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Last updated 12/25/05


See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID



VACATION: Take a break!

Arrived Cairo and stayed 2 days at the Marriot. Wandered through Giza (on Horse and Donkey) and Memphis and Saqarra.

Took a sleeper train south to Luxor and stayed at the resort (fancy prior estate of president?).

Self toured the Luxor and Karnak grounds for 2 days and also joined guided tours and saw the Karnak evening light show. A must see!

Met a cruise ship at Luxor and continued south to Aswan/Elephantine Island area stopping daily for trips to Esna, Edfu, VOK, VOQ, Ramesseum, Colossus of Memnon, Komombo, etc.

At Elephantine area took a bus to airport and Air Egypt (scary) to Sudan to see the relocated Abu Simbel Mountain monument. (It was VERY HOT).

Eventually completed the same route in reverse and took two days at the library of the museum in Cairo for my own studies. (Ancient Math and Science).

*Wish I had time to see Dendara, Deir el Bahari, Abydos.
*VERY IMPORTANT-Call your credit card companies and speak with security staff to inform them of your upcoming trip. If not, they may cancel your cards for "suspicious activity." I spent 3 hours and hundreds of dollars trying to connect to toll free lines from Egypt to the US. Ultimately I had to travel to an American Express office to access cash.


VALENCAY: (AE) papyrus

See WILBOUR [B_100].

(as per S. Katary, [B_100])

P. Valencay I

Dynasty XI?

Mentions assessment, “Chief Assessing Master”.

Complaint by Mayor of Elephantine (Meron) to:

Chief Taxing-Master (Menma’renakhte)


VANDIER: (Author); papyrus

Jacques Vandier 1904-




[B_134,rvw] CATNYP# OBKQ+ 87-1971, “Le papyrus Vandier”,

Cairo, 1985. Tales, History and criticism.



VARIE: collections

T.Varie: Tavolette lignee e cerate da varie collezioni

T.Varie 1. Accordo fra le parti: (Greek)



VARSOVIENSES: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) P. Vars. = Papyri Varsovienses, ed. G. Manteuffel, Warsaw, 1935.



P.Vars.: Papyri Varsovienses

P.Vars. 5r.: (Greek)


Libraries of the University of Western Ontario

“Kritische Bemerkungen zum Papyrus Varsoviensis 10.”


Not found at CATNYP or BOBCAT.

Item filed with index for [B_520] for no reason

See LUGDUNO-BATAVA; [B_447=O_012,NO IMG,8.5]


VATICAN: (papyri and collections) within Library of



See Lugduno-Batava; [B_447=O_012,NO IMG,8.5]

(as per A.H. Gardiner) seek P. Vatican.


[W_076,rvw] WATSON# 529V45 G86, "Les Papyrus hieratiques et hieroglyphiques du Museo gregoriano egizio / Anne Gasse." Vatican City, 1993.


(as per ZAS, index# 0591) Seek ZAS 31, 1893.

Der Zauberpapyrus des Vatikan.


(as per M. Gardner) See this link to Vatican collection images of ancient Greek Manuscripts.


[Index of Manuscript Materials; Excellent!]


P.Vat.Aphrod.: I Papiri Vaticani di Aphrodito

P.Vat.Aphrod. 1. Lease of land:

(Greek; AD 598; Aphrodito, Aphroditopolis)


SUMMIT# PA3994.F4 N6

“Il papiro vaticana greco 11.1 [Phaborinou Peri phug_es] 2. Registri fondiari della Marmarica.”

Vatican, 1931.



VATICANUS: (Greek) codex

(as per E. G. Turner) A Greek codex.

A QUINTERNIUS; ten leaves with twenty plates. ~400 BCE.


See also RYLANDS; [B_093]

  See below; Latin codex VATICANUS.

VATICANUS: (Latin) codex

The Greek and Hebrew manuscripts, are kept in several “Codex”: The “Codex Vaticanus”, the oldest, from the 4th century AC, in the Vatican Library, Rome. In the British Museum of London are kept the “Codex Sinaiticus” of the 4th century AC, and the “Codex Alexandrinus” of the 5th century. In Cambridge, the “Codex Bezae” of the 5th century AC [CE].


See UHN: p. 243: Vatican library, codex BORGHESIANO ARABO 95;

math content!.

VECTIGALIBUS: (Greek) archive of

See Lugduno-Batava; [B_447=O_012,NO IMG,8.5]

VEDAS: (Sanskrit) masterpieces




CATNYP# *OKGE 01-8435 NOT as on CATNYP *)KGE 01-8435

“The astronomical code of the Rgveda / Subhash, Kak [2000, Professor at Louisiana State University, b. 1947-].”

New Delhi, 2000.

p. 3: Note the variable 27 in astronomical zodiac considerations; see


p. 8: Astronomy compared to Vedic Altars design.

p. 8: See 12 day agnicavana ritual

p. 9: agnicavana ritual; 2 identical areas described, 1 square and 1 round!

p. 10: Astrologically ligned altars

p. 11: “ritual culminates in rebirth”; cycles

p. 14: 28 [27] naksatras

p. 15: Indian Zodiac, 21 signs?

p. 16: Vedanga Jyotisa [a person] takes a yuga of 5 years=1830 sidereal days.

p. 32-3: similarities in other ancient creation of Gods - myths:

Varuna, Ouranos [Greek]

Tammuz [Sumerian and Babylonian]

Adon [Canaan and Cyprus]

Osiris [Egypt]

Telepinus-Sharruma [Hittite]

Each of these Gods born of the Earth Mother known to that region: Aditi, Ishtar, Astarte, Isis, Sun Goddess of Arinna, Kybele (Attis). Each of these Gods often shown as the “night sky” and often relate to constellation of Orion.

p. 34: Image of “churning of the ocean.”

p. 35: “The heliacal rising of Sirius was extremely important to the Egyptians.  During one period of their history [Old Kingdom], the heliacal rising of Sirius occurred at the same time as the summer solstice and, by coincidence, at the same time as the annual Nile flood.”

p. 35: “The sun spends about 13 1/3 days in each Naksatra.”

p. 35: “Each day was marked by the naksatra near which the Moon was seen.”

p. 35: 27 Naksatras!; see Keskinto. See list of all 27 by/within “Taittiriya.”

p. 35: 27 Naksatras mentioned by Satapatha Brahmana

p. 37: Key to chronology is determination of date of Bharata War. Unresolved.

p. 45: Surviving fire altars at Kalibangan; Mohenjo-Daro; mandalas in Northern Afghanistan-Dashli palace.

p. 46: Image of Mohenjo-Daro; Lothal

p. 47: Image of Dashli palace [~2000 BCE]

p. 60: Bharata war

p. 61: circle of 27 constellations.

p. 62-3: Bhatara war, within range: 950 BCE-2449 BCE

p. 63: Aihole inscription refers to Kaliyuga era

p. 76: Image of Bird Altar

p. 77: Images of Altars

p. 78: Quantity of bricks, astrological considerations.

p. 79-80: main units described by Baudhayana

1 small pada=10 angulas

1 pradesa=12 angulas [sexagesimal system modifier?]

1 pada=15 angulas

1 isa= 188 angulas

1 aksa= 104 angulas

1 yuga=86 angulas

1 prakrama= 2 padas = 30 angulas [a cubit? Or Nbj?]

1 aratni=2 pradesas=24 angulas [a cubit?]

1 vyayama=4 aratnis=96 angulas [a fathom?]

1 vyama=5 aratnis=120 angulas

1 garhapatya=1 ahavaniya=1 daksinagni=1 square purusa=~4 sq. meters

1 [linear] perusa=~ 2 meters

p. 81: “Indra slays his father”, relates to precession of equinoxes.

p. 84: Intercalation

p. 85: 95 year Yajnavalkya period

p. 86: later 2850 [30 x 95] years, Romakasiddhanta period.

p. 86: 10,800,000 units [1000 x 360 x 30]

p. 87: Solar year

p. 110: Jupiter=Brhaspati, Guru, Angiras, [yellow]

p. 110: Saturn=Sanaiscara, Sauri, Manda, Pangu, Patangi, [black]

p. 111: Visnu=Mercury; 3 steps of Visnu=3 synodic Mercury periods of 118 days each.

p. 134: Nonuniform motion of the Sun

p. 135: two halves of year  are 181 and either 184 or 185 days, compare Eudoxus.

p. 138: Image of Suns orbit as an Altar.

p. 139: Earth central to Sun’s orbit

p. 140: Image of altar with Earth off center within Sun’s orbit.

p. 142: Image of solstices and aphelion (94.5 M. miles) and perihelion (91.5 M.)

VERCELLI: (Latin) codex

Latin CODEX VERCELLENSIS, Old English manuscript written in the late 10th century. It contains texts of the poem

Andreas, two poems by Cynewulf, The Dream of the Rood, an “Address of the Saved Soul to the Body,” and a fragment of a homiletic poem, as well as 23 prose homilies and a prose life of St. Guthlac, the Vercelli Guthlac. The book is so named because it was found in the cathedral library at Vercelli, northwestern Italy, in 1822. Marginalia in the manuscript indicate that the manuscript was in English use in the 11th century. It was probably taken to Italy by one of the numerous Anglo-Saxon pilgrims on the way to Rome.

See also BERLIN; [B_037,IGNR]

CATNYP# *OBH (Munchner agyptologische Studien, 18)

"Das Gesprach eines Mannes mit seinem ba, (Papyrus Berlin 3024)”

Berlin, 1969, by Barta Winfried.





VIENNA: (demotic) papyrus



[B_057,8.5's,PIXr07.1] CATNYP# *OBKQ+ (Vienna Omina Papyrus. Vienna demotic papyrus on eclipse- and lunar-omina), "A Vienna demotic papyrus on eclipse- and lunar-omina", Providence, Brown University Press, 1959, by Parker, Richard Anthony.

[W_017=B_057] I was granted permission to photograph this restricted text at the Watson Library.

The following notes are from a cursory review:

Parker worked on this text with Otto Neugebauer of Brown University.

The names of Hebrew lunar months are Aramaic in origin and taken from Babylon.

Review the 223 month lunar Saros cycle.

The Vienna P. is an adjusted 200-350 CE copy of a Babylonian original circa 600 BCE.

The Vienna P. was brought to Vienna in 1880 by Archduke Rainer.

Hebrews (Ivree) are mentioned as a people of another territory or a people without a land.


See tr. "the death of a star shall occur" = eclipse.

Search keywords: Mythus; Traumdeutung; Volten;

Darius I; Munich Codex; Enuma Anu Enlil; Udjeharresnet.


[W_018,rvw] WATSON# 533.6 V67 (in the Watson stacks). "Papyrus Erzherhog Rainer : Fuhrer durch die Ausstellung [im K. K. Osterreichischen Museum fur Kunst und Industrie, zu ehren des IX. Internationalen Orientalisten - Congresses in London], Wien, 1892.

See also SAMMLUNG.


[B_096,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKQ+ 77-689 Folge 13

"Medizinische Rezepte und Verwandtes / herausgegeben von Hermann Harrauer und Pieter J. Sijpesteijn, Wien, 1981.

Medicinal recipes of AE, Greece and Rome.

(as per Y. Koenig) Onerisleg..., 36 et Papyrus Vienne 19, 3. ?


(as per D. Meeks) seek P. Dem. Vienna 26.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Mitteilungen Wien, see MPER.


Guidebook, §2(i): Byzantine empire and Western world, before c 1700

Codex Clementino see Vienna Codex

VIGILANUS: (Latin) codex

See UHN: p. 579: Codex Vigilanus (Latin; 976 CE, Northern Spain) now at the Escurial Library, Madrid. Shows Hindu Arabic numerals.

VIKINGS: sound like a fun bunch


In the middle ages, the VIKINGS settled in Greenland but contact with their colonies was lost at the beginning of the 15th century. In 1720, by

which time the Danes had long become Protestants, there arose considerable concern that the missing colonists, if they existed, would be Roman Catholics and in need of conversion. An expedition was sent to Greenland but found only ruined houses and Eskimos.

Did the VIKINGS perish or intermarry?


An analysis of Greenlander's mitochondrial DNA shows only genetic signatures typical of the new world, and it indicates their unalloyed descent from Eskimos of Alaska.

"It looks bad for the VIKINGS," said Dr. Peter Forster of the University of Cambridge, a co- author of the study.



(as per E. G. Turner)

See Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava:

Volume 2 (Einige Wiener Papyri) by E. Boswinkel; P. Vindob.

Boswinkel; Leiden 1942.

Volume 11 by P. J. Sijpesteijn.



CATNYP# JFD 78-3599

BOBST# PA3301 .P34 vol.1/3 [bound with warren item abv!]

Einige Wiener Papyri : (P Vindob. Boswinkel) bearbeseit von E.


Lugduni Batavorum, 1942.

Studies by Ernst Boswinkel include Greek Papyri.

See plates.

See also [B_448; B_497-500]



CATNYP# JFF 73-1194

Einige Wiener Papyri (P Vindob. Worp.) bearbeseit von K. A. Worp.”

Amsterdam, 1972.

See also [B_448; B_497-500]



CATNYP# *OBKQ (Papyrologica Luduno-Batava. V. 11)

Einige Wiener [Greek] Papyri (P Vindob. Sijpesteijn.) von P. J.


Lugduni Batavorum, 1963.

See also [B_448; B_497-500]




Funfunddreissig [thirty-five] Wiener [Greek] Papyri (P Vindob. Tandem.) von P. J. Sijpesteijn, K. A. Worp.”

Lugduni Batavorum, 1963.

See also [B_448; B_497-500]


See PAMPREPIOS; [B_521=O_075,rvw]; APIS



Vos, R.L.: Apis Embalming Ritual: P. Vindob. 3873. (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 50) Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters en Departement Orientalistiek, 1993. 423pp.


BOBCAT# BL2450.A65 V67 1993

“The Apis Embalming Ritual: P. Vindob. 3873 / by R. L. Vos.”

Leuven, 1993.




BOBCAT# PA3308 .B5 1999

“Das Fragmentum Bucolium Vindobonense (P. Vindob. Rainer 29801) : Einleitung, Text und Kommentar / Hans Bernsdorff.”

Gottingen, 1999.



VINDOBONENSIS: (Greek and hieroglyph) papyri





See MDAIK 1999 for images of Vindob D  6500; D 6502; Tafel 55.


(as per K. Weeks) P. Vindob 3873 from 200 BCE describes in detail the embalming of APIS.

This is housed at Vienna's Kunsthistorisches Museum.


[W_077,rvw] WATSON# 534.7 V92, "The Apis embalming ritual : P. Vindob. 3873 / by R. L. Vos." Leuven, 1993.


[W_078,rvw] WATSON# 272.1 D73 Q, "Seelengartlen : ...vindob. 2706: photomechanische ..von Friedrich Dornhoffer", Frankfurt, 1907.


[B_119,rvw] CATNYP# JFE 94-10031,

“Apocryphon of Jannes and Jambres the magicians. Polyglot.”

By Albert Pietersman, Leiden, 1994.

Includes references to P. Chester Beatty XVI and,

P. Vindobonensis 29456 and 29828.


(as per E. G. Turner)

See Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava:

Volume 2 (Einige Wiener Papyri) by E. Boswinkel; P. Vindob. Boswinkel; Leiden 1942.

Volume 11 by P. J. Sijpesteijn;

P. Vindob. Sijpesteijn; Leiden, 1963.


P.Vind.Bosw.: Einige Wiener Papyri

P.Vind.Bosw. 1. Complaint of priests: (Greek; AD 87; Arsinoite)

Math content.


P.Vind.Pher.: Eine Steuerliste aus Pheretnuis

P.Vind.Pher. 1.: (Greek; AD 196; Pheretnuis)

Math content; fractions. Accounts


P.Vind.Sal.: Einige Wiener Papyri

P.Vind.Sal. 2. Protocol (?): (Greek)


P.Vind.Sijp.: Einige Wiener Papyri

P.Vind.Sijp. 1. Zwei Konnossemente: (Greek 338 bce; Hermopolite)


P.Vind.Tand.: Fünfunddreissig Wiener Papyri

P.Vind.Tand. 1. Copy of a letter from Ptolemaios Philadelphos

(Greek; from Antinoopolis?)


P.Vind.Worp: Einige Wiener Papyri

P.Vind.Worp 1. Copy of court proceedings:

(Greek; AD 91-96; Arsinoite)



VINDOLANDA: (Greek) tablets

T.Vindol.: The Vindolanda Writing-Tablets

T.Vindol. 2.155.: (Greek; AD 97-102; from Vindolanda)



VITRUVIUS: architect (Roman)

Circa 50 BCE

See De Architectura at Rare; NYPL.

[B_277,NO COPY,RARE] CATNYP# KB1953 (Vitruvius Pollio. M. Vitrvvii…De Architectvra) “M. Vitrvvii…De Architectvra Libri Decem…Nvnc Primvm In Germania…excusi…Adiecimvs Etiam Propter argumenti conformitatem, Sexti Ivlii Frontini De Aqvaedvctibvs Vrbis Romae, libellum. Item ex libro Nicolai Cvsani Card. De Staticis Experimentis, fragmentum…”

Pub: Argentorati, In Officina Knoblochiana per Georgivm Machaeropioeum, 1543.

With numerous detailed analyses of Roman works, sciences and construction details including the stone dovetail joint I saw at the stones at Kom-Ombo in Egypt.



VLEEM: (Greek and Demotic) ostraca and documents

The Duke Databank of Documentary Papyri:

O.Vleem.: Ostraka Varia. Tax Receipts and Legal Documents on Demotic, Greek and Greek-Demotic Ostraka, Cheifly of the Early Ptolemaic Period, From Various Collections


O Vleem 1A: (Greek; ~135 bce; from ELEPHANTINE)



VOYNICH: (Encrypted/Alchemical?/Bilingual?/Medieval) Manuscript

(as per Bob Zoller) Investigate!



Size;       7 inches by 10 inches, 170-200 Pages long.


Age;        Speculated to have been written in the 13th Century


Language;  Unknown Cipher, no known examples any other place in the world. Complicating the matter, it is believed that there are two distinct languages present in the manuscript.


Condition;  The tome is crafted of Vellum, and written in colored inks, the manuscript itself is in fairly good condition, with a few pages being damaged, etc.


General Discription; The manuscript is an enigma. The book is written in an unknown script and is illustratated with images of naked people frolicking in fountains, and in different parts have illustrations of plants that are also unknown to anybody.

Image at site below appears written to be read in a mirror.

[See Leonardo da Vinci’s works.]

It looks strangely like a mix of Archaic English, Latin and Greek.

Odd circular designs and inscriptions!

Images filed with [B_408]


Pursue any lead on the horticulture aspects.

Medicinal instuctions / potions / herbal medicine?

Not just fat but seemingly PREGNANT women.


Are any plants shown, known?

[B_408,rvw] CATNYP# JFF 81-711

“The VOYNICH Manuscript : an elegant enigma / M. E. D’Imperio.”

National Security Agency, 1978.


[B_409,rvw] CATNYP# N-10 1334

“Thirty-five manuscripts : including the St. Blasien psalter, the Llangattock hours, the Gotha missal, the Roger Bacon (VOYNICH) cipher ms.”

NY, H. P. Kraus, 1962


Purchased by Rudolph II in the 16th Century

Possibly including ciphered gynecology

Discuss with Bob Zoller.

See WIRED magazine, 2004 article on this late debunking.
[B_596,SIBL, HOUSE, 8.5, sm. img]
CATNYP# JBM-93-105
San Francisco, California, 1993-2004



VULTURES: (Mesopotamian/Sumerian) Stele of

Within the holdings of the Louvre Museum in Paris.


AKA Stele of Eannatum [of Lagash]

AKA Vulture Stele

AKA Victory Stele of Eannatum

[~2525 BCE]


The Stele of Vultures portrays the king of Lagash leading an infantry phalanx of armored, helmeted warriors, armed with spears, trampling their enemies. The king, with a socket axe, rides a chariot drawn by four onagers (wild asses.) In a lower panel, Eannatum holds a sickle-sword. The information and implications of this stele are priceless.

Reference to: Tablets of Shuruppak (2600 B.C.)



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See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID