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Last updated 12/25/05




See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID


WAARDEN: (Author) B. L. Van der

[AKA] VAN DER WAERDEN, B(artel) L(eendert),
Die Voraussage von Finsternissen bei den Babyloniern, Berichte der sächsischen Akademie Leipzig, mathem.-phys. Kl. n. 92, 1940 ****
"The Egyptian Eternal Tables", PAPhS, 50 (1947) 536-547 y 782-788.
"Babylonian astronomy. II. The Thirty-Six Stars", JNES, 8 (1949) 6-26.
"Babylonian astronomy. III. The earliest calculations", JNES, 10 (1951) 20-34.
Die Astronomie der Pythagoreer, Amsterdam, 1951.
"Das große Jahr und die ewige Wiederkehr", Hermes, 80 (1952) 129-155.
"Das große Jahr des Orpheus", Hermes, 81 (1953) 481-483.
"History of the Zodiac", AO, 16 (1952-1953) 216-230.
"Bemerkungen zu den händlichen Tafeln des Ptolemaios", en Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen Akademie, Mathem. Naturwiss. Klasse, München, 1953, p. 261.
"Die handlichen Tafeln des Ptolemaios", Osiris, 13 (1958) 54-78.
"Drei umstrittene Mondfinsternisse bei Ptolemaios", Museum, 15 (1958) 106.
"Ptolemaios (66) Klaudios", RE, 23.2 (1959) 1788-1859 y 2484.
"Babylonische Methoden in ägyptischen Planetentafeln", Vierteljahrsschrift d. Naturforsch. Ges. in Zürich, 105 (1960) 97-144.
"Pythagoreer, Pythagoreismus", RE, XXIV (1963) 209-300****.
Die Anfänge der Astronomie, Groningen, 1966 (= Boston/Basel/Stuttgart, 1980).
"The Date of Invention of Babylonian Planetary Theory", AHES, 5 (1968) 70.
"Die Wissenschaften der Pytagoreer", 13e Congrès International d’Histoire des Sciences (Moscou, 1971), Colloques, Moscou, 1971. pp. ****
"Die Ägypter und die Chaldäer", Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberg Akademie der Wissenschaften, (math.-naturwiss. Kl.), 5 (1972) 201-227.
"Aegyptische Planetenrechnung", Centaurus, 16 (1972) 65-91.
Science Awakening, II. The Birth of Astronomy, Leiden-New York, 1974.
"The ‘Babylonians’ and the ‘Persians’", Prismata...Festschrift für Willy Hartner, ed. Y. Maeyama, W. G. Saltzer, Wiesbaden, 1977, pp. 431-440.
"The Great Year in Greek, Persian and Hindu Astronomy", AHES, 18 (1978) 359-383.
"Mathematics and Astronomy in Mesopotamia", DSB, XV, suppl. I, 1978, 667-680.
"Astrologie", Der kleine Pauly, I, München, 19792 (1975) 660-664.
"Astronomie", Der kleine Pauly, I, München, 19792 (1975) 664-667.
Die Pythagoreer. Religiöse Bruderschaft und Schule der Wissenschaft, Zürich-München, 1979.
"Greek Astronomical Calendars. IV. The Parapegma of the Egyptian and Their ‘Perpetual Tables’", AHES, 32 (1985) 95-104.
Die Astronomie der Griechen. Eine Einführung, Darmstadt, 1988.
See WAERDEN below.


WADI: (Arabic word for) an Oasis or Valley [settlement]



(as per AEMT) Other WADI's:

Abu Gerida; Kubbaniya; Wadi Maghara and Natrun.



WADI AL-‘ARRUB: (Byzantine) inscriptions

Near Jerusalem aqueduct where it crosses by the Wadi.


[B_HOUSE,R_006,NO CATNYP] “Measuring and Weighing in Ancient Times.”

Published: Haifa, Israel, 2001 by the Reuben and Edith Hecht Museum.

“Flavios Aeneas Silentiarios [makes it known] to the proprietors, land tenants and farmers: you shall know that the divine and pious master has ordered that no person has the right to plant or sow in the space up to a distance of 15 feet from the aqueduct. Whoever trespasses this order will risk his head, and his property will be seized.”



WADI ARABAH: (Late Neolithic) artifacts in Israel at Timna.

(as per OEANE) "Late Neolithic Copper Smelting", See the Prestige Objects of Nahal Mishmar (on the west bank of the Dead Sea), See Judean Desert Caves,

Note: Chalcolithic copper mining at Norsuntepe may have been source of ore for objects found at Nahal Mishmar.



WADI BA'BA: (AE) inscriptions

Ba'Ba=Father (Arabic)


(as per AEB) Seek inscriptions at copper mine from MK and NK.


See the nice Palm Garden.





