyrus (P. Yale III 137) in the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library III / by Paul Schubert.”

Oakville, Connecticut, 2001.

See plates; Land tenure notes; math. Greek papyri.


See YBC items on the image grid and explore the Yale Babylonian Collection link:

YEAST: and other happy accidents

Egyptologists said ancient Egyptians succeeded in producing yeast during the Old Dynasty [OK] (2686 to 2181 B.C.), and used it to produce the oldest known types of alcoholic beverages and 12 kinds of bread and pastries.Team leader Lener told UPI the team also found tools and equipment used to construct two of the three pyramids of Giza, built to bury two of the most important pharaohs who ruled in the Fourth Dynasty between 2613 and 2494 B.C. Among other discoveries:

-- a collection of archaeological pieces used to count the laborers building the two pyramids, believed to have exceeded 20,000 workers;

-- primitive statistical drawings to record the number of tools handed out to the workers;

-- an industrial zone that manufactured bronze tools and special uniforms for the laborers building the pyramids.

-- 250 ceramic stamps printed with the names of the Pharaohs Khafra {Chephren} and Manqara {Mercinius}, owners of the second and third largest pyramids in Egypt.

YIDDISH: yeder tup hut a dekel; es gefeltde irl nit.


CATNYP# *P-*PTI (Weinreich, U. College Yiddish)

“College Yiddish; an introduction to the Yiddish language and to Jewish life and culture. With a pref. by Roman Jakobson.”

NY, YIVO, 1965.




Wednesday=Mitvoch [midweek]



Saturday=Shabbos [or] Samtag


Notes from 111302 – Yiddish introduction hosted by M. Friedman

(as per M. Friedman) See text: “The New Joy of Yiddish”


[notes from M. Friedman lecture of 122302]

Brief discussion of Yiddish music: Sad dirges; plaintive; weeping;

learning; Pathos.

Songs of exile

Radio stations:


2. WNPR on Saturdays (after noon); The Yiddish Radio Project


Song: Pincus the Peddler


Singer: Mickey Katz


Requirements of a [new] Jewish community are 1. a Mikvah for purifications and 2. sacred ground for a cemetery.


Kalachkt=[whitewashed]: the application of a coat of lime/plaster to

the old walls

Ruby=central hearth stove


See organizations:

1. HIAS: taught language and hygiene to new immigrants;

2. HFLS: Bought cemetery plots and arranged no interest loans


Suggested text: Arthur Miller’s “Focus” circa 1950 re:

Socialist/Communist/Marxist Jewish influence


Two forms of settlements in Early Israel:

1. Kibuttz: A commune of Marxist / Socialist design

2. Moshav: A collective rewarding individual efforts and allowing private

ownership of some items.

Only about 2% of Israeli’s now live on a kibbutz.


YOUNG: (Author)

* Thomas Young, An Account of Some Recent Discoveries in Hieroglyphical Literature and Egyptian Antiquities. Including the Author's Original Alphabet, as Extended by Mr. Champollion, with a Translation of Five Unpublished Greek and Egyptian Manuscripts, John Murray, London, 1823.

Reprinted by Elibron Classics, 2001. 180 pp. Price: Pb. USD 18.45,

eBook USD 12.95 - Preview pages on the website.

YOUTIE: (Author)

Herbert Chaim Youtie



ZAGREB: (AE, BOTD) papyri (now in Croatia)

(as per EEF; I. Uranic) Seek P. Zagreb 601, BOTD, Hieratic

Containing name of


ZAKKUR: (Old Aramaic) inscription from Syria)



"The ZAKKUR Inscription," in Mark W. Chavalas, ed., The Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation (London: Blackwell, 2004), in progress.


the ZAKKUR inscription, which describes the siege [of GATH, home to Biblical Goliath] in about 800 B.C.E. of the northern Syrian city of Hadrach by Bir-Hadad, son of Hazael)

the ZAKKUR inscription records that the same siege tactic—the use of a dry moat—was used by Hazael's son Bir-Hadad just a few years later. We may have here an Aramean method of siege. The mention of the destruction of Gath in Amos 6:2 may thus be an allusion to the mighty siege and fiery destruction of the city at the hands of Hazael in the late ninth century B.C.E.

Have we found definitive proof that Tell es-Safi is Philistine Gath?

No, ... <snip>

ZAS: periodical; See Cubit

See [B_008,misc], LEPSIUS

Also available at the Wilbour Library.


