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Last updated 12/25/05




See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID



Manfred Görg, "Zum Namen des Fürsten von Taanach", Biblische

Notizen 41 (1988), 15-18.

The AEB gives the following summary:

"Different opinions of several scholars are enumerated, concerning the

cuneiform name of the ruler of Taanach. The author suggests the name

to be Tulwisar (=Tulbisarri?)."Manfred Görg, "Zum Namen des Fürsten von Taanach", Biblische

Notizen 41 (1988), 15-18.

"The wanted article" is most probably "Zum Namen des Fürsten von

Taanach", in: Biblische Notizen. Beiträge zur exegetischen

Diskussion 41, 1988, S. 15-18.


TAIT: ostraca



John Gavin TAIT. [1896-?]


[B_385,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKQ+ (Adler, E. N. Adler papyri)

“The Adler papyri. Greek texts by Elkan Nathan Adler, John Gavin Tait and Dr. Fritz M. Heichelheim. The Demotic texts by the late Francis Llewellyn Griffith...With sixteen plates.” London, Oxford, 1939.


[B_386,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKM (Tait, J. G. Greek ostraca in the Bodleian library of Oxford)

“Greek ostraca in the Bodleian library of Oxford and various other collections; edited by John Gavin Tait.”

London, 1930-1955.

Volume one: Ptolemaic ostraca at the Bodleian; ostraca at Asmolean Museum, Oxford; Cambridge University Library; Flinders Petrie collection at University College, London; various other minor collections.


Volume two: Edited by John Gavin Tait and Claire Preaux, contains ostraca of the Roman and Byzantine periods in the Bodleian library.


*Volume three: Indexes to vols. i and ii, ed. J. Bingen and M. Wittek, 1964.


See also TEBTUNIS.






Moeller reference.


WATSONLINE Yields nothing.


(as per AEB 85.1313) Takelothis II from ~856 BCE.


(as per ZAS index# 0739) Seek ZAS 6, 1868, on an inscription of Takellut II.


[B_180a,8.5,CUBIT FRAG IMG,MAPS,MISC.] CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t. 82, “Hommages Serge Sauneron, Cairo, 1979, v. 1, p. 322. By ZIVIE, Alain-Pierre.

See image of the base of a statue of Takelot III? Plate XV.






[B_239,8.5’s,JH] CATNYP# *P (Encyclopaedia of religion and ethics)

“Encyclopaedia of religion and ethics / Edited by James Hastings, with the assistance of John A. Selbie and Louis Gray.”

NY, 1955.

13 volumes.

I copied the section on the TALMUD.

(P. 185 comments on the text of MISHNAH.)

In 533 CE Emporor Justinian ordered Praefect Areobindus to favor the Greek version of the Scriptures.

(To eradicate the use of Hebrew and/or Aramaic.)


I copied the section [Encyclopaedia Judaica; *P-*PBZ + 72-291]

on the KELIM [See Mishnah Kelim].

(P. 899 comments on the first tractate of the MISHNAH order of Tohorot.)

Discussions of the ritual purification of vessels.

See Kelim, 17, verse 9 for CUBITS.

[B_282,IGNR,NO COPY,JH] CATNYP# *PHN 98-15; Published 1997.

"Mishnayot bava kama mi-Masekhet Kelim : 'im perush Siya'ta d."

Same old mouse purity diagrams.


[B_145,JH,8.5] CATNYP# *P- *PDL 83-868,

“Analytical concordance to the Bible”. Robert Young, Nashville, reprint 1982.

See research of 9/17/02 on cubits again with focus on Ezekiel/cubits

See Septuagint


[B_286,JH,8.5] CATNYP# *P-*PHM (Mishnah. Mishnayoth)

“Mishnayoth : pointed Hebrew text, English translation, introductions, notes, supplement, appendix, indexes, addenda, corrigenda.”

NY, Judaica Press, 1963-4.

With demonstrations of Cardinal and Ordinal Hebrew numbers and Grammar rules for same.


TANIS: (Greek, Coptic and AE Hieroglyphic) papyri from extinct city of

AKA "Suan" and AKA "San el-Hagar"

See also CANOPUS


[B_026,8.5] CATNYP# *OBN+96-4271

“Decree of Canopus, Die zweisprachige inschrift von Tanis, zum ersten male hrsg. und uebers. von S. Leo Reinisch und E. Robert Roesler.”

Wien, W. Braumuller 1866.

Greek, Coptic and hieroglyphs.


See this link to the background and treasures of Tanis.


[B_133,ALL,8.5] CATNYP# *OBL (Two hieroglyphic…),

“Two hieroglyphic papyri from Tanis … Fascimiles and introductory remarks.

Pub. By order of the Committee.” London, 1889.

A poorly arranged surviving AE dictionary and an AE Atlas!

See Atlas images [sketches] for calendrical data and accounts. Math.


[B_182a, no img,IGNR] CATNYP# *OBL, Institut Francais d’Arch. A la Bibliotheque nationale de Paris, Le Caire, 1931, Tome 30(3-4).

Descriptions of numerous obelisks.


See Obelisque



TANIYAMA-SHIMURA: (Number theory) conjecture

Now proven true.

Except, I don’t see how!


TANNERY: (Author)

Paul Tannery:


p. 40 [B_437,8.5,NO KESKINTO,SIBL]

See Hypsicles:[B_249,8.5’s,SIBL;by permission/appt.]

[B_437] *Is not a proper tr. in relation to original!

See page 20 of ANAPHORIKOS [B_249, the “original”]

Note probable typo in [B_249] in Greek and Hindu-Arabic conversion for the sign Libra [AKA Balance]

p. 41

Signs [paired as Sign and the Sign mirrored on equinox line:

Arc of sky in degrees:

equinoctial hours

Belier                        [et] Poissons            21+2/3 degrees            ou            1H 26M 40S            In seconds [40+(26x60=1560)+(3600x1)]            =5200

Taureau            Verseau            25 degrees            ou            1H 40M

In seconds [(40x60=2400)+(3600x1)]                        =6000

Gemeaux            Capricorne            28+1/3 degrees            ou            1H 53M 20S

In seconds [20+(53x60=3180)+(3600x1)]            =6800

Cancer                        Sagittare            31+2/3 degrees            ou            2H   6M 40S

In seconds [40+(6x60=360)+(3600x2)]                        =7600

Lion                        Scorpion            35 degrees            ou            2H 20M

In seconds [(20x60=1200)+(3600x2)]                        =8400

Vierge                        Balance            38+1/3 degrees            ou            2H 23M 20S*

*Gap analysis suggests this [the translation/copy error] should read*2H 33M 20S*=9200 seconds

In seconds [20+(23x60=1380)+(3600x2)]            =8600

In seconds [20+(33x60=1380)+(3600x2)]            =9200


TOTAL OF ALL 12 zodiacal signs:

[Linear progression of plus or minus 3+1/3 degrees per Sign; plus 3+1/3 degrees for all S: S’, S’+6]

[21+2/3+25+28+1/3+31+2/3+35+38+1/3]*2= 180*2 = 360 degrees



Total of all gaps:

*****6 pairs of Signs with 5 Gaps:

13 M 20S+13M 20S +13M 20S+13M 20S +*3M 20S

5*13M 20S=65M 100S= total of all correct*/ equal gaps=the spread=

 66 +2/3 minutes.

What decimal function is at play in this sexagesimal work?

A base 15 consideration?

One earth day=360 celestial degrees=24 [hours of 60 minutes] =24*60=1440 minutes=86,400 earth seconds=1080 “Eudoxus periods” of 80 earth seconds.]

*One fifteenth of 360 celestial degrees = 24 degrees

1440/15 = 96.  So a 96 minute period is a consideration [a fifteenth of an earth day].

[15* 66+2/3=1000]

[Six earth hours=21600 earth seconds = 90 celestial degrees =

270 celestial “Eudoxus periods” of 80 earth seconds.]


[One earth hour = 3600 earth seconds = 15 celestial arc degrees =

45 celestial “Eudoxus periods” of 80 earth seconds.]


[One earth minute = 60 earth seconds = 1/4 celestial arc degrees = 3/4 of a celestial “Eudoxus period” of 80 earth seconds.]


[One celestial degree = 4 earth minutes = 3 celestial “Eudoxus periods” of 80 earth seconds.]


[One “Eudoxus period” of 80 earth seconds. = 4/3 earth minutes = 1/3 celestial degrees.]]


[15* 66+2/3=1000] consider the appearance of EUDOXUS’s PARAPEGMA; See p. HIBEH i. 27; use of n/45 is viably related.

60 minutes/45=1+1/3 M=80 seconds [in geometrical proportion/multiples from equinoxes] so an 80 second period is a consideration

[given the assumption by EUDOXUS that N=12 hours for each night and day [sunrise to sunset and sunset to sunrise] at the equinoxes [which are NOT 365.2422/2 days apart!] are offset by multiples of 1/45 hours [+ N] per day at a maximum of 90/45ths of an hour variance at the solstices or an assumed exactitude of 10 hours versus 14 hours for these same periods of the day at the solstices]

Hibeh i 27 is quirkier still at the epagomenal days.


Tannery [typo] and Hypsicles [tr. Error by?] are dead.

[tr. Error by?] = Iacobvm Mentelivm =

Jacob Mentel? [also dead]

Who can find the lost 20 minutes in [B_437]?

Who can find the lost 7 degrees in [B_249]?

Me. Ugh.

Why are mathematical documents filled with troubles?


Corrected/translated content of page 41 of [B_437].:

ARIES and PISCES:                        21 degrees 40m            5200s

TAURUS and AQUARIUS:            25 degrees                        6000s

GEMINI and CAPRICORN:            28 degrees 20m            6800s

CANCER and SAGITTARIUS:            31 degrees 40m            7600s

LEO and SCORPIO:                        35 degrees                         8400s

VIRGO and LIBRA:                        38 degrees 20m            9200s

Total of 12 ZODIAC SIGNS:            180 degrees*2                        43,200s*2

360 degrees=86,400 seconds=24 hours


See also ABCD: Chaldean influence; divinations.



CATNYP# OKA (Tannery, P. Geometrie Grecque)

“La geometrie grecque, comment son histoire nous est parvenue et ce que nous en savons. Essai critique par Paul Tannery. 1. ptie. Historie generale de la geometrie elementaire.” Paris, 1887.

Good stuff: Plutarch; Euclid; Heron/Hero; Works by George Pachymere

PAPPUS; Pythagore/Pitagorus; Some Pyramidiocy

Plato; Meton; Zenon; Proclus; Aristophane; Aristote/Aristotle

See ZDMG; MATH prior to 1601; KESKINTO





“Pour l’histoire de la science hellene [microform], par Paul Tannery. De Thales a Empedocle.” Paris, F.

Alcan, 1887.

Information on the topic of ancient astronomy.

Notes from this site:

biographical data on Paul Tannery’s brother [see “memoires scientifiques”].


(Mantes-sur-Seine, Seine-et-Oise, 24 mars 1848 - Paris, 11 novembre 1910). Mathématicien, professeur

au Lycée Malherbe de Caen. Son frère, Paul TANNERY, est un célèbre historien des mathématiques.



“Recherches sur l’histoire de l’astronomie ancienne”

By Paul Tannery, [Orig.: Paris, 1893.], New York, 1976.

More good stuff:





Discussion of parapegmes; See HIBEH






Includes comparisons of the AE annus vagus with the solar year

Includes some considerations on retrograde planetary observations.


Refs the following works:

Euclide: Le livre des Optiques

Euclide: Le livre des Catoptriques

Theodose: Trois livres de Spheriques

Autolycus: De la sphere en mouvement

Euclide: Le livre des Phenomenes

Hypsicles: Des ascensions

Autolycus: Deux livres deslevers et couchers des fixes

Theodose: Des habitations

Theodose: De livres Des jours et des nuits

Aristarque: De la grandeur et des distances da Soleil et de la Lune


p. 40 STOP Refs this excerpt of Hypsicles:

Bruce – review and clarify.


p. 41

Belier                        et Poissons            21.2/3 degrees            ou            1H 26M 40S                        POISSON+PISCES?

In seconds [40+(26x60=1560)+(3600x1)]            =5200

Taureau            Verseau            25 degrees            ou            1H 40M

In seconds [(40x60=2400)+(3600x1)]                        =6000

Gemeaux            Capricorne            28.1/3 degrees            ou            1H 53M 20S

In seconds [20+(53x60=3180)+(3600x1)]            =7780

Cancer                        Sagittare            31.2/3 degrees            ou            2H   6M 40S

In seconds [40+(6x60=360)+(3600x2)]                        =7600

Lion                        Scorpion            35 degrees            ou            2H 20M

In seconds [(20x60=1200)+(3600x2)]                        =8400

Vierge                        Balance            38.1/3 degrees            ou            2H 23M 20S

In seconds [20+(23x60=1260)+(3600x2)]            =8480

Chaldean influence; divinations.

p. 44-5: Eudoxus (*parapegma of Geminus); Aristotle; Meton; Euctemon; Leptine; Clepsydra


p. 46-7: Dioptra; Hipparque’s Dioptra; Archimedes (Arenaire; Sun diameter calculated); Theon de Smyrne; Euclid (Phenomenon); precise measurements at the Ecliptic.


p. 48-9: Coudee *translate literally=?; Strabo; Vitruvius; See RA (1886) article by Tannery, “La coudee astronomique et les anciennes divisions du cercle.” A possible source for a sketched KESKINTO image_NO!.


p. 50-1: Pendulums; Planispheres (see Astronomy); Arachne (device).


p. 66-7: Ganeca divides into 384? Parts; See Arenaire 17 (by Aristotle) on Hindu division of circle into 1000 parts; Hipparque; Hypsicles; Heron.


p. 104-5: Pline/Pliny against a flat Earth.


p. 106-7: reference to Friedrich Hultsch’s; “Greichische und Romische Metrologie.” Berlin, 1881.


p. 108: 1 stade=185 meters; see Herodotus. 1 Parasang=5550 meters (~3.4 miles) See METROLOGY.


p. 109: AE royal cubit ~ 525 mm.


p. 110-13: Erastosthenes (and others) measure Earth circumference. ~300 BCE see overestimate of Sun and Moon distances by Aristarque de Samos.


p. 114: Earth circumference at 30,690 Km via Cleomede.


p. 116-7: Aristarque; Ecliptic; Erastosthenes; Cleomede; Pliny; Gnomon.


p. 119: Ptolemy’s “Syntax.” Cylinders and Pendulums.


p. 120: Vitruvius (Dioptra/Alidade) and Astrolabe/Planisphere; Zodiac and Astrology. Laplace.


p. 137: Strabo; ascensions; Hypsicles; Kronos


p. 156: See analysis chart of equinox/solstice data from: Euctemon;

Eudoxus; Calippe/Callipus; Hipparque/Hipparchus


p. 157: See Ptolemy’s description of Annus Vagus=365.00 days. See parapegma of Didascalie.


p. 160-1: See table of date conversions in relation to 1461 year AE Sothic cycle. AE epochs.


p. 176: Hipparque; Bithynien; refuting procession of the equinoxes.


p. 250: Epicycles and retrograde movements. See Ptolemy’s chart on Planetary motion.


p. 290-1: 365 day annus vagus and 354 day lunar year; solstice; zodiac.


p. 298-9: Eudoxus, Pitagoras; Apis; Memphis (see Serapion); Plutarque; Strabo; Archytas. Boeckh dates Eudoxus work (acme) in AE to 368 BCE.

Heliopolis across from location of Eudoxus’ measurements.


p. 300: Aristotle’s Metaphysics.


p. 301: Appendix with description of succesful trigonometric calculations.


p. 324: Pitagoras’ “harmonie des spheres.” Pliny; Censorinus; Martianus.


p. 325: Music is math; see chart. Varron; Pliny; Censorinus.


p. 326: Stades of different lengths; Metrology. Martiannus Capella octave=6 notes; Pliny and Censorinus octave=8 notes. See Plato’s allusion to Pitagoras” harmony of spheres in Republic, book X.


p. 327: See Tannery’s work in Revue Philosophique, August, 1881, on Platonic Schooling.


p. 340: Reference chart for the greater surviving works of Eudoxus; Theodose; Menelas; Autolykus; Aristarque; Hypsicles; Archimedes; Ptolemy; Tsabit ibn Quorrah (de Haran); Les fils de Mousa.  Reference to 1388 CE manuscript in Bibliotheque Nationale.


p. 361: See charts on Geocentric systems.


p. 370: See reference texts; Nasir-Eddin Attusi.

This article noted as an extract of “Memoires de la Societe des Sciences physiques et naturelles de Bordeaux.” Tome 1, 4th Series.


TATIAN: (Roman Christian) Scholar



Tatian was a pupil of Justin Martyr and author of the Diatessaron, a harmony of the four gospels. Tatian composed his apology c. 155-165 CE.

In his later years, after the death of Justin Martyr c. 163 CE, Tatian is reported to have become an

Encratite. Irenaeus makes mention of this Tatian in Against Heresies 1.28.1.


Two revisions of the "Diatesseron" are available: one in Latin preserved in the "Codex Fuldensis" of the Gospels datin from about A.D. 545, the other in an Arabic version found in two manuscripts of a later date. The "Diatesseron" or "Evangelion da Mehallete" (the Gospel of the mixed) was practically the only gospel text used in Syria during the third and fourth centuries. Rabbula, Bishop of Edessa (411-435), ordered the priests and deacons to see that every church should have a copy of the separate Gospels (Evangelion da Mepharreshe), and Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrus (423-457), removed more than two hundred copies of the "Diatesseron" from the churches in his diocese. Several other works written Tatian have disappeared. In his apology (xv) he mentions a work "on animals" and (xvi) one on the "nature of demons". Another work in refutation of the calumnies against the Christians (xl) was planned but perhaps never written. He also wrote a "Book of Problems" (Eus., "Hist. Eccl.", V, 13), dealing with the difficulties in the Scriptures, and one "On Perfection according to the Precepts of Our Saviour" (Clem. Alex., "Strom.", III, 12, 81).

[TATIAN] he was born in Assyria and that he was trained in Greek philosophy. While a young man he

travelled extensively.



SUMMIT# BS2550.T2 K7

“A Greek fragment of Tatian’s Diatessaron, from Dura; edited with fascimile, …”

London, 1935.



TAURINENSIS: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) P. TOR.=Papyri graeci R. Musei Aegyptii Tauriensis, in:

Mem. R. Accad. Torino, XXXI, 1826, pp. 9-188, XXXIII, 1827, 1-80, ed. A Peyron.


P.Tor.: Papyri graeci Regii Taurinensis Musei Aegyptii

P.Tor. 1.: (Greek; 323-30 bce; Diospolis Major)


P.Tor.Amen.: L'Archivio di Amenothes figlio di Horos. Testi demotici e greci relativi ad una famiglia di imbalsamatori del secondo sec. a.C.

P.Tor.Amen. 6.: (Greek; 119 bce; Thebes)


P.Tor.Choach.: Il Processo di Hermias e altri documenti dell'archivio dei choachiti

P.Tor.Choach. 2.: (Greek; 118 bce; Thebes?)



TBZAW: publication

TBZAW=Teubinger Beitrage Zur Altertums-Wissenschaft

(Heft 33-35), RBA (Teubinger, 1940-41)



CATNYP# RBA (Tuebinger Beitrage Zur AltertumsWissenschaft. Heft 33)

“Der [AL_Eth_Es LogOS] des Kelsos, von Robert Bader.”

Stuttgart, Berlin, 1940.

References to:

Codex Vaticanus Gr. 386 saec. XIII.

Codex Parisinus Suppl. Gr. 293 saec. XVI (=Jolianus)

Codex Parisinus Suppl. Gr. 616 a.1339

Codex Venetus Marcianus 45 saec XIV.

Codex Venetus Marcianus 44 saec. XV.

Codex Regius Parisinus Suppl. Gr. 945 saec. XIV

Codex Patmius 270 saec. X.

And others.

With numerous citations to analysis of the work of Celsus.

See [B_251]; Celsus.

Especially the 1733 work by Delarue.

In which I found the Cubit things I came for.


See also [B_248b] Heft 1. Works of Herodotus.

See also [B_248c] Heft 35. Works of Livy



TEBTUNIS or TEBTYNIS: (Greek, Hieratic) papyri and ostraca



(as per B.P. Grenfell,[B_051],HIBEH) Seek Greek, unpublished Tebtunis P. from mummy 6 and mummy 107, see Professor Smyly, see TEBT I (corn accounts).


[W_073,rvw] WATSON# 533.6 Os42 Text; F Plates, "Hieratische Papyri aus Tebtunis I / Jurgen Osing", Copenhagen, 1998.


OSING, Jürgen, The Carlsberg Papyri 2: Hieratische Papyri aus Tebtunis I. Text und Tafeln, Copenhagen, The Carsten Niebuhr Institute of Near Eastern Studies, University of Copenhagen / Museum Tusculanum Press, 1998 = CNI Publications, 17. (Text 26 x 31 cm: 310 p.; Tafeln 42-61 cm: 30 facing pl.). ISBN 87-7289-280-3; pr. DKK 2375


[W_074,rvw] WATSON# 533.6 T13, "Papyri from Tebtunis in Egyptian and Greek (P.Tebt. Tait)" by William John Tait, London, 1977.


[W_075,rvw] WATSON# 533.6 Eg9 v41, 42, 23, 2, "The Tebtunis Papyri / edited by Bernard P. Grenfell, Arthur S. Hunt, and J. Gilbart Smyly. London, 1902.


(as per AEB) The Carlsberg Papyri 2: Hieratische P. aus Tebtunis I. Text und Tafeln, Copenhagen, (Niebuhr), 1998, CNI.


(as per E. G. Turner)

See P. Tebt. I from the records of Kerkeosiris ~100 BCE.

See also (Greek) P. Fam. Tebt., A family archive from Tebtunis in:

Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava vi, ed. B.A. van Groningen.

Volume 6, Leiden, 1950.


[B_180b,8.5,IMG, v. 2] CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t. 82, “Hommages Serge Sauneron, Cairo, 1979.

See volume two, mention of P. Tebt. I. 44 and 45.

Dated to (113 BCE.)


(as per E. G. Turner) AKA TEBTYNIS AKA Tell-Umm-el-Breigat.


O. Tebt. 1: (Greek; AD 201)


O. Tebt. Pad. 1: (Greek; AD 161) at Padova [University].


P.Fam.Tebt.: A Family Archive from Tebtunis

P.Fam.Tebt. 1. Agreement between a Husband and his Wife:

(Greek; AD 90; from TEBTYNIS?)


P.Tebt.: The Tebtunis Papyri

P.Tebt. 1.5. Decrees of Euergetês II: (Greek; 118 bce)


P.Tebt.Tait: Papyri from Tebtunis in Egyptian and Greek

P.Tebt.Tait 46. Table of Consuls: (Greek; AD 159)


P.Tebt.Wall: New Texts in the Economy of Tebtunis

P.Tebt.Wall 1. Loan: (Greek; AD 98-138)


See ADLER; [B_385=O_016,8.5,IMG]

TEETH/TOOTH: and ancient dentistry and medicine

References to dentistry in extant papyri:

1. The (Akhmim) Stele of Padikhonsi tells of a 200 BCE tooth extraction.

2. P. Anastasi IV=BM 10249 an AE [~1200 BCE] account of tooth decay,

the “tooth worm”.


(as per EEF; P. Stone; 051002)

[Hesy-ra, dentist to the pharaoh]

Hesy-ra is the Pooh-ba of Egypt (Mikado- Lord High Everything Else)

in that he is given a large number of titles including dentist. However, as

far as I am aware, this is the only reference to a dentist in the known

literature. This is strange when one considers the state of the jaws and

teeth of most mummies - the abscesses in jaws, the teeth worn down by

the amount of sand in the diet, etc..


(as per EEF; F. Raffaele; 051002)

For Hesy-re [in Italian] see:


See also:

J. E. Quibell: Excavations at Saqqara 1911-12: The Tomb of Hesy (1913)

W. Wood: A Reconstruction of the reliefs of Hesy-re in: JARCE 15, 1978, 9-24

F. F. Leek: The Practice of Dentistry in Ancient Egypt in: JEA 53, 1967,



There's no mummy or coffin of Hesyra.

The only fragments of two skeletons and other bones (maybe one from a

female) were scattered in the burial chamber (no sarcophagus, no mummy)

and Quibell left them on one of the stone steps to the burial chamber.

When he sent his Egyptian man down to pick them up, he was attacked by a

swarm of fleas before accomplishing the task and Quibell gave it up and left

them into the tomb (which is now invisible as all the others of the group)

under the sand of the North Saqqara plateau.


Hesyra's Saqqara mastaba is S2405

see here some plans

(last image in the first line and first two images in the fourth line)


(as per EEF; A. Eyma; 051002)

Whether there really were dentists in AE is a debated matter.

Medicine was since the beginning divided in a specialized body part

oriented system, and Herodotus II, 84 says that besides physicians for

bellies and physicians for eyes etc there were also physicians for teeth.

But whether that Late Period example may be extrapolated to earlier

times is up for doubt.

The consensus seems to be that in Pharaonic times, tooth problems

would only have been treated outwardly, i.e. with potions and spells

and what more (cf p.Ebers), and not with dentistry as we know it

(for the few uncertain exceptions, see Dr Vishnoi's post).

<snip>the scarcity of the term dentist (ibH(y)) makes

one sceptical about real intrusive dentistry in pharaonic times, and even

about a seperate specialism for most of its history. Apparantly in later

times that changed; see Herodotus and the examples above, and there

seems to exist a Roman period manual for dental surgery

(E. Reymond, “From an Ancient Egyptian Dentist's Handbook: P. Vindob.

D. 12287”, in: Mélanges Gutbub, 183-199. non vidi).


(as per EEF; J. Quack; 052302)

Actually, there is at least one papyrus explicitly describing a method

of tooth extraction. It was published by E. A. Reymond, From an

Ancient Egyptian Dentist´s Handbook. P. Vindob. D. 12287, in:

Melanges Adolphe Gutbub (montpellier 1984), p. 183-199; and

briefly mentioned by W. Westendorf, Handbuch der Altägyptischen

Medizin (Leiden 1999), p. 59. Contrary to what Westendorf says,

the text is not 3th-4th century AD, but rather 2nd century AD.

(as per EEF; T. Benderitter; 012904)
A good reference in French:"Dents et mâchoires dans les représentations religieuses et la pratiquemédicale de l'Égypte Ancienne"Thierry BardinetEditrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, Roma 1990

(as per EEF; A. Derrick; 013004)Another good reference on dental practice and dental examination of mummies:_Xray Atlas of the Royal Mummies_ James Harris, and Ed Wente.University of Michigan Press?

(as per EEF; 120904)
* Joel D. Irish, PhD, "A 5,500-Year-Old Artificial Human Tooth
from Egypt: A Historical Note", The International Journal of Oral
& Maxillofacial Implants, September/October 2004, Volume 19,
Issue 5, pp. 645-647; in PDF (74kB):
"Archaeological excavations at a Neolithic cemetery near Gebel Ramlah,
Egypt, yielded, among other finds, a life-size shell carving of a human
tooth. ... The present report details the tooth's appearance and
provides several interpretations concerning its function, including the
possibility that it was intended to be a dental implant."

TEFEROUASET: (AE; Hieratic) papyrus of

(as per EEF) "Le Papyrus de Teferouaset" about the Amduat.

~1000 BCE, provinence is Karnak Termple.

At the Louvre.

TEL DAN: (Phoenician) inscription

Tel Dan inscription [of Hazael?] mentions killing of [Jeho]ram son of [Ahab] king of Israel and [Ahaziah] son of [Jehoram ki]ng of the House of David COS 2, 161-162


TEL EKRON: (Archaic Hebrew) inscriptions; See TELL EKRON

AKA Tel-Miqne-Ekron:

Aaron Demsky, whose deciphering of the oldest Hebrew document known to date and his recent interpretation of the Tel Ekron inscription dedicated to an unknown goddess received world-wide media coverage will bring his expertise to Chattanooga next week. Demsky, a professor of biblical history at Israel's Bar-Ilan University [BIU], will present two lectures in Chattanooga on March 6 and 7. He has taken part in archaeological excavations at Tel Shiloh, which was the religious and political center of ancient Israel before Jerusalem. Presently, Demsky is part of the team digging at Tel Safi, ancient Gath of the Philistines




TEL REHOV: (Israeli) Archaeological site(s)


TELL EKRON: (Israeli) Archaeological site(s); See TEL EKRON

In the 1996 excavations made at Tel Miqne (Kh. El-Muqanna), they discovered a very interesting dedication inscription. (Cf. S. Gitin-T. Dothan-J. Naveh, A Royal dedication Inscription from Ekron, IEJ 47 (10997): 1-16.)

The inscription spoke of a king by the name of Akish. He had built a temple (bayt) for the Philistine divinity PTGYH. She was the protectress of the city. The name of the king, or rather ... the prince of Ekron, corresponds to the King of the Philistines, Gath, (Akish) who was mentioned by David (1 Sam. 21:11-15; 27), and to a king named twice in Syrian inscriptions of the 8th and 7th centuries BC.

1. The temple (that) built ‘KYSH, son of PDY, son

2. Of YSD, son of ‘ADA’, son of YA’R prince of "EK-

3. RON, for his patron PTGYH. That you may bless it, and pro-

4. tect it, and prolong his days, and to bless

5. His land.

See also Lachish Letters; Tell Dan Inscription; Gezer



TELL EL-AMARNA: (AE) city of; tablets

See also AMARNA


(as per L. Bailey):



TELL ES-SAFI: (ancient, Biblical) city of

AKA Gath, Home to Biblical Goliath


(as per EEF; A. Maeir)

Continuously occupied from the Chalcolithic period until modern times, Tell es-Safi has been identified as the ancient city of Gath, one of the five royal cities of the Philistines and home of the legendary giant Goliath.

During previous excavation seasons at this imposing site, which

lies on the way from Ashkelon to Jerusalem, remains dating primarily to the Bronze and Iron Ages have been unearthed. These include an exceptionally well-preserved Iron Age IIa (circa 800 BCE) destruction level, containing hundreds of intact and/or completely restorable pottery vessels; a stratigraphic sequence spanning the Late Bronze Age (13th century BCE) until the Iron Age IIb (8th century BCE); and a monumental Iron Age II siege-moat.



TELL ES-SWAYHAT: (Syrian) city; tombs at

See UR.

TELL FEKHERIYE: (Aramaic) inscriptions; stele from before 700 BCE


Aramaic appears among the ranks of known languages around 850 BC in Syria (the Tell Fekheriye stele). Aramaic spread with tremendous speed, and by the 6th century BC was being used as the administrative language and lingua franca of the entire Middle East, all the way from Afghanistan in the Persian Empire to Egypt. Many ancient Semitic languages, including Akkadian and Hebrew, died out and were supplanted by Aramaic. Only Greek rivaled Aramaic for dominance in the Middle East until the Arab conquest of the 7th century AD.

[1989] item 23- "Alle origini della traduzione di poesia: la bilingue assiro-aramaica di Tell Fekheriye", in: Franco Buffoni (a cura di), La traduzione del testo poetico, Milano 1989, 457-465. Di Vermondo Brugnatelli

TELL GEZER: and the calendar


A HIGH PLACE was discovered. It was a series of ten stone pillars (massebot) arranged in a North-South line. These stones range from 1.65 to 3.25 meters in height. In the middle of the row was a square, well-cut stone block, in the center of which was a square depression. These were possibly memorial stelae. There are short inscriptions mentioning names of kings and high officials in whose honor they were erected.

My thoughts:

If 1.65 M is 3 cubits than 1650/3=C; 550 mm=C

Then 3250 mm/12=c=541 2/3 mm

A possible range for this cubit of the time:

541-550 mm.?



Joshua 10:31-33

Joshua 12:1, 12

1 Kings 9:15-16




TELL HALAF: (SYRIA or IRAQ) settlement of


“Der Tell Halaf und sein Ausgraber Max Freiherr von Oppenheim.”

By Nadja Cholidis and Lutz Martin.

Berlin, 2002.

Available from OXBOW catalog [B_332 alt]


[B_510,rvw] CATNYP# *OCM+ 97-3403 Bd. 1.

Tell Halaf / Max Freiherrr von Oppenheim.”

Berlin, 1966- [reprint from original 1943]

Max Freiherrr von Oppenheim [1860-1946]


[B_511,rvw] CATNYP# *OCM (Oppenheim, M. A. S. Tell Halaf. 1931).

“Der Tell Halaf: eine neur Kultur im altesten Mesopotamien / von Max Freiherrr von Oppenheim.”

Leipzig, 1931.



TELL IBRAHIM AWAD: very old temple discovered at

(as per EEF; G. Belova)

“Galina Belova, who heads the Centre of Egyptological Research at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences.”

“…they have already stirred up the archaeological world by unearthing a temple in Tell Ibrahim Awad - its age, estimated at 5000 years, makes it Egypt's oldest temple discovered so far.”,1113,2-11-37_1161126,00.html

TELL QUDEIRAT: (Paleo-Hebrew) ostracon

See UHN: p. 238: fig. 18.27 Ostracon No. 6 from Tell Qudeirat ~600 BCE stated to be the largest Paleo-Hebrew Ostracon shows AE hieratic numerals up to hundreds of thousands. See also Ostraca from ARAD.

TELL TEBILLA: (AE) maritime port [now landlocked and abandoned]

Egypt’s eastern delta 12 Km north of Mendes

See article in ARCE in bulletin no 182 [spring-summer 2002]

University of Toronto expedition of 1999-2001

Like Buto, this area seems to have been abandoned between the 11th and 21st dynasties.

See Tell el-Yehudiyeh

See ARCE; [B_551,8.5]



TELLERIANO-REMENSIS: (Mesoamerican) Codex


TEPE GAWRA: (5th Millenium BCE evidence, Iraq)

[B_508,rvw] CATNYP# *OCN 02-4495

“Tepe Gawra: The Evolution of a Small, Prehistoric Center in Northern Iraq.”

By Mithchell S. Rothman with an appendix by Brian Peasnall, Pennsylvania, 2002.

Available from OXBOW catalog [B_332 alt]


TEPE YAHYA: (Sumerian) bullae from Iran

See UHN:

p. 105 footnote reference to 3300 BCE bullae [balls of clay hollowed to receive calculi] found at Tepe Yahya, IRAN [near, but not in, SUSA] and Habuba Kabira, SYRIA {JEWISH?}

p. 97 See similar hoards of bullae [4th millenium BCE] found at:

Chogha Mis, IRAN

Tall-I-Malyan, IRAN



TET: (AE, OK) symbol of a pillar/stability

(as per E.A. Budge) The four pillars that support the four quarters of heaven.



TETRICUS: don’t ask why, long story





(as per EEF; A. Tomcsanyi; 092203)

A great reference on just about everything you wanted to know about textiles and what certainly answers your questions (and many more) inwonderful detail:Prehistoric Textiles: The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages with Special Reference to the Aegean. By E.J.W. Barber. Princeton University Press, 1991. At 470 pages and entire chapters for Egypt, it's a great resource on The subject. <snip>



THEADELPHIA: (Greek) papyri from city of

(as per E. G. Turner) P. Thead.=Papyrus de Theadelphie,

ed. P. Jouget, Paris, 1911.

AKA Batnlhrit.


See P. COL.



CATNYP# *OBKQ (Jouguet, P. Papyrus de Théadelphie)

BOBST# PA3315.T5 J6

Papyrus de Theadelphie, editee par Pierre Jouguet...”

Paris, 1911.

Translations of Greek papyri by:

Pierre Jouguet, 1869-1949.

See plates.





CATNYP# *OBKQ (Columbia papyri: Greek series. 5)

BOBST# PA3305 .C7 no.5 Oversize.

“Tax Documents from THEADELPHIA; papyri of the second century A. D.”

New York, 1956

THEBES (Waset): Inscriptions and ostraca from AE city of

[B_010,8.5's] CATNYP# *OBM+ (Petrie, W.M.F.,Six Temples at Thebes) "Six Temples at Thebes. 1896. by W.M. Flinders Petrie. With a chapter by Wilhelm Spiegelberg. London,1897.

Includes images and tr. of:

Stele of Amenhotep III

Stele of Merenptah

The small collection of ostraca from foundation jars of;

Tausert and Siptah.


Follow this link to the Theban Mapping Project.


(as per E. G. Turner)  O. Theb. = Theban Ostraca. London-Oxford, 1913. Ostraka in Hieratic, Demotic, Greek, and Coptic. The Greek ostraca ed. By J. G. Milne.


(as per EEF; Steve Harvey) See B. J. Haring’s, “Divine Households. Administrative And Economic Aspects Of The New Kingdom Royal Mortuary Temples In Western Thebes”, Pub. Leiden, Nederlands Instituut, 1997.

List of Kings, Bureaucrats.

Page 423 reference to Seti II in Gurob fragment F. See also LRL.

See Medjay (desert police) from Lower Nubia, AKA Medja

Medja origin near Wadi Allaqi?

Medja with odd pan graves, circular in nature, foreign to AE.


(As per OEAE) MK and SIP visitors, the Medja, are similar to inhabitants of Kerma. Medja People were perchance OK mercenaries. Also associated with Gebelein during the FIP.

See KUSH 9, 1961.


(As per EEF; F. J. Yurco) Reisner dug at Kerma and found jars inscribed to Pepi I and Pepi II. Keyword the Yam group.


O. Theb.1: (Greek; ~150 bce; from Hermonthis)


CATNYP# *OBKQ 90-7010 and *OBKQ 90-7066

“Studies on the illustrated Theban funerary papyri of the 11th and 10th centuries B.C. / Andrzej Niwinski.”

Freiburg, 1989

BOBCAT# PA3315.T53 N58 1989.


THEON: (Greek) Astronomer

AKA Theon de Smyrne

See [B_390, KESKINTO]


THEONES: (Greek) papyri

P.Theon.: The Family of the Tiberii Iulii Theones

P.Theon. 1. Application for Payment

(Greek; AD 156; Oxyrhynchite)

Math; 100 drachmas.



THMUIS or THMOUIS: (Greek) papyrus


P.Thmouis: Le Papyrus Thmouis 1, colonnes 68-160

(Greek; AD 170; from Thmouis)

Math content.



THUKA: (Hebrew) village at the SINAI peninsula

(Village of) Thuka=(Festival of) Sukkot?


There is, however, evidence from the Egyptian monuments and papyri that will enable us to CORRECTLY locate Succoth and several of the other Exodus stop-over points. Notice what the nineteenth-century archaeologist Edouard Naville has to say:

The first station [in the Israelites escape from Egypt] is SUCCOTH, THUKET, or THUKU. Here it is important to observe that the name of the place where the Israelites first encamped is NOT THE NAME OF A CITY, but the NAME OF A DISTRICT, OF THE REGION OF THUKET, in which, at the time of the Exodus, there existed not only PITHOM, but the FORTIFICATIONS which...had [been] erected to keep off the invading Asiatics. It is quite natural that the camping ground of such a large multitude must have had a great extent. It WAS NOT at Pithom that the Israelites halted; the gates of the fortified city were not opened to them, nor were the storehouses. Besides, the area of the enclosure would have been quite insufficient to contain such a vast crowd. They pitched their tents IN THE LAND OF SUCCOTH WHERE PITHOM WAS BUILT, very likely NEAR those LAKES and those good PASTURES where the NOMADS OF ATUMA asked to be admitted with their cattle. -- The Store-City of Pithom and the Route of the Exodus, p.22.


See BUDAPEST; [B_065, JH]



THUTMOSIS: the third, follows Hapshetsut as Pharaoh

Charles Van Siclen, "The date of the Granite Bark Shrine of Thutmosis III", GM Gottinger Miszellen 79 (1984), pg. 53.


Also by Van Siclen "New Data on the Defacement of Hatshepsut's Name

and Image on the Chapelle Rouge," GM Gottinger Miszellen 107 (1989), 85-86.


William F. Edgerton wrote a classic essay on:

“The Thutmosid Succession.”

SAOC, 8 (Chicago, 1933).

(as per EEF; M. Tilgner; 091804)
THUTMOSIS III Poetical Stela
[Submitted by Michael Tilgner]
* Poetical Stela of Thutmosis III (CG 34010)
-- Photograph in: Kurt Lange, Max Hirmer, Ägypten, München, 1978, pl.
(German translation, pp. 86-88)
-- Hieroglyphic text in: Urk. IV, 610-619
-- English translation in: James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of
vol. II, Chicago, 1906, sections 655-662
-- English translation [Lichtheim II, 35-39]:
-- Hieroglyphic text and French translation:
-- recently: Jürgen Osing, Zur 'Poetischen Stele' Thutmosis' III., in:
Jan Assmann, Elke Blumenthal (eds.), Literatur und Politik im pharaonischen
und ptolemäischen Ägypten, Le Caire, 1998, pp. 75-86
-- recently: Andrea Klug, Königliche Stelen in der Zeit von Ahmose bis
Amenophis III, Brepols, 2002, pp. 111-120

[M. Tilgner’s collections of text resources are now gathered at:]






AKA Tehuti; Lord of Writing; Master of Papyrus; The God of the Moon.

AKA The measurer….



TIKAL: (oldest Mayan) inscription


See UHN: p. 319: Side 2 of Stela 29 from Tikal (Guatemala) oldest Mayan inscrip. 292 CE. Calendrical.

p. 318: Leyden Plate jade pendant from Tikal – 320 CE calendrical

See also Palenque stairs inscription.



TIME: measure it



TIMOTHEOS: (Greek papyrus) roll; Greek poet

(as per E. G. Turner) From ABU SIR.


…The last third of this poem is preserved in a papyrus of the 4th century B. C. discovered in 1902 near Abusir and edited in 1903 by U. v. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (P. Berol 9865).


[B_398=O_007,8.5] CATNYP# NRX (Wilamowitz-Mollendorff, U. von. Timotheos)

Timotheos : die Perser aus einem Papyrus von Abusir.”

Leipzig, 1903.

See BOBST Archive: O 1 for list of plates; preface; introduction and ALL PLATES

BOBST# PA 3315.A2.T52 no plates ignore


[B_440,rvw] CATNYP# *OCF+80-3149

“The scrolls of Bishop Timotheos: two documents from medieval Nubia / by J. Martin Plumley.”

London, 1975.


[B_441,rvw] CATNYP# *Op.v.13

“On some Syriac fragments of the book of Timotheos Ailuros: against the Synod of Chalcedon, with two fascimiles.”

London, 1928.


[B_518,rvw] CATNYP# JFD 02-14664

“The Fragments of Timotheus of Miletus / edited with an introduction and commentary by J. H. Hordern.”

By J. H. Hordon, Oxford, 2002.

Available from OXBOW catalog [B_332 alt]


TMP: Theban Mapping Project; See THEBES

TMP=Theban Mapping Project



TOMBS: that are open! In Egypt



TOR.: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) See P. TAURINENSIS.



TORAH: The Masoretic text

The Holy Scriptures; The Five Books of Moses.

[B_315,HOUSE] CATNYP# *PDP (English) 80-2676

“The Torah TWRH: the five books of Moses.”

Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1978.


GENESIS; (and on the 7th day He rested.)

Note: See the use of the (unit) SPAN in Exodus 28.15.

The SPAN is not found elsewhere?

Verify this information at JH?

See the Palermo Stone.

See the use of (units) shekel, kesitah

EXODUS; (Moses leads the Jews out of Egypt ‘towards’ Canaan.)

Note: See Exodus chapters 25-29,

which are very rich in Metrology.

See the use of (units) omer = 1/10 ephah, talent.

[(as per D. Fowler) One Talent = 6000 drachmae.]

[(as per A. E. Berriman) Talent=3000 shekels]

LEVITICUS; (Commandments and Laws)

Note: Locusts and Grasshoppers and Crickets are Kosher!

See the use of (units) gerah, homer, ephah, hin.

NUMBERS; (Commandments and regulations; Cencus)

Note: See the Cencus with a total enrollment of 601,730 (Jews).

See also the Cattle Cencus. See Narmer Palette.

See the use of (units) shekel, homer, ephah, hin.

DEUTERONOMY; (Blessing and Covenant)

See Deuteronomy 13-16, honest weights and measures.

See also Deuteronomy 3.11, cubits.?

From the above [B_315]: Exodus26:1-6

“As for the tabernacle, make it of cloth; make these of fine twisted linen, of blue, purple, and crimson yarns, with a design of cherubim worked into them. The length of each cloth shall be twenty-eight cubits, and the width each cloth shall be four cubits, all the cloths to have the same measurements. Five of the cloths shall be joined to one another, and the other five cloths shall be joined to one another. Make loops of blue wool on the edge of the outermost cloth of the one set; and do likewise on the edge of the outermost cloth of the other set: make fifty loops on the one cloth, and fifty loops on the edge of the end cloth of the other set, the loops to be opposite one another. And make fifty gold clasps, and couple the cloths to one another with the clasps, so that the tabernacle becomes one whole.”


From an alternate Christian tr. [B_315b]: Exodus26:1-6

“Moreover thou shalt make with ten curtains of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet: with cherubims of cunning work shalt thou make them. The length of one curtain shall be eight and twenty cubits, and the breadth of one curtain four cubits: and every one of the curtains shall have one measure. The five curtains shall be coupled together one to another; and the other five curtains shall be coupled together one to another. And thou shalt make loops of blue upon the edge of the one curtain from the selvedge in the coupling; and likewise shalt thou make in the edge of the curtain that is in the coupling of the second; that the loops may take hold one of another.

And thou shalt make fifty taches of gold, and couple the curtains together with the taches: and it shall be one tabernacle.”


[B_315b,8.5 of EXODUS 26 from MSJ]

CATNYP# JFD 97-9602

"The Bible : authorized King James Version / edited with an introduction and notes by Robert Carroll and Stephen Prickett.”

Oxford, 1997.


See the Dead Sea Scrolls ~500 CE. Possibly produced by the

Tribe of the Aseen (Essenes). (found at and called) Qumran.

Found in caves (in Israel [and Jordan]) near the Dead Sea.


See also the TAANACH (of later origin), written during the DIASPORA.

Tanach is an ACRONYM.


See NEVEYIM (Prophets; Isaiah (within Dead Sea Scrolls); and Ezekiel).


See KETUVIM (Writings; Talmud by Rambam [Moses Maimonedes]).


See Kings (Malakhim) I, 6-7 (Solomon’s Temple)

and Kings II, 14.13 for cubits.

See chapter 7 for “the molten sea”, cubits, Pi.


(Judaica) Bookstore in NYC: Eichlers

at: 62 West 45th St. near 6th Avenue. 212 719-1918.


Other NYC Bookstore, The Home of the Sages

at: 152-154 Henry Street.


(as per Mike and Faith at JH)

See also: Jewish Theological Society

Rabbi Jerry Schwarzbard,

Librarian of Special Collections


Contact: Professor Lawrence Schiffman,

Professor of Hebrew and Judaic Studies,

New York University


See also the Babylonian 500 BCE. TALMUD. Extant copy ~1300 CE.

See Revue Encyclopedique, [B_220, B_197].

Consider the song of the Hebrews as they cross the Red Sea:

(or the Sea of Reeds)

Song may be based on an ancient Song that predates Judaism;

Shirat Hayam. Ask for information at JH.

Study pre-Judaic myths of the Hero and the Flood.

Also see Sarai/Sarah and her role as a High Priestess;

She sends for wives for her kin from Mesopotamia.

Chapter 18.1-22


Find images of original manuscripts of the modern (Masoretic) Torah.

Identify from what other sources this work may originate?

*Exodus 25-29 and *Numbers 35. Math. (Not found in Qumran).




[B_143,JH,8.5] CATNYP# *P *PBZ (Jewish Encyclopedia. 1909),

“The Jewish Encyclopedia; a descriptive record of the history,

religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the

earliest times to the present day…”, NY, 1909-1912.

Keyword search Teraphim (v. 12) regarding house idols of Astarte.



[do not assign,JH,8.5] Dr. Solomon Mandelkern (or Mendelkern) Concordance.

(Hebrew only). NY, 1955.


[B_145,JH,8.5] CATNYP# *P- *PDL 83-868,

“Analytical concordance to the Bible”. Robert Young, Nashville, reprint 1982.


Keyword search: [Hebrew variations are capitalized]

*Cubit (Ammah; Ammin; cubitus; pechus; ulna; forearm).

In Greek, forearm=pechys.

In Babylonian, Cubit=Kus.

*Double ([AE remen?]; Kaphal; Kephel; Shanah [repeat]; duplicare; bis duplicare; duplicatio).

A double measure=Kephel [fold]?

As in: fold along the diagonal?


*Finger [pinky] (Etsba; Etsbean; daktulos).


*Measure (Ephah; Kor; Cor;  Korin [Korin=10 Ephahs]; Ammah; Mad; Madad; Middah; Memaddim; Mesurah; Mishpat [judgement]; Mathkoneth;

Seah [Seah=1/3 Ephah]; Sasseah; Shalish; Se-at [Se-at or Seat=2.5 gallons]; Choq [limit]; Bath [Bath=7.5 gallons]; Token)

(batos; koros [koros=75.5 gallons]; saton;

choinix [choinix=1.5 pints];

matreo; metreo; metron; ametros; metreo;

huperballontos; huperbollen [hyperbola]; kath huperbolen;

perissos; ek perissou).


*Palm (Kaph; Tammorah [palm tree]; palma).

*Fist (Egroph; pugnus)


*Span (Zereth; Gomed; Taphach; Tippuchim; spithama).


(as per M. St. John)

[B_168,IGNR] CATNYP# PFK (Menninger, K, Number words and number symbols), “Number words and number symbols; a cultural history of numbers [by] Karl Menninger. Translated by Paul Broneer from the rev. German ed.” Cambridge, Mass., 1969.

Available at the Science Library.

This text is more for linguists than mathematicians.

Many interesting parallels to Old Chinese numerals and others.


[B_181,JH,8.5,MICRO#6] CATNYP# *ZP-716 no, 6, by T.E. Peet,

“Egypt and the Old Testament” [microform], Boston, 1923

(See also reprint 1983).

See maps.

An excellent introduction to advanced Torah studies with numerous useful references. Numerical analysis. Metrology.

See related work by Jensen on astral origins of legends.

Discussion of two oldest extant Hebrew Scriptures.

J= from Judah ~900 BCE origin.

Uses Jehovah and Sinai.

E= from “Northern Kingdom” ~800 BCE origin.

Uses Elohim and Horeb.

Also Syriac version ~350 CE.= Samaritan

Aso Latin Vulgate ~400CE.


See Genesis 14.1 king names:

Amraphel of Shinar=Khammurabi, 1st Dynasty Babylon.

Known fron Venus Tablets (cuneiform) see [W_082], ENUMA ANU ENLIL.

Khammurabi ~2123 BCE. [Subject to one Chronology]


J(udah) Text numerology:

1. Creation to Call of Abraham = 2021 years.,

a. Call to Jacob’s descent=Sojourn=430

b. =2032 (Samaritan), Sojourn=215

c. =3407 (Greek), Sojourn=215, Lists Heroonopolis as Goshen.

2. Jacob returns to Canaan ~2066 BCE.


The effort to establish a Torah timeline refers to:

1. Ptolemy II ordered a (Greek) tr., The Septuagint

2. Pithom from P. Anastasi IV.

3. Khabiru?Sagaz?Aperu? = Hebrew?

4. City of Ramses=Rameses-Raamses=Pi-Ramessu?

5. Sea of Reeds=(NOT) Red Sea=? Medit.? = wadi?

6. Osorkon III=2nd King of (Libyan) 23rd Dynasty in AE.

7. Goddess names; Ashim and Anath.

8. Elephantine papyri (reign of Darius I) ~460 BCE.


[B_190,JH,8.5] CATNYP#PDB 97-955

A Gift of G-d in due season : essays on scripture and community In honor of James A. Sanders / ed. By Richard D. Weiss and David M. Carr. Sheffield, 1996.

Jewish Canons reviewed: Josephus 22 texts.

See p. 85 Biblical math, by Lloyd R. Bailey.

Creation 4004 BCE.

Sexagesimal considerations.

Comparison to Sumerian Kings list, p. 90.

See SKL.

Reference to [B_414,JH,8.5] below.


[B_414,JH,8.5] CATNYP *PD (zeitschrift fur die alttestamentliche wissenschaft) V. 102

“The influence of Babylonian Algebra on Longevity among the Antediluvians”, ZAW 102 (1990) pp. 321-335.

By Dwight Wayne Young.

Acquired 1/5/02, JH.

1656 years = 86,407 weeks, so what?

See MCT and SKL.

Reference to AOS, 29 (1945), p. 38.

Reference to Enneads of the SKL and antideluvians of the Torah.


[B_192,JH,8.5] CATNYP# P-PDW, Soncino books of the Bible. Editor: A. Cohen. London, Soncino Press, 1956-65

I have copied Kings I, chapter 6.


[B_193a,(b),JH,8.5] CATNYP# PDV (kings) 94-2290, The book of I Kings : Me’am lo’ez (Melakhim) / by Shmuel Yerushalmi ; translated and adapted by Nathan Bushwick. NY, 1994.

I have copied Kings I, chapter 6 and 7.


[B_194,JH,8.5] CATNYP# *PXLL (Masada) 73-631,

Massada et les grottes de Bar-Kochba, Paris, 1970. By Raymond, Gid.

See plan of Herod’s fortress.

See mosaic floor patterns, spirals.

See plan of carved chamber with many columns (hypostle).

See coinage [Roman era].

See dates, grains, nuts, olives.



See Tell es-Safi


[B_267,JH,8.5] CATNYP# *P-*PDD 92-4110

“The Anchor Bible dictionary / David Noel Freedman, editor-in-chief ; associate editors, Gary A. Herion, David F. Graf’ John David Pleins ; managing editor, Astrid B. Beck.”

New York, c1992.

Volume two (D-G)

See Egerton Papyrus 2.

AKA P. Lond. Christ. 1

5 Fragments of a codex


See page 328-II for AE chronology.

See map page 332-II.


See page 376-II notes that P. Anastasi Vii and P. Chester Beatty V and P. Sallier II each contain a hymn to Hapi.


See Exodus and the plagues in biblical perspective with great detail.


[B_261,JH,8.5] CATNYP# *PDB 97-3637

“Ancient Egypt and the Old Testament / John D. Currid ; foreword by Kenneth A. Kitchen.”

Grand Rapids, Michigan. : Baker Books, c1997.

See also Jews.

See chronology of AE.

See p. 30 for excerpted translation of Enuma Elish.

See p. 74 for more about Potiphar.

See p. 115 for an interesting parallel between the Genesis creations and the plagues of Exodus.

See p. 143 on the Bronze Serpent.

See p. 145 for a list of foods from P. Anastasi III.


“For there are many words in Hebrew whose meaning is not fully certain (about seventeen hundred words occur only once in the Hebrew Bible).”


[B_305; JH;folded OS;p1-25 only]

CATNYP # *PVE (Schiaparelli, G. Astronomy in the Old Testament)

By Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli; 1835-1910.

“Astronomy in the Old Testament, by G. Schiaparelli. Authorized English translation, with many corrections and additions by the author.”

Oxford, 1905.

Schiaparelli was Director of the Brera Observatory in Milan.

References to Jewish Astronomy [math].

Includes some cross-references and citations which may help clear the way to source texts on the Avesta;


This copy at JH is crumbling.

An Italian copy from 1903 is alive and well at JH.

The English version is also available at the Jewish Theological Seminary and across the street from [JTS] at the Union Theological Seminary [UTS].

The Library of Congress lists a microfilm of the English translation.



See also ASTARTE.


See also RYLANDS; [B_093] regarding the bad translation of “dudayim” as “mandrake.”

online jewish texts:



for clarke’s commentary on bible

worldwide study bible

in proto hebrew?



[B_534,HOUSE,LB] CATNYP# *PCE 73-6336

“Introduction to Biblical Hebrew [by] Thomas O. Lambdin.”

NY, 1971.


[B_267,JH,8.5] CATNYP# *P-*PDD 92-4110

“The Anchor Bible dictionary / David Noel Freedman, editor-in-chief ; associate editors, Gary A. Herion,

David F. Graf’ John David Pleins ; managing editor, Astrid B. Beck.”

New York, c1992.

Volume two (D-G)

See Egerton Papyrus 2.

AKA P. Lond. Christ. 1

5 Fragments of a codex


See page 328-II for AE chronology.

See map page 332-II.


See page 376-II notes that P. Anastasi Vii and P. Chester Beatty V and P. Sallier II each contain a hymn to Hapi.


See Exodus and the plagues in biblical perspective with great detail.

See portions copied on Sarah (SARAI) as Sister to Abraham.

[B_145,JH,8.5] CATNYP# *P- *PDL 83-868,

“Analytical concordance to the Bible”. Robert Young, Nashville, reprint 1982.

See research of 9/17/02 on cubits again with focus on Ezekiel/cubits

See Septuagint


[B_282,JH] CATNYP# *PHN 98-15

Pub: 1997

“Mishnayot bava kama mi-Masekhet Kelim : ‘im perush Siya’ta d”


[B_286,JH,8.5] CATNYP# *P-*PHM (Mishnah. Mishnayoth)

“Mishnayoth : pointed Hebrew text, English translation, introductions, notes, supplement, appendix,

indexes, addenda, corrigenda.”

NY, Judaica Press, 1963-4.

With demonstrations of Cardinal and Ordinal Hebrew numbers and Grammar rules for same.



[B_212 and 213 and 217,rvw,PRSU]

CATNYP# [*ZAN-1431] 1901-1912, 1921-1922

CATNYP# [*EN-A334] 1792-1897, 1923-1960, 14:3(1962)-15:6(1975),15:8(1977)-16:7(1986)-

Table Par Auteurs: 1978-1992

Latest Received: 1999 161

Title: “Memoires”

Alt title: “Histoire et Memoires”

Author: Academie des Sciences, inscriptions et belles-lettres de Toulouse.

[B_213] CATNYP# *EO 1351 v. 1-43, pt. 1, 3-v. 44, pts. 1-2.

[B_217] CATNYP# EN A331 (Academie des sciences inscriptions et belles-lettres de Toulouse. Annuaire)

See also MAI.



TRADE: (proof of) AE contacts with

(as per S. Whittet and others including myself)

Assyrians (conquer Egypt in 671-744 BCE)





(a lost people of the Med. Sea, arrive and dominate ~1700 BCE.)

See seals with proto-geometric octopi and Edfu inscriptions.

Note: Introduction of BELLOWS for smelting.


(from Crete, arrive ~1200 BCE.)

See emporia from the AE Delta from before eruption of Santorini ~1628 BCE.

Lukka (from Southern Anatolia ~1200 BCE.)


Mycenaen Greeks.


Peleset (from Crete).



Punites of Punt (by at latest the MK, by Hapshetsuth).

See 21st Dynasty silk (from China) by way of India and? the Punites?

Sea Peoples (others? Remnants of the Hyksos?)

Shardanna or Shardanae from Sardinia (~1200 BCE.)

Tjeker (from Crete).



Trade with others (Akkadian cuneiform) = supusu mahira


See this link about Ancient Economies:


TRADE: with others

The Malaysian dictionary, however, directs us to the source of the "frankincense" which is Java. The Lebeun, however, is not identified as the genus Bosweillia. Instead, it identifies "frankincense" with the Styrax benzoin. [footnote 66] This is the possible reason why the plates of the temple at Deir El-Bahari showing the incense producing trees do not match the genus Bosweillia. The identification of the word also reinforces the identification of Indonesia with Punt, the source of Egyptian incense.




See PSEIRA; [B_515,rvw]




See Phoenicians; KARATEPE

[B_607,8.5] Seth Richardson. "Libya Domestica: Libyan Trade and Society on the
Eve of the Invasions of Egypt."
JARCE 36 (1999), 149-164.

(As per EEF 061805)
The Instituto de Historia Antigua Oriental "Abraham
Rosenvasser", University of Buenos Aires,
is pleased to announce its two latests publications:

-Antiguos Contactos: Relaciones de Intercambio entre
Egipto y sus Periferias (Ancient Contacts: Exchange
Relationships between Egypt and its Peripheries)
A. Daneri Rodrigo and M. Campagno (eds.). Spanish with
English abstracts. Buenos Aires, 2004. 160 p., 22 X 16 cm.a.
ISBN 950-29-0815-5 Price: 20 US Dollars

Introduction: M. Campagno
1) Egypt and the Trade Routes with the South for
Prestige Goods: the Aromatic Products
Alicia Daneri Rodrigo
2) On Prestige Goods, Order and Chaos. The Egyptian
State and its Peripheries during the Early Dynastic
Period (ca. 3000-2700 B.C.)
Marcelo Campagno
3) Egypt and its Peripheries in the Middle Kingdom
Roxana Flammini
4) Remarks on the Lybian Presence in Egypt during the
Third Intermediate Period
Celeste Crespo
5) Crisis and Peripheral Reconstruction: The case of
the Negev in the Early Iron Age
Juan Manuel Tebes
6) Salomon ben David and Egypt. Exchanges and the Rise
of Socio-Political Entities in Palestine during the Iron Age II
Emanuel Pfoh

See also:
SAOC 51, Chapter 34. Implicit Models Of Cross-Cultural Interaction: A
Question Of Noses, Soap, and Prejudice. Robert K. Ritner. Online.


Add Babelfish to your site!



See this link:



TRAVEL: independently


TROANO: (Mayan) codex


Current location: Museo del Americas, Madrid

Amatl paper screenfold painted on both sides. 56 leaves



See other relatively unknown items/codices with keywords [stuffed here]:



See UHN: p. 298: See fig. 22.3 image of Mayan astronomer in glyph from CODEX TRO-CORTESIANUS peering through 24 sights into the night sky = 24hours?


Largely confined to divinatory almanacs, which include hunting, beekeeping, and idolmaking; it [TROANO] has no astronomical information.


For the most recent scholarship on the Madrid Codex, check out the collection of Papers on the Madrid Codex edited by Victoria Reifler Bricker and Gabrielle Vail, with papers by Chrisopher L. von Nagy, Cassandra R. Bill, Donald H. Graff, and the editors.


1Codex Tro-Cortesianus. From the American Museum, Madrid.=MAYA

2Codex Mendoza =MIXTEC [post-conquest; accounts; math] as per my previos notes and those to be gleaned and xrefd from this MOMO page.

3Codex Nuttall=MIXTEC, NOT MAYA=The Codex Nuttall is available inexpensively from Dover Books in a facsimile of Zelia Nuttall's original publication earlier this century. In the Realm of Eight Deer conveys the recent research of Bruce Byland and John Pohl and is available from the University of Oklahoma Press.


The first born was named Lord Eight Deer. The date of his birth appears below his shield: Year 12 Reed (C.E. 1063). Pages 42-84 of Codex Nuttall are concerned with the legend of Lord Eight Deer and his wars against his rivals including Lady Six Monkey, the queen of a neighboring kingdom called Jaltepec.


4Codex Selden=The Selden Codex has a known history. It is recognized as a palimpsest. That is to say, it had been erased and a new story or history was drawn on to the older manuscript. The Selden was then used in a post-conquest court battle to claim disputed land near Jaltepec.

Selden I=on bark codex= SELDEN [Mixtec]

Codex Selden 3135. [México]: Sociedad Mexicana de Antropologia, 1964. Interpretation by Alfonso Caso in English and Spanish. SPE** F 1219 B64x 1964.

This is a traditional-style Mixtec history which presents the genealogies and origin of the dynasties of an unidentified locality known as “Belching Mountain,” after the form of its place glyph. The first date is A.D. 783 or 794 and the last legible date is 1556. The genealogies include relationships to numerous persons from other localities, including Teozacoalco and Tilantongo.

and; selden II=the selden roll


The BARLOW Collection seems to identify many other codices


5= Zempoala=Steppe Pyramid of


6=Borgia codex?

7=Telleriano=AZTEC=The 16th-century Codex Telleriano-Remensis was a rare colonial enterprise: an intercultural exchange between Indian artists and Spanish overseers. It was created in an attempt to understand Aztec culture in light of its transformed present. The result was a well-organized manuscript

image at:


8= Borbonicus

Current location - Biblioteque Nationale Paris

Native paper screenfold painted on one side (with Spanish glosses).

36 leaves See link for Borbonicus

9=Botorini [painting]

See link for Borbonicus

10= Vaticanus A (aka Codex Rios)

Current location - Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana

European paper codex.
101 leaves. 46 by 29 cm.

Vatican mexican manuscript #3738. Facsimile published by Duc de Loubot with the permission of the Vatican Library, Rome, 1900. Also published in Kingsborough Antiquities of Mexico Volume II; transcript of Italian text published in Volume V.

See link for Borbonicus

11= Magliabecchiano Group


Current location - Biblioteca Nationale Centrale, Florence

European paper codex. 92 leaves. 15.5 by 21.5 cm.

Folio facsimile edition, 94 pages, published in 1903 by Zelia Nuttall. Reprinted with corrections and commentary in a slipcase edition accompanying The Book of the Life of the Ancient Mexicans : The Codex Magliabecchiano and the Lost Prototype of the Magliabecchiano Group by Elizabeth H. Boone, 1983, University of California, Berkeley (now out of print).

The Magliabecchiano is considered to be derivative of a hypothetical lost prototype called “Libro de Figuras”. Other cited cognates include:


Codice del Museo de America (Codex Tudela) =11b

Codex Ixtlilxochitl (Part 1) =11c


12* forward: Other documents

Aubin (Codex de 1576)

European paper codex (Spanish / Nahuatl).
81 leaves . 15 by 11 cm.

First edition hand-colored lithograph circa 1849-1851 by Joseph Marius Alexis Aubin. Facsimile reproduction, edited and translated by Charles E. Dibble Madrid 1963.

Badianus Manuscript

European paper codex (Nahuatl / Latin). 63 folios, painted on both sides.
Aztec herbal. Representations of 184 native plants and trees.

Historia Tolteca-Chichimeca;

Matricula De Tributos

Plano en Papel de Maguey Amatl paper. 238 by 168 cm.

Codex Xicotepec

(unknown material) 28 screenfold pages, 10” x 7”

“Discovered by anthropologists in 1992 in the Nahua and Totonac
region of Huauchinango-Xicotepec, the Xicotepec Codex is available
now for the first time in facimile form. Covering the period 1431
thru 1533, this post-Columbian codex is an enlightening pictorial
history of the people of Texcoco and the central and southern
valley of Mexico.”


Codex Mendoza (Mendocino) and the Matricula de Tributos (Codex Moctezuma). The Codex Mendoza contains a chronicle of Aztec history from the founding of Tenochtitlan, depictions of daily life, and a tribute list of the Aztec Empire. The Matricula de Tributos is a copy of the latter section; three pages are missing and a few place signs are omitted.

Miscellaneous Pictorials

mixtec=tribute lists of Moctezuma

The Codex Mendoza from Mexico-Tenochtitlan (AD. 1540 to 1542) contains a history of the Tenochca Mexica in three parts: the founding of the Aztec capital to its fall in 1521, a pictographic record of the tribute paid to the Aztecs by subject towns, and a detailed portrayal of daily Aztec life. In this manuscript we can actually trace this development from oral to written or literally forms of communication.

The oral tradition in the Codex Mendoza is represented by the Tribute Roll of Moctezuma, a pictorial account of the pre-Conquest tribute paid to the Aztecs. A later copy contains a written explanation of the pictograms in both Nahuatl and Spanish. In this transitional stage the meaning of many glyphic elements can be deduced from the written version. Finally, a prose text of the same tribute list, written around 1554, represents the strictly written or literary tradition.

6=Vienna =historical and genealogical=vindobonensis

Most native records were destroyed during the Spanish Conquest. But from the Classic Maya area in Yucatan four prehispanic ritualistic-calendarical screenfold manuscripts have survived: the Dresden, Madrid, Paris and Grolier. A few early Aztec codices have been found but most of the genuine prehispanic manuscripts come from the Mixtec area of Oaxaca. After the fall of Mexico-Tenochtitlan in 1521 some four hundred native or colonial documents were produced. The common style of the Aztec and Mixtec codices is referred to as “ Mixtec-Aztec “.

The content of the codices ranges from the business-like tribute lists of Moctezuma in the Codex Mendoza to the historical and genealogical Mixtec narratives in the Vienna Codex and the astrological almanacs of the Yucatan Maya in the [D]resden Codex. Recent studies show that the ancient Maya made grate strides toward a truly phonetic script such as we use today. However, the Mixtec-Aztec writing system, which at first appears the more primitive, was in some ways even more flexible than the Maya.

Lists numerous mixtec and columbian conquest era codices of mayan cultural influence.


inventory pages from the Florintine Codex, jade Olmec carvings, ritual blood letting, an aspect of the Venus calendar from the Dresden Codex...


Mixtec Historical Codices - precolumbian or nearly so, treat of the history and genealogies of the Mixteca dynasties.

Codex Nuttall = Codex Zouche

Codex Vienna (Vindobonensis)

Codex Bodley = Bodley 2858

Current location: Bodleian Library, Oxford, England 

Skin screenfold. 23 leaves (20 painted on both sides). 

First published in Kingsborough V.I 


Codex Selden

Codex Columbino (known as C. Alfonso Caso when combined with C. Becker II) = Columbino / Becker I 

Current location: Museum für Volkerkunde, Vienna 

Columbino : Skin screenfold painted on one side. 24 leaves in four fragments. 

Becker I : Skin screenfold painted on one side. 16 leaves in three fragments. 

Becker II : Skin screenfold painted on one side. 4 leaves . Early 16th C.


Other Mixtec Documents

Selden Roll

Codex Tulane = The Latin American Library's special collections include treasures dating to the 16th century, including several unique Mexican Indian pictorial manuscripts. Among the most renowned is the Codex Tulane, also known as the Códice de Huamelulpan, a mid-16th century Indian painting on a twelve-foot animal skin scroll, tracing the genealogy of the Mixtec rulers of two towns in southern Puebla. The Codex Tulane is the only extant pictorial manuscript from this region (M.B. Robertson, Mexican Indian Manuscript Painting, 1991). Nine additional original pictorial manuscripts, in addition to a comprehensive collection of codex facsimiles, make Tulane's collection of Mexican codices in the native tradition the most important in the United States.

GROUP 1 the pre-Conquest Codices Bodley, Selden at Oxford; Codex Vienna (reverse); Colombino (Mexico City); Codices Becker , Sanchez Solis (London BM). . 1 and 2 (Vienna). Books of the lives of rulers. The Mixtec Histories


GROUP 2; cosmogony and cosmology based on calendar concepts. 6 pre-conquest books survive; Codex Laud (Oxford) Codex Fejervary-Mayer (Liverpool), Codex Cospi (Bologna), Codex Vaticanus B (Rome ) and MS20 (Paris)


of some personal names in codices Muro and Sanchez Solis

= British Library Manuscript Egerton 2895;,-1,0,B/browse

University of Ontario library search


The Codex of Tonayan?

Origins of Spanish language in the post conquest era of Mexico.

The Codex of Tonayan”. En: NMAAE (84), 1947

Unidad de Servicios Bibliotecarios y de Información (USBI)


New Mexico Alliance for Arts Education (NMAAE) was created in 1973 as a non-profit organization affiliated with the Alliance for Arts Education, John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. The New Mexico Alliance worked to have a state legislative memorandum passed to require arts education in the schools. They raised funds by selling cookbooks and received small grants from the Kennedy Center and the New Mexico Arts Division. By 1992, the organization ceased to exist as an active chapter, due to lack of interested members and funding.

These positioning attributes can be seen in many other drawings by the ancients such as the Codex Fejervery-Mayer (figure 4, seen here) and the well known Aztec Calendar (figure 5, below).


[B_566 in Spanish [NA/RECAP!]=O_064 in English,rvw,SAH] CATNYP# JFD 02-8075

Fray Bernardino de Sahagún [died 1590 CE] para niños : el mensaje del cuervo codice Florentino / selección y versiones de Elisa Ramírez Catañeda, a partir de la edición de Josefina García Quintana y Alfreo López Austin de la Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva España de Fray Bernandino de Sahagún [SAH]

BOBCAT# F1219 .S21 pt.1-13

General History of the Things of the New Spain,  Florentine Codex / Bernardino de Sahagun. Texte aztèque et traduction anglaise de Charles E.Dibble et Arthur J.O. Anderson, Santa Fe (New Mex.), University of Utah and School of American Research 1950-55.



Codex Zempaola said to include a unit “matl” used to describe the great lengths of the

earth. METROLOGY. Codex LAUD is a religious manuscript of the so-called Borgia

group, which is a key to the understanding of pre-Hispanic religion and calendrics ... (it) appears with a commentary by Cottie Burland, giving a most meticulous description of the manuscript as a whole, supplemented by a page-by-page description to complement the published reproduction. The commentary gives a brief description of the calendrical content and a diagram to facilitate “reading” ... The Laud edition is of great value for making the physical object, the manuscript, directly accessible to students in as close an approximation to the primary source as possible ... (and) gives us the data for subsequent research.”

Prof. D. Robertson (Tulane University)
in: American Anthropologist, 71 (1969), no. 5, S. 975s


Codex Borgia and Codex Vaticanus B (Vatican Library, Rome)

Codex Fejervary-Mayer (Merseyside County Museum, Liverpool)

=is AKA Codex Mayer and CODEX Pesth

Codex Laud (Bodleian Library, Oxford University, Oxford)

Codex Cospi (Biblioteca Universitaria, Bologna)

Codex Fonds Mexicanus 20 (Bibliothéque Nationale, Paris)

images from many mesoamerican codices.


Cospi=borgia group

One of Five Divinatory Screenfold Almanacs of the Borgia Group
17th Century

lots of new medieval manuscripts and codices referenced here

don’t get lost!


Also see this!



TRSST: [AE, MK] Bread Tokens [tentative pronunciation – terseset]

[B_601,8.5,tr. img]
CATNYP#*OBH+ (Journal of Egyptian Archaeology)
JEA 59 of August 1973, p. 221 hieroglyph tr. Of trsst bread tokens by William Kelly Simpson (see REISNER).
References to similar artifacts. No ro content found in pursuit of other examples of calculations with ro as shown on the Achmim wooden tablets.


CATNYP#*OBL+ 81-2220 Vols. 1-2.
“Second Cataract Forts. Excavated by George Andrew Reisner. Published by Dows Dunham and Jozef M. A. Janssen.”
Boston, MFA, 1960-
v. 1 Semma [and] Kumma
v. 2. Uronarti, Shelfak, Mirgissa
See plates from Uronarti finds; trsst.



TSENHOR: (demotic) papyri archive

(as per Duke Univ.)

Les Papyrus démotiques de Tsenhor, ed. P.W. Pestman. Nos. 1-17. Leuven 1994. [o.e. Peeters]

I, Textes

II, Paléographie et Planches



CATNYP# *OBKQ+++ 95-2881

BOBST# PJ1809 .P47 1994 Oversize.

“Les papyrus demotiques de Tsenhor (P. Tsenhor) : les archives privees d’une femme egyptienne du temps de Darius 1er / editees par P. W. Pestman ; transcriptions hieroglyphiques et paleographie etablies par P. W. Pestman et S. P. Vleeming.”

Leuven, 1994.

Two volumes.

See volume one index and concordance and calendar chart for annus vagus. Hieratic with glyph tr. in volume two. Math content.


See these keywords/indexed papyri:

O. Louvre


P. Assoc.

P. Berl.

P. Berl. Eleph.


P. BM Reich

P. BM Thompson

[item?] from Boston

P. Brux.

P. Burgsch.

P. Caire

[item?] Carnarvon

P. Cattle

P. Choix

P. Corpus

P. Ehevertrage

P. Hausw.

P. Hou.

P. Land Leases

P. Libbey

P. Lille

P. Loeb

P. L. Bat.

P. Louvre

P. Mattha.

P. Phil.

P. Recuiel

P. Rein.

P. Rhind Math.

P. Ryl.

P. Schreibertr. (demotic)

P. Strasb.

P. Survey

P. Tor. Amenothes; See TAIT

P. Tor. Botti

P. Tor Choachiti

U. P. Z.

P. Vatic.

P. Vindob


Concordance references these also:

P. Bibl. Nat.

P. Turin

P. Vindob KM

TSHET: (AE; OK) a Shaman

See NARMER Palette

Re: Narmer Palette Tshet figure?

Jacques Kinnaer - The Ancient Egypt Site


TUNA EL-GEBEL: (AE) town of

See Greek Aramaic and Coptic inscriptions.

Petosiris's temple tomb: see mud tombs beyond the northern boundary of what is commonly included in such plans.

See University of Cairo and University of Munich excavations at:


TURA: (Greek) papyri; See COLONIENSIA


TURIN: (AE, OK, Hieratic) papyri and ostraca and museum of

(as per T.E. Peet,[B_041b], ABBOTT)

Turin P.= a necropolis diary, 20th dynasty=B.M. 10068; 10053 and 10383.

See "il Giornale della Necropoli di Tebe", 1928 by Botti-Peet.


Turin ostraca.

Turin P. of kings AKA Turin canon.

P. Turin CG 54031.

At the Museum of Turin, see P. Turin #2021.

A key to cross referenced catalog numbers.

9651=5129; 9659=5159; 9707=5270.


(as per 2terres) see papyrus #1875 de Turin.

Also #2008 and #2016 are ships logs.


(as per Hans-Werner Fischer-Elfert, [B_039], ANASTASI)

Turin CG 54011 in JEA 44 [B_303], 1958, (PlI-VII)


(as per A.H. Gardiner) Turin P. = Ritual of Amenophis.

Similar to Metternich Stele?


[B_013,IGNR] Mentioned without image in CATNYP# *OBKQ 75-1914 "Hieratische Ostraca und Papyri aus der Ramessiden Zeit" by Schafik Allam 1973.


[B_018,OS] CATNYP# *OBR+96-4441, Late Ramesside Letters and Communications, Janssen, Jac J., 1991 includes images.


[B_034,8.5's,IGNR] CATNYP# *OBH (Munchner agyptologische Studien, Heft 37) "Seven royal hymns of the Ramesside period: Papyrus Turin CG 54031/ von Virginia Condon.”

Munich, 1978.


[W_037,rvw] WATSON# 533.5 Om12. "The chronology of the Palermo Stone and Turin canons / Patrick F. O'Mara." CA, 1980.


(as per H. Goedicke) Seek P. Turin 248, 1.10 and 1882 r' 5,7, ENIGMATIC.


(as per K. Weeks) The Ramses IV tomb layout is from Turin P. and desribes the KV 2 tomb.


See this link to an image of the Ramses IV tomb Papyrus.


(as per LEX) P. of Turin, Fascimiles par Francesco Rossi et publ. par Willem Pleyte, Leiden 1869-1876.


(as per AEB) See the Judiacal P. Turin about a (Ramesside) harem conspiracy.


See work by Goyon, G. in Ann. Serv. [ASAE], “Le Papyrus Turin dit”

<<des mines d’or>>, et le Wadi Hammamat.”, t. XLIX, p. 337-392.


(as per S. Katary, [B_100]) economic data in:

The Turin Taxation Papyrus=Turin 1895 + 2006

(year 12 of Ramses XI),

mention of a Portable Shrine of King Usima re-meriamun.

(See the TORAH, Exodus, Holy Tabernacle.)

P. Turin 1882, verso (many fragments; AKA P. Turin A)

XIX Dynasty

Turin Strike papyrus

Mentions year 29 or 30 of Ramses III

Mentions difficulties from strikes of the Necropolis workmen.


(as per Y. Muffs) See [W_012], ELEPHANTINE.

P. Turin 247 (619 BCE.)

Land sale deed. Hieratic.


P. Turin 246 (634 BCE.)

Property sale deed. Hieratic.

Reference to Stele of Euerot.


See this new link which includes info from the Turin Canon.


(as per EEF; Armando Buzzi)

I live in Turin and I can say that the [Museum] opening time is 8.30 a.m. to 19.30, from Tuesday to Sunday.

On Monday the museum is closed.

An accurate visit requires not less than about 2 or 3 hours.

On P. Turin 1923 'vs.' + frgts, and its implication for the work on the tomb of Ramesses VI.

See also C: Demarée, in: L'impero ramesside, 1997; Koenig, BIFAO 81 (1982); Pestman, in: Gleanings, 1982; Tiradritti, in: SESH, 1999

SESH from Seshat, AE God of Writing.


See [B_390; KESKINTO, v3]


(as per EEF; J. Bekcic, 010705)
<snip> publication details of Turin papyri are listed in Madeleine
Bellion's work, Egypte Ancienne: Catalogue des Manuscrits Hieroglyphiques et
Hieratiques et des Dessins, sur Papyrus, Cuir ou Tissu, Publies ou
Signales (1987), p. 284 (P. Turin Cat. 1883), p. 300 (P. Turin Cat.
2044) and p. 306 (P. Turin Cat. 2095).
(as per EEF; F. Rocchi and M. Ullman, 010705)
Les Papyurs hieratiques de Turin, 1869, 1876
(facsimile of the text, translation etc.);
- Helck, Materialen, VI, 37 (translation);
- KRI VI-14, 431-432 (hieroglyphic transcription );
<snip> Find several entries for the papyri you are looking for in the
AIGYPTOS database:
The keywords ("Schlagwörter") there are following the scheme:
Turin, Museo Egizio, p1883


<snip> facsimilé of pTurin 1883+2095 is published in
Pleyte-Rossi, Papyrus deTurin, Leiden 1869-76.

TURNER: (Greek) papyri in honor of

P.Turner: Papyri Greek and Egyptian edited by various hands in honour of [Sir] Eric Gardner Turner on the occasion of his seventieth birthday

P.Turner 16. Envoi de dépositions garanties par serment:

(Greek; 220 bce; Mouchis?)



TWO: and its square root!

In my travels this weekend (8/04/01) I managed to decipher the cuneiform from fragment ID# YBC 7289, dated to roughly 1800 BCE. This fragment is shown in the text MCT.

MCT="Mathematical Cuneiform Texts" by Otto Neugebauer.

See [B_259,8.5,IMG], MCT.


A square is shown with side = 30 [units].

Two other chains of numbers (sexagesimal cuneiform) appear alongside a diagonal drawn in the square.

First is: 1, 24, 51, 10

Second is: 42, 25, 35


By analysis I note that 30 [the side] may mean 30 times any power of 60.

The chosen power affects only the second of the other numbers.

Using 30=30 times 60^1=1800


[analysis of first: 1, 24, 51, 10]

1=1 times 60^0=1

24=24 times 60^-1=2/5=86400/216000

51=51 times 60^-2=51/3600=3060/216000

10=10 times 60^-3=10/216000

Total of above=1+(89470/216000)=1.414296~=sq root of TWO!


[analysis of second: 42, 25, 35]

42=42 times 60^1=2520

25=25 times 60^0=25

35=35 times 60^-1=7/12

Total of above=2545+(7/12)~=1.414296 times 1800.


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