WADI BAKARIYA & SOKARI: (Roman) Goldmines

The Wadi is situated at the same latitude as Marsa Alam, a small town along the Red Sea coast. The site can be reached via the Marsa Alam - Edfou highway, connecting the Red Sea with the Nile Valley. Near Wadi Baramiya, another Roman goldmine, one leaves the highway and continues into the mountains. Wadi Bakariya is situated about 30 km north of Wadi Baramiya. The Wadi extends into another, larger one: the Wadi Miya. A temple built by, among others, Pharaoh Sethi I, is located here. A thorough survey is planned for the area, where traces of other settlements have been observed in the vicinity. In Wadi Bakariya not only traces of the Ptolemaic and Roman era, but also of the 20th century AD have been spotted. It is a small wadi where the working areas were situated in between the many trenches and exploitation pits. The living quarters, however, seem to have been built in another area. Here as well, several surveys are planned to clarify the situation.



WADI BARRAMIYA: (AE) village; inscriptions

[B_406,8.5,JARCE] CATNYP# *OBH (American research Center in Egypt. Journal)

“Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt.”

Volume #33 [1996]:

“The Festival Structure of Thutmose III’s BUTO Stele.” p.69-76

By Anthony Spalinger.

Refers to his other work of more import to my query:

“Sothis and ‘Official’ CALENDAR Texts.” Pursue!

See extensive Bibliography.

BUTO Stele makes no clear-cut demarcation between the recurrent and non-recurrent feasts..”

Includes accounts of bread, beer, incense etc.; distributions by Festival vary.


“New Hieroglyphic Evidence for Pharaonic Activity in the Eastern Desert of Egypt.” P. 77 ff


See page 91 for image of this inscription:

“A well, it is 22 CUBITS distant from this mountain…”


See page 100 for image of this inscription:

“…It is 10 CUBITS distant from this inscription..”



WADI BRISSA: (Babylonian) inscriptions

Noted in Rec. de Trav. 28 (1906); See [B_304].



POGNON, Les inscriptions babyloniennes de Wadi-Brissa (Paris, 1888)


Seek image “proving” AE visit by Nebuchodnossor:

[Found in H. Pognon, `Inscriptions Babyloniennes' (1905), Plate IV.; F.H. Weissbach, `Die Inschriften Nebukhadnezars II im Wadi Brissa und am Nahr el-Kelb', (Leipzig, 1906), p. 3.]



WADI DALIYEH: (Aramaic) scrolls

AKA SAMARIA PAPYRI. Fourth century legal papyri.


See the following info gleaned from this site:


From several caves 9 miles north of Jericho, discovered and excavated, 1962-64, papyri written in Aramaic and dated between 375 and 335 BCE were found. Nearly 200 human skeletons covering all age groups were discovered there; apparently killed by Macedonian soldiers of Alexander the Great when he conquered Samaria in 331 BCE.



WADI EL HOL: (Proto Canaanite or Proto Sinaitic, MK) inscriptions

(as per EEF; A. K. Eyma)

…a report on the findings of Dr. John Coleman

Darnell (Yale) on the inscriptions of Wadi-el-Hol was forthcoming from

a meeting of the SBL to take place in Boston on November 1999.


The curent issue of Goettinger Miszellen (GM180) has a brief

article ("preliminary remarks"/ "a first try") about the two inscriptions,

by Stefan Jakob Wimmer and Samaher Wimmer-Dweikat (p.107-112).

(the Wadi-el-Hol script resembles Proto-Sinaitic, a lot).


The alphabet was invented earlier than we thought. That is the initial conclusion reached by scholars studying two newly discovered inscriptions at Wadi el-Hol, in Upper (southern) Egypt.

"These may be the oldest alphabetic inscriptions ever found, dating to 1800 B.C. or earlier," P. Kyle McCarter, Jr., a professor at Johns Hopkins University and a specialist in ancient inscriptions, told BAR [Biblical Archaeology Review]. "We have to reevaluate the earliest history of the alphabet."

The inscriptions were discovered at a site north of Luxor by John and Deborah Darnell, a professor at Yale and a Ph.D. student at the University of Chicago, respectively. The inscriptions were scratched on a rock wall alongside a military road; they were surrounded by graffiti and even snatches of Egyptian literary texts written in hieroglyphics. The site's name, Wadi el-Hol, translates roughly to "Terror Gulch."

The inscriptions are thought to be the work of Semites living in Egypt during the Middle Kingdom period (c. 2040-1674 B.C.).



WADI EL HUDI: (AE) inscriptions

(as per H. Papazian) Amethyst quarries; inscriptions; seek work by Fakhry, Ahmed.


See these links related to quarries.


Sadek, Ashraf. The Amethyst Mining Inscriptions of Wadi el-Hudi, 1: Text (= Modern Egyptology Series). Warminster, 1980. [AEB 80.237 English]


…graffiti from the Twelfth and Thirteenth Dynasties at Wadi el-Hudi.



WADI ES-SEBOUA: (AE) inscriptions; stelae

[B_139,OS,IMG] CATNYP# OBKM++(Egypt. Antiquities, Service des Temples immerges de la Nubie. Temple de Ouadi es-Seboua)

“Le temple de Ouadi es Seboua” Henri Gauthier, Le Caire 1912.

From a restoration survey of 1909.

See related work by G. Maspero.

150 kilometers south of Aswan. (Sudan/Nubia).

AKA Valley of the Lions.

An ancient postal station.

See Avenue of Sphinxes (12).

Pair of larger Sphinxes.

Note the familiar stonework of the temple façade.

The occasional stone joint at an angle less steep than the structure, and inverted. Stress cracks through the center of the pylon. Well crafted glyph inscriptions.

Reign of Ramses II?


See also? Henri Gauthier, 2 BdE.


AKA Oasis of el-Kharga; Active during the reign of Darius I. ~450 BCE.


AKA Es-Sabiyah [Kuwait]?



WADI GARAWI: (AE, OK) canal, water storage systems

(as per AEB) Seek 4th or 5th Dyn. Dam Project.

Seek info on water storage systems=Sadd-El-Kafara.

See Lake Moeris=Lac-Moeris.

See Fayum from 2600 BCE. @ 30 Km South of Kairo.


(as per EEF F. W. Niedenfuhr)

“I think a good place to look is in Dr. Rushdi Said's book on the geology of the Nile. He discusses climactic factors in some depth. The book is

available in both English and Arabic.”

Rushdi Said, “The River Nile. Geology, Hydrology and Utilization”

Oxford, 1993


the first known dam was built near Helwan, some 20 miles south of Cairo at a date between 2950 and 2750 BC. This was built to create a reservoir for irrigation purposes in the Wadi el-Garawi with a crest length of 106m and a base length of 81m, and a maximum height of 11.3m. Twin dry-stone masonry walls, each 24m in thickness, had a core of gravel 36m in thickness. Substantial remains of this structure have a gap in them 46m across with a lack of silt, suggesting a wash-out of the unmortared structure soon after construction.


The dam was probably constructed in the reign of Amenemhat III and collapsed under Sekhemkarê Amenemhat V. Its main purpose would have been to facilitate navigation on the stretch of river south of Semna, primarily for military reasons.




[B_136,rtrn cpy,IMG] Seek “Stelen aus Wadi Gasus bei Qoser”, ZAS 20, p. 203-205, 1882.

Some calendrical data. No other math.


1976 Alessandra Nibbi, «Remarks on the two Stelae from the Wadi Gasus», JEA 62, p. 45-56.



WADI HAMMAMAT: (AE, Hieroglyph, Hieratic) inscriptions

(as per H. Papazian) Inscriptions; seek work by Goyon, Georges.

See [B_135].

(as per B. Gunn and T.E. Peet) See an inscription meaning square cubits.

Seek Griffith in Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch.,1892, 419-420.


[B_135,rtrn cpy,IMG] CATNYP# *OBL (Goyon, G. Nouvelles …),

“Nouvelles inscriptions rupestres du Wadi Hammamat.”

Paris, 1957. See Plates. I cannot locate square cubits.

See Pepi I inscription. See also inscription #61.

Sharing content with the tombs found at Giza by G. Reisner.

Minor math content with calendrical data.


See work by Goyon, G. in Ann. Serv.[ASAE], “Le Papyrus Turin dit”

<<des mines d’or>>, et le Wadi Hammamat.”, t. XLIX, p. 337-392.


(as per G. Goyon) See work by J. Couyat et P. Montet,

“Les Inscriptions hieroglyphiques et hieratiques du Ouadi Hammamat”,

MIFAO, 1912, Le Caire.


(as per PM) See prodynastic Bark of Horus (or Sokari).

In work by Engelbach, Notes of Inspection,

In Ann.Serv. [ASAE] XXXI, pl. I, pp. 133-4.

See also [B_230]


O.Wadi Hamm. 20.: (Greek)



WADI KHARGEH: (AE, Hieroglyphic) inscriptions and Greek ostraca

AKA Ain Waqfa


(as per ZAS, index# 1029) Seek “Hieroglyphische Inschriften in den Oasen Xarigeh und DaXileh, 1874. See ZAS 12, 73-80.


[B_180b,8.5,IMG, v. 2] CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t. 82, “Hommages Serge Sauneron, Cairo, 1979.

Map shows Wadi Kharga nearly due east of Luxor across the Plateau of the Libyan Desert. North of Bulaq.


* A dyn 27 temple, made of straw bricks, was discovered in the

Kharga Oasis, near the Roman town of Dosh, with 300 bronze statues

of Osiris. Two brief reports of Oct 8:


(as per EEF) Story of a recent discovery.


O.Waqfa 1.: (Greek)



WADI KHARIG-BAR NASIB: (AE) inscriptions

Name means: Oasis of the Sea of Fate.


(as per AEB) Seek copper mines, inscriptions.


1977 Raphaël Giveon, «Inscriptions of Sahureë and Sesostris I from Wadi-Kharig (Sinaï)», BASOR 226, p. 61-63.



WADI MAGHARA: (OK; AE) mining site

See turquoise mine.


(as per EEF; 031303; D. Hunt)

* The valley of Timna, where there were major Egyptian mines, was

originally  known by the Arabic Wadi Mene'iyeh.  <snip>

Mene'iyeh <snip> bears a superficial resemblance to Egyptian divine name Min-Ioh, the god Min as moon.

Min, <snip> was the god of the Eastern Desert. <snip>


WADI MURABBA’AT: (Arabic; Aramaic; Hebrew; Greek) Manuscripts from

Includes a 7th Century BCE palimpsest, some Arabic texts, some 1st century CE remains, and other documents in Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, and Latin from the time of the Bar Kokhba revolt. This was all published in DJD II as Les grottes de Murabba’at by Paul Benoit, J. T. Milik, and R. de Vaux


Ask for information at JH.


(as per E. G. Turner) The oldest papyri found outside of Egypt were (Hebrew) found at WADI MURABBA’AT near the Dead Sea.





WADI QUM HELEEG: (AE, MK) engravings

(as per EEF; 102204)

* "Important archaeological discoveries in eastern desert unearthed"

132 prehistoric engravings depicting livestock were found in the

WADI QUM HELEEG in the Sharkeya desert.



WADI SANNUR: (AE, MK) stelae

(as per AEB 1965) See two Ramesside Stelae.



WADI SARGA: (Coptic and Greek) ostraca; texts

(as per ZPE, D. Fowler) Seek O. Wadi Sarga 24-28,

“potshards of division tables”, Coptic (math).

See W. Brashear, “Quisquiliae”, BSAC [=BASC?] 26 (1984) 19-22.


(as per ZPE, D. Fowler) also Seek O. Wadi Sarga 22 and 23,

“multiplication tables”, Coptic (math).


(as per Duke Univ.)

Wadi Sarga, Coptic and Greek Texts, ed. W.E. Crum and H.I. Bell, with an introduction by R. Campbell Thompson. Copenhagen 1922. (Coptica III). The Greek and Coptic texts are listed on p. xv; no. 9 is on vellum, no. 12 on papyrus, the remainder on ostraca (= O.Sarga). All the documentary texts listed in P.Sarga on page xv as Greek, nos. 121-7, 147, 150-1, 155-6, 159-60, 195, 199-201, 205-374, 380-5 are reprinted in SB XVIII. There is a concordance in SB XIX, Abschnitt 7. Many of these texts contain a word or more in Coptic.

(as per E. G. Turner) See above texts.


O. SARGA 121: (Greek; late ptolemaic?)



WADI SEIYAL: (Aramaic, Hebrew) Manuscripts of

The earliest manuscripts were acquired from Bedouins between 1952 and 1954 by the erstwhile 'Palestine Archaeological Museum'. They were represented as from this location; see DJD VIII. Subsequent discoveries at Nahal Hever make it the almost certain source for at least some of those manuscripts. Additional documents were actually discovered here by an Israeli expedition in 1960. The two collections are still stored separately and will be published separately.


Ask for information at JH.



WADI SIWA: (AE tomb at) Oasis near Libyan border.

(as per EEF) See these links about the Lost Persian army of ~500 BCE.

The army set out to crush the Sacred Oracle at Siwa and never reappeared.

Until recently…



(as per ZAS, index# 1838) Seek “Ein agyptisches Grab in Siwa”,

ZAS 61, p. 94-98, 1926.


(as per PM) See work by Ahmed, Fakhry, Siwa Oasis,

“The Necropolis of Gabal el-Mota at Siwa”.

In Ann. Serv. [ASAE]. XL, pp. 779-87.

See plate XXIII with image of Wenamun Text.



WADI SURA: cave dwellers; west of the Al Galf Al Kabir plateau



WADI TUMILAT: (AE) Study progress of digs at



(as per AEB 85.1358) See work by Weimar, Peter.



WAERDEN: (Author)

Bartel Leendert Waerden, 1903-?


See Akhmim.


[B_221,8.5,IMG] CATNYP# OEC (Waerden, B. L. van der. Erwachende Wissenschaft (488 p.))

“Erwachende Wissenschaft; agyptische, babylonische und grieschische Mathematik. Aus dem Hollandischen ubersetzt von Helga Habicht, mit Zusatsen vom Verfasser.”

Basel, 1956.

At the Science Library.

With comments and some analysis of the RMP and the Moskow P. and Senmut(h)’s Astronomical tomb decorations and the Mastaba of Meri (4th Dynasty).

A good intro to Sumerian math symbols and cuneiform.

See Sumerian tablet VAT 12593 at Berliner Museum.

See photo page 72 of Babylonian approximation of the square root of two; tablet YBC 7289 (at Yale Univ.)

Page 85, discussion of the development of “modern” number symbols.

P. 125, Plimpton 322 tablet with Pythagorean triples.

One good image of the EMLR.


See Science awakening, A. Dresden; [B_344,HOUSE]

See top of this page for more bibliographical entries at WAARDEN.


WAGES: through the ages

My efforts to clarify ancient maths lead me here.

(as per EEF; M. Silver) Seek the following texts:


Eyre, Christopher J. (1987) “Work and the Organisation of Work in the OK (5-47) [in the NK, 167-221] in Marvin A. Powell (ed.), Labor in the Ancient Near East. New Haven. Yale Univ. Press


Mueller, Dieter. (1975) “Some remarks on Wage Rates in the MK”, JNES, 34, 249-63.


Muller-Wollerman, Renata. (1985) “Warren austausch im Agypten des Alten Reiches.” JESHO [B_380], 28, 121-68. Especially page 148.



WARREN: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) See Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava; [B_474]

[B_474=O_044,rvw,IMG needed]

CATNYP# *OBKQ (Papyrologica lugduno-batava. v.1)

BOBST# PA3301 .P34 vol.1/3

“The Warren Papyri (P. Warren).”

Lugduni Batavorum, 1941.

Studies include Greek and Latin Papyri.

See plates.

Volume 1, The Warren Papyri, by M. David, B. A. van Groningen, and

J. C. van Oven, Leiden 1941.

P.Warr.: The Warren Papyri

P.Warr. 1. Draft of a petition to Loukios Seilios Satrianos

(Greek; AD 164; from Antinoopolis?)


WASHINGTON: University; (greek) papyri collection

P.Wash.Univ.: Washington University Papyri

P.Wash.Univ. 1.1. Legal Proceedings Concerning Sheep and Goats:

(Greek; AD 14-37; from Oxyrhynchus)



WATSON: The Met’s Library

1000 Fifth Avenue (x 81st Street)

New York, NY 10028-0198




Business hours at Watson library (as of April 2002):


Closed on Saturdays!

Tuesday-Friday 10am-4:40 pm at 212 650-2225

Contact a senior Librarian (Robert Kaufman) at Watson

Contact Diana Craig Patch at AE Gallery 28


See these AE papyri, on display at the MET (4/24/02):


HEKANAKHTE papers (letters)

MEKUTRA papyri


SETHNAKTE funerary papyrus roll (BOTD)


WB: publication, papyrological reference texts

WB=Worterbuch d. gr. Papyrusurkunden, F. Preisigke, three volumes,

1926-1931, see more current supplements by E. Kiessling. Includes a geographical names list.


(as per M. St. John) See Worterbuch II: 243,9; 244,2


[B_361,rvw] CATNYP# JFF 96-9152

Worterbuch der griechischen Papyrusurkunden, mit Einschluss der griechischen Inschriften. Aufschriften, Ostraka, Mumienschilder usw. Aus Agypten. Mit einem Nachruf von Otto Gradenwitz. Hrsg. Von Emil Kiessling.”

Berlin 1925-, see also 1999 reprint/revisions



NEW CATNYP! “Catalogue of Egyptian Antiquities in the British Museum VII: Tools and Weapons 1 [g]: Axes.”

By W. V. Davies, British Museum, 1987.

[B_506a-g,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKM+ (British Museum. Egyptian and

Assyrian Antiquities, Dept. of. Catalogue of Egyptian antiquities) Vol. 1-7

“Catalogue of Egyptian antiquities in the British Museum.”

London, 1968-.

a. Mummies

b. Wooden Model Boats

c. Musical instruments; see MUSIC

d. Glass

e. Early Dynastic Objects? Is vague!

f. Jewelry

g. Tools and Weapons*

Available from OXBOW catalog [B_332 alt]



WEB: goodies




Free assistance with entry to search engines:



WEN-AMON or WENAMUN: (AE, NK) report

[B_097,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKQ 77-1196, "The Report of Wenamun / Hans Goedicke", Baltimore 1975.

Late Egyptian. See Booty lists. Math. Phoenician history.




(as per E. G. Turner) The Wenamon report tells of the export of AE papyrus

to Phoenicia.


(as per L. Bailey) See this link to a tr.


[B_097.b,8.5] (from L. Bailey) Her translation of WENAMUN was my earliest introduction to AE grammar.

See tr.:

“in order to bring the lumber”

“and they caused them to be read in their presence”

“and one man of my boat deserted he having stolen gold”

“Find my Money!”

“Look, is truth yours?”


The Wenamon report tells of the export of AE papyrus

to Phoenicia.


(as per EEF; M. Tilgner; 100804)

[Next four items submitted by Michael Tilgner]

* "The Misfortunes of Wenamun" (pMoscow 120)
-- Hieratic text (the beginning: 1,1-1,21): [Georg Möller, Hieratische
Lesestücke für den akademischen Gebrauch, Zweites Heft: Literarische
Texte des Neuen Reiches, 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1927, p. 29]
-- Hieroglyphic text based on LES, 61-76
the same as pdf-file: 166 KB
-- English translation [= Hans Goedicke, The Report of Wenamun,
Baltimore / London, 1975, pp. 149-158]
-- English translation [= Lichtheim II, 224-239]
-- French translation in: Gaston Maspero, Les contes populaires de
l'Egypte ancienne, 4th ed., Paris[, 1911], pp. 214-230
-- German translation by Erik Hornung, Altägyptische Dichtung,
Stuttgart, 1996, pp. 48-55 (not online)
-- German summary
-- Online version of: Renaud de Spens, Droit international et commerce
au début de la XXIe dynastie. Analyse juridique du rapport d'Ounamon, in:
N. Grimal, B. Menu (eds.), Le commerce en Egypte ancienne, Le Caire, 1998,
pp. 105-126
-- Bibliography
-- forthcoming: Bernd U. Schipper, Die Erzählung des Wenamun. Ein
Literaturwerk im Spannungsfeld von Politik, Geschichte und Religion,
Freiburg (Schweiz), Göttingen, 2005 [available in January, 2005 as a
vol. of the OBO series]


WENTE: (AE) ostraca

As per [note 7] the following link:


7. In Ostracon Wente, dated on various grounds to Ramessid times, one Menena instructs a police official named Menetjew-mes to sell the oil he had sent him in the marketplace (mereyet) (Allam). There is no indication that either individual is acting in behalf of the ruler. It would seem that Menena is a merchant. With respect to his policeman-partner, Allam notes that it is not at all uncommon for officials to have businesses on the side



WESTCAR: (AE, Hieratic) papyrus

[B_058,rvw] CATNYP# *OBR 78-541, "How Djadja-em-ankh saved the day: a tale from ancient Egypt/ translated from the original Hieratic with ill. and commentary by Lisa Manniche." New York, 1976.


See this link to the literary papyrus.


(as per E.A. Budge) See the Story of the children of Ra in the Westcar P.


(as per 2terres, LEX) Erman, A., 2 BdE,

Die märchen des papyrus Westcar, I, einleitung und commentar, II, glossar, N.5 et N.6, Palaeographische bemerkungen und feststellung des textes, Mittheilungen aus den orientalischen sammlungen, W. Spemann, Berlin, 1890.

WIENER: (Greek) papyri

Minor math content?

Volume includes about 25 plates and a map of Hermupolis.

See also other volumes in this series from NYPL.


[B_448=O_013,NO IMG,8.5]

CATNYP# JFD 78-3599

BOBST# PA 3308 .V458 1976

“Einige Wiener Papyri / R. P. Salomons.”

Amsterdam, 1976.”

Robert Paul Salomons: a revision and enlargement of the Author’s


Originally [1974] presented under the title: Funfzehn [50] Wiener [Vienna] Papyrus.

Title page of 1976 text shows IV as in volume IV?

See BOBST Archive: O 1



WILBOUR: (Author) Museum..

Papyrus and (Greek) ostraca and Library at Brooklyn Museum

Charles Edwin Wilbour 1833-1896.

Do not be distracted by the discovery of the famine relief at Seheil Island.

(See the story of the Exodus/Passover. 7 lean years.)


See also BROOKLYN.


The Wilbour (Egyptological) Library at the Brooklyn Museum

(200 Eastern Parkway):

(718) 638-5000 ext. 215.

Former Director, Deirdra Lawrence.

See helpful Head Librarian [appointed Director 2001],

Ms. Mary Gow.


Also see Diane Bergman, also formerly the Director,

(now [2000] at Ashmolean Inst.).


*Note the limited hours of access to the Library:

Open Wednesday-Friday ONLY!

10:30 am thru 12:30 pm (lunch break)

1:30 pm thru 4:30 pm


(as per A.H. Gardiner) Dynasty XX. = Brooklyn Magical P.


[B_098,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKQ+++ (Wilbour, P. Wilbour papyrus), "The Wilbour papyrus, edited by Alan H. Gardiner.", London 1941-1948 or 1952.

3 volumes, see commentary in vol. 2, tr. in vol 3.


(as per LEX) see also BdE, 1941-52.


[B_099,rvw] CATNYP# *OBR+ 76-2635, "Confirmation du pouvoir royal au nouvel an. Brooklyn Museum 47.218.50. Planches." By Goyon, Jean Claude, Brooklyn Museum, 1974.


[B_100,8.5,NO IMG] CATNYP# *OBX 91-13005, "Land tenure in the Rammesside period / Sally L. D. Katary." London 1989.

An intensely detailed socio-economic analysis (by statistical means) of the data gleaned from the Wilbour A and B papyri. Cubits and Aurorae frequently manipulated (Math).


Mention of related (economic) content in:

The Turin Taxation Papyrus=Turin 1895 + 2006

(year 12 of Ramses XI),

mention of a Portable Shrine of King Usima re-meriamun.

P. Turin 1882, verso (many fragments; AKA P. Turin A)

XIX Dynasty

Turin Strike papyrus

Mentions year 29 or 30 of Ramses III

Mentions difficulties from strikes of the Necropolis workmen

P. Amiens

“the longest and most detailed document relating exclusively to the transport of grain [corn] revenues.”

Mentions ships likely belonging to the House of Amun.

P. Anastasi VI, 26

Mentions assessment, “Chief Assessing Master”.

P. Anastasi V, 27, 6

Mentions assessment, “Chief Assessing Master”.

P. Chester Beatty V rt. 7, 12-8, 1.

Mentions assessment, “Chief Assessing Master”.

P. Geneva D 191 (No. 37 LRL)

Mentions “measurer”

Mentions details of Viziers role in collecting grain revenue

The Griffith Fragments

End of XX Dynasty

Mentions “Domain of the house of Khons”

The Gurob Fragments

Fragment L is the largest

Mentions “measurer”

Fragment M

Mentions harvest grain

The Louvre Leather Fragments

A land register of the XIX Dynasty

See rate of assessment calculated in line a, 5.

P. Louvre 3171

Mentions State Granary of Memphis.


Mention of tax-complaints:

See “A protest against Unjustified Tax-Demands,” RdE 6 (1951), pp. 115-33.


P. Valencay I

Dynasty XI?

Mentions assessment, “Chief Assessing Master”.

Complaint by Mayor of Elephantine (Meron) to:

Chief Taxing-Master (Menma’renakhte)

P. Bologna 1094, 5, 8-7,1

Complaint by Prophet of the House of Seth at Punodjem to:

Steward (Sety)


Texts with mention of land acquisition/holdings:

The inscription of Mose [not Moses]

See “The Memphite Tomb-Chapel of Mose”, by G. A. Gaballa,

Warminster, 1977.

P. British Museum 10412

A letter from Scribe of the Necropolis (Nesamenope) to:

The Chantress of Amun Mutenope

A request for a land apportionment

P. Berlin 3047

Dates to year 46 of Ramses II

Mentions lawsuit concerning land distribution


Other notes:

As per the above text Wilbour A and B appear to be an assessment of 2800 plots of land. ~1142 BCE.

includes temple (and funerary temple) at Medinat Habu

Temple at Karnak [Amon]

P. Wilbour

Mentions assessment, “Chief Assessing Master”.

2 OIPE=1/2 KHAR?

P. Bibliotheque Nationale 198, III (No. 47 LRL)

Mentions grain provisions for the workmen of the Theban Necropolis

P. Bibliotheque Nationale 199, III (No. 48 LRL)

Mentions details of Viziers role in collecting grain revenue


[B_101,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKQ (Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Science, Museum. Mss. Papyrus of the late Middle Kingdom in the Brooklyn Museum), "A papyrus of the late Middle Kingdom in the Brooklyn Museum (Papyrus Brooklyn 35.1446) edited with translation and commentary." By Hayes, William Christopher, Brooklyn Museum 1972.


[B_101b,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKQ 77-4836 (see [B_101]; above)


See this link to recent Wilbour acquisitions.


(as per H. Papazian's) following link, the P. Wilbour A is a New Kingdom economic document (math?).


(as per E. G. Turner) O. Wilb. = Les Ostraca grecs de la collection Charles-Edwin Wilbour au Musee de Brooklyn, ed. C. Preaux, NY, 1935.


O Wilb. 1: (Greek/Demotic; 241 bce; from THEBES)



WILCK: (Greek) ostraca

O. Wilck. 88: (Greek; AD 114; from ELEPHANTINE)




Sir John Gardner Wilkinson; 1797-1875

Not to be confused with Toby Wilkinson; See [B_392]


See CUBIT stuff in:

“Customs and Manners”

See [B_362; 363; 364; 365; 366!]

AKA ? ” Manners & Customs of the ancient Egyptians”


[B_362;no copy,IGNR ] CATNYP# *OBK (Wilkinson, J. G. Manners and customs of the ancient Egyptians. 1837) (Locked cage)

“Manners and customs of the ancient Egyptians, including their private life, government, laws, art, manufactures, religions, and early history; derived from a comparison of the paintings, sculptures, and monuments still existing, with the accounts of ancient authors. Illustrated by drawings of those subjects. By J. G. Wilkinson.”

London, J. Murray, 1837.

Three volumes.

Viewed on 051003.  This work is mostly out of date for modern use.


[B_363;rvw,RARE] CATNYP# Stuart 7009-7011

“A second series of the Manners and customs of the ancient Egyptians, including their religions, agriculture &c…”

London, J. Murray, 1841.

Three volumes.


[B_364;rvw] CATNYP# *OBK (Wilkinson, J. G. Manners and customs of the ancient Egyptians.)(Locked cage).

“Manners and customs of the ancient Egyptians, including their private life, government, laws, art, manufactures, religions, and early history; derived from a comparison of the paintings, sculptures, and monuments still existing, with the accounts of ancient authors. Illustrated by drawings of those subjects. By J. G. Wilkinson.”

London, J. Murray, 1842.

Three volumes.


[B_365;rvw] CATNYP# *OBK (Wilkinson, J. G. Manners and customs of the ancient Egyptians. 1878)(Locked cage).

“The manners and customs of the ancient Egyptians, By Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson. With illustrations.”

“New edition revised and corrected by Samuel Birch.” [1813-1885].

London, J. Murray, 1878.

Three volumes.


[B_366;rvw] CATNYP# *OBK (Wilkinson, J. G. Manners and customs of the ancient Egyptians. 1879).

“The manners and customs of the ancient Egyptians / by Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson.”

“New edition revised and corrected by Samuel Birch.” [1813-1885].

London, J. Murray, 1879.

Three volumes.


John Gardner Wilkinson was born in 1797, the son of John Wilkinson, a clergyman, of Hardendale in Westmorland, and Mary Anne Wilkinson (née Gardner). Through his mother he was related to the Crewe family of Calke Abbey in south Derbyshire; Georgiana Crewe (née Lovell, c.1824-1910), wife of the ninth baronet Sir John Harpur Crewe (1824-86), was his second cousin…


[B_391;rvw,Schomburg] CATNYP# Sc Rare 916.2-W (Wilkinson, J. G. Handbook for travellers in Egypt)

“Hand-book for travellers in Egypt; including descriptions of the course of the Nile to the second cataract, Alexandria, Cairo, the pyramids, and Thebes, the overland transit to India, the peninsula of Mount Sinai, the oases, & c. Being a new edition, corrected and condensed, of “Modern Egypt and Thebes”. By Sir Gardner Wilkinson.”

London, 1847.

Cover-title: Murray’s Handbook, Egypt.


WISCONSIN: University; (Greek) papyri

(as per Duke Univ.)

The Wisconsin Papyri, ed. P.J. Sijpesteijn.

I, Leiden 1967. Nos. 1-37. (Pap.Lugd.Bat. XVI). [o.e. EJB]

II, Zutphen 1977. Nos. 38-87. (Stud.Amst. XI). [o.e. TPC]


P.Wisc.: The Wisconsin Papyri

P.Wisc. 1.1. Judicial proceedings:

(Grek; Herakleopolite?)

(as per Duke Univ.)

The Wisconsin Papyri, ed. P.J. Sijpesteijn.

I, Leiden 1967. Nos. 1-37. (Pap.Lugd.Bat. XVI). [o.e. E.J. Brill]



CATNYP# *OBKQ (Papyrologica lugdano batava. v.16)

BOBST# PA3301 .P34 vol.16

“The Wisconsin papyri, by P.J. Sijpesteijn.

Lugdunum Batavorum, E. J. Brill, 1967.

See bibliography, plates.


Peter Johannes Sijpestijn 1934-? [editor].


WOLFRAM: (Author) modern

Stephen Wolfram

Visit this interesting mathematical link of almost no historical significance.

WOOD: my true love




WORDS: (English); tough ones


WORDS: (Greek)

[B_495, alt HOUSE, LSJ, 1980 REF]

CATNYP# JFF 90-2087

“A Greek-English lexicon / compiled by Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott ; revised and augmented throughout with the cooperation of Professor Drisler.”

New York, 1897.


(wax on wood and others)
See also SALAMIS counting board.

(as per EEF; I. Begg; 112503)
Writings tablets from Greek, Roman and Byzantine Egypt are discussed and illustrated, with additional bibliography, in:Les Tablettes à écrire de l'Antiquité à l'Epoque Moderne (Bibliologia12) edited by Elisabeth Lalou and published by Brepols - Turnhout, 1992Writing, Teachers and Students in Graeco-Roman Egypt (American Studies in Papyrology) by Raffaella Cribiore, published by Scholars Press, Atlanta Georgia, 1996Gymnastics of the Mind: Greek Education in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt, by Raffaella Cribiore, Princeton 2001


(as per EEF; D. Wirth; 112503)

See M. San Nicolo, "Haben die Babylonier Wachstafeln als Shrifttraeger>gekannt?" Orientalia 17 (1948), pp. 59-70; D. J. Wiseman, "Assyrian>Writing Boards," Iraq 17 (1955), p. 7.


(as per EEF; D. Ellis; 112503)

Parpola, Simo. 1983. Assyrian library records. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 42: 1-29This article publishes texts concerned with the confiscation of texts for Assurbanipal's library, including many on writing boards rather than tablets--now all burnt in the destruction of his palace, of course.


WRITING RESOURCES: literal links and libraries



WURZBURGER: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) P. Wurzb. = Mitteilungen aus der Wurzburger Papyrussammlung, ed. U. Wilcken, Berlin, 1934.


P.Würzb.: Mitteilungen aus der Würzburger Papyrussammlung

P.Wuerzb. 2r.: (Greek)

XENOPHON: (Greek) historian; See LUGDUNO-BATAVA

Note XENOPHON gave some historical mention of METROLOGY and greek CUBITS!

See [B_447=O_012,NO IMG,8.5]


see above link which refers to this text:

XENOPHON. Xenophon in Seven Volumes, 3. Carleton L. Brownson. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA; William Heinemann, Ltd., London. 1980.

OCLC: 10290977 ISBN: 0674991001


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