ZAS=Zeitschrift fur Agyptische Sprache

[B_008,misc] (CATNYP# *OBH+Zeitschrift);


[P29N1,from B_149] ZÄS 1864 page 44

As noted [(P38N3)]


[P33N4,from B_149] ZÄS 1865 (Februar) pages 9, 12 and 22

Page 9: Title: Lettre a M. le Docteur R. Lepsius Sur les mots egyptiens designant la droite et la gauche

Author of letter: F. Chabas


Page 12: Title: Ueber rechts und links im Heiroglyphischen (Chabas)


Page 22: Title: Nachtrag zu rechts und links (Author uncertain!)


Pages 12 and 22 seem to be part of the same effort from the article title page (#9).


Some comments from Samuel Birch, [1813-1885], are included between page 12 and 22.

I was unable to clarify any further.


[P38N1,from B_149] ZÄS 1863 (December) page 53

Author: Heinrich Brugsch

Title of Article: Aussug aus einem Schreiben des Reisenden Hrn. Dumichen


[P38N3,from B_149] ZÄS 1864 (Mai) page 42

Author: Heinrich Brugsch

Title of Article: Ueber die hieroglyphische Bezeichnung der altagyptischen einfachen Langenmaase


[P41N1,from B_149] (UNRESOLVED) ZÄS page 42

Author should be Hultsch

? Year (to find if Hultsch on page 42!)

? Title of article

Confirm name of author


I found Brugsch on page 42 of (November) 1863.


One other concern is that Leppy's [B_149] footnotes may refer to any of the many other texts whose titles begin with Zeitschrift. Many existed in 1861!



(CATNYP# *OBH+Zeitschrift)
See ZAS 37, 1899, p. 10-17.
Ludwig Borchardt: “Ein altagyptisches astronomisches Instrument.”



ZENON: (Greek and Demotic) archive

Now at Florence, Italy; [Firenze])


Zenon was born ~285 BC at Kaunos in Karia, located on the southwest coast of Turkey.


(as per E. G. Turner) Zenon is said to be a manager for the finance minister of Ptolemy II. The papyri are dated to 260-240 BCE. Math.


(as per G. Finkielsztejn, see text below)

[B_HOUSE,R_006,NO CATNYP] “Measuring and Weighing in Ancient Times.”

Published: Haifa, Israel, 2001 by the Reuben and Edith Hecht Museum.

“…some papyri in the archives of Zenon – the secretary of Appollonios, finance minister of Ptolemy II – list empty amphoras…”


(as per Duke Univ.)

Zenon Papyri, Catalogue général des antiquités égyptiennes du Musée du Caire, ed. C.C. Edgar. Cairo.


Zenon Papyri: Business Papers of the Third Century B.C. dealing with Palestine and Egypt, vol. I, ed. W.L. Westermann and E.S. Hasenoehrl. New York 1934. Nos. 2-59. [Rp. CG]


"Selected Papyri from the Archives of Zenon," ed. C.C. Edgar, in Annales du Service [ASAE] des Antiquités de l'Égypte. Cairo. [MF 2.29] AKA P. Edgar.


The Zenon Archive, ed. T.C. Skeat. 1974. Nos. 1930-2193. [o.e. BMP]

AKA P. Lond.


Zenon Papyri, ed. C.C. Edgar. Ann Arbor 1931. (Univ. of Mich. Studies, Humanistic Series 24). Nos. 1-120. [MF 1.19].

AKA P. Mich.


Die Demotischen Urkunden des Zenon-Archivs ed. W. Spiegelberg.

(Dem.Stud. 8). Nos. 1-25 Leipzig 1929. [Rp. CG]

A number of these texts had been published in translation in PSI IX 1001-1010A-G, the bilinguals are reedited in P.Zen.Pest. as noted and a few others have been reedited in P.Mich. I and P.Cair.Zen.


Greek and Demotic Texts from the Zenon Archive, ed. under the general direction of P.W. Pestman. Leiden 1980. (Pap.Lug.Bat. XX). Nos. 1-13 bilingual Greek and Demotic papyri; 14-76 Greek papyri. Appendix Nos. A-F. [o.e. EJB.]


Die Giessener Zenonpapyri (P.Iand.). Zwischenbericht über ihre Bearbeitung, by Fritz Uebel. 1964.


I papiri dell’ archivio de Zenon a Firenze. Mostra documentaria - settembre 1993, ed. G. Messeri Savorelli, R. Pintaudi . 1993. [o.e. LGF]


A Guide to the Zenon Archive, ed. P.W. Pestman et al. 1981. 2 vols. [o.e. EJB]


P.Zen.Pestm.: Greek and Demotic Texts from the Zenon Archive

P.Zen.Pestm. 1. Receipt of grain: (Greek; 257 bce; from Philadelphia)



CATNYP# *OBKQ (Grier, E. Accounting in the Zenon papyri)

BOBST# NA216.A2 C162

“Accounting in the Zenon papyri, by Elizabeth Grier.”

NY, 1934.

Elizabeth Grier, 1901-?


Includes translation of P. Col. Inv. No. 249; 211.

Pursue math content; accounts; accounting.



[B_475=O_045,rvw,IMG] .

CATNYP#  *OBKM+ (Cairo. Musée des antiquités égyptiennes.

Catalogue général, v. 79, 82, 85) Library has: v.1-4

BOBST# DT57 .C2 vol.79 Oversize [See also vol.82 Oversize].

Zenon Papyri / by C. C. Edgar.”

Cairo, 1925-?.

Text AKA:Zenon Papyri, Catalogue général des antiquités

égyptiennes du Musée du Caire, ed. C.C. Edgar.” Cairo.

Studies by Campbell Cowan Edgar [AKA: C. C. Edgar; 1870-1938].

See plates.



CATNYP# STG (Michigan. University. University of Michigan Studies,

Humanistic Series. V. 24)

BOBST# PA3305 .M5 v.1

ZENON papyri in the University of Michigan collection, Campbell Cowen Edgar.”

Ann Arbor, Mich., 1931.

See BOBST Archive: O 1

Includes a collection of accounts; letters; decrees; receipts; math. All

from about 300 BCE.

See p. 162, item no. 84 on the construction of a palisade to

protect livestock from flood damage / drowning. See canal

diagram (site plan).





Mayser, Gramm. = Mayser, Grammatik der griechischen Papyri aus der Ptolemaerzeit.

Meyer, Jur. Pap. = P. M. Meyer, Juristische Papyri.

P. Bouriant = Collart, Les Papyrus Bouriant.

P Cairo Zen. = Edgar, Zenon Papyri, in the Catalogue general du Musee du Caire.

P. Cornell= Westermann and Kraemer, Greek Papyri in the Library of

Cornell University.

P. Edg. = Edgar, Selected Papyri from the Archives of Zenon, in Annales du Service des Antiquites de l'Egypte vols. 18-24.

P. Frankf. = Lewald, Griechische Papyri aus dem Besitz des rechtwissenschaftlichen

Seminars der Universitat Frankfurt.

P. Grenfell = Grenfell and Hunt, Greek Papyri.

P. Gurob = Smyly, Greek Papyri from Gurob.

P. Hib. = Grenfell and Hunt, Hibeh Papyri

P. Lille = Jouguet, Collart, Lesquier, Papyrus grecs de Lille.

P. Oxy. = Grenfell and Hunt, Oxyrhynchus Papyri.

P. Petr. = Mahaffy and Smyly, The Flinders Petrie Papyri.

P. Ryl. = Johnson, Martin, Hunt, Catalogue of the Greek Papyri in the

Rylands Library at Manchester.

P. Teb. Grenfell, Hunt., Smyly, Tebtunis Papyri.

Rev. Laws = Grenfell and Mahaffy, Revenue Laws of Ptolemy


Spiegelberg, Dem. Zen. = Spiegelberg, Demotische Urkunden des Zenon Archivs.


See link to ASAE


ZERO: (AE) earliest use of

(as per B. Lumpkin) See Boulaq 18, nfr and nfrw in accounts.

See also inscriptions (benchmarks) in trench 17 of Meidum (Dynasty 4)


See: “The Concept of Zero in Ancient Egypt.”

By Beatrice Lumpkin, submitted for publication in HM,

filed with [B_019], for no reason!


(Also by B. Lumpkin and as per AEB):

(AEB 81.1166) Lumpkin, Beatrice, The Egyptians and Pythagorean Triples, Historia Mathematica, Toronto 7 (1980), 186-7.


Nfr and Nfrw mean: Good or complete or beautiful.


Also review use of nfr in Abu Sir papyri See B.M. Fifth Series.

NO CATNYP [W_019;OS]WATSON# 533.6 B771 plQ ser5. Hieratic Papyri in the British Museum. Fifth Series: Abu Sir papyri / edited, together with complementary texts in other collections by Paule Posener-Krieger and Jean Louis de Cenival", London, 1968.

See UHN;

p. 150: re LARSA/SENKEREH town/source of mathematical cuneiform text [Louvre, AO 8862, side IV] ZERO as a blank space. See URUK.

p. 152: URUK {near LARSA} tablet [Louvre, AO 6484; sideB] fig. 13.60 ~200 BCE showing one of the oldest instances of the Babylonian ZERO!

p. 266 modern chinese uses LING as ZERO

p. 346 for reference to zero called Galgal [hebrew for wheel]

p. 431 The actual name Sanskrit [Samskrita] means “complete perfect or definitive” which to me sounds like AE nfr or zero!

p. 589 Zephirim; Zefiro; See EZRA; FIBONACCI


ZODIAC: (AE and other) astronomical and astrological blueprint

See Dendara, Dendera, Denderah.

See (tomb of) Senenmut.


(as per AEB) Cauville, S., Le Zodiaque d'Osiris, Leuven, Peeters, 1997.


(as per ZPE, D. Fowler) Seek work on Giza Horoscopes by;

B.R. Goldstein and D. Pingree


(as per F. Lopez) Seek the following texts about AE Astronomy:

1.- Otto Neugebauer & Richard Parker: Egyptian Astronomical Texts, 3 Vols.


I.- The Early Decans

II.- The ramesside Stars Clocks

III.- Decans, Planets, Constellations and Zodiacs


published for Brown University Press, Providence, Rhode Island


2.- Richard Parker: The Calendars of Ancient Egypt. The Oriental

Institute of the University of Chicago. Studies in ancient oriental

civilization, n. 26. The University of Chicago Press


3.- Marshall Clagett, Ancient Egyptian Science, [3] vols. American

Philosophical Society. See [B_028].


[B_214,rvw] CATNYP# ZO-*OBL p.v. 5, no. 2

“Description du Zodiac circulaire de Denderah, contenant l’explication des signes et des figures retracees sur ce monument, et des remarques sur son antiquite, sur le temple don’t il faisait partie, et sur la maniere don’t il a ete transporte en France. [Microform] Par B.-F.C…., homme de lettres.

Paris, Bulla, 1822.

See Toulouse?


[B_215,rvw] CATNYP# ZO-*OBL p.v. 5, no. 4

“Essai d’interpretation du zodiaque circulaire de Denderah. [Microform] Par H.S. LePrince…”

Paris, 1822.


[B_216,rvw] CATNYP# ZO-*OBL p.v. 5, no. 1

“Essai sur le zodiaque circulaire de Denderah, maintenant au Musee du Roi; [Microform] Par M. Alexander Lenoir…”

Paris, 1822.


[B_HOUSE,R_006,NO CATNYP] “Measuring and Weighing in Ancient Times.”

Published: Haifa, Israel, 2001 by the Reuben and Edith Hecht Museum.

See page 82 [Hebrew] the Zodiac [mosaic floor] of Beit Alpha ~600 CE.

See page 68; Aramaic inscription ~520 CE.           

See trigona zodiac page 81.

See Khirbet et-Tannur.


Chinese ZODIAC:

See Sanskrit/Greek/English Zodiac names.



ZOROASTER: historical religious figure



(as per EB)

Zoroaster (Zarathushtra) was a priest of a certain ahura (Avestan equivalent of Sanskrit asura) with the epithet mazda, "wise," whom Zoroaster mentions once in his hymns with "the [other] ahuras." Similarly, Darius I (522-486) and

his successors worshipped Auramazda [AKA Ahuru Mazda].


Zoroaster's people are called Avestan; after the Avesta, the holy Scripture of the Zoroastrians


Keyword search; Parsees, Zarathushtra.


Search for more info about the (Parsees) “mercantile” language of GUJERATI.

A Hindi language similar in sound to Ordu/Urdu and Bengali,

Ek, Do, Tay, Char, Ponch…Sol…Hazan..

Eg, Du, Say, Char, Ponch…



See also Polish!

Ras, dva, tchy, tchery, piench, sheich


See these related links.


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See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID