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Last updated 12/25/05




See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID



(as per ZAS, index# 0719) Seek ZAS 14, 1876.

Le papyrus No. 1 de St. Petersbourg.



SAK: publication

[B_541,8.5,SAK] CATNYP# OBK 91-1788

“Studien zur altagyptischen Kultur.” Berlin, 1991.

Beihefte 4


1.pp 95-104.: Ronald A. Wells discusses the use of 2400 BCE AE temples used to predict sunrise by alignment with decan stars. He refers to the 5th Dynasty Abu Sir papyri in reference to Star clocks.


2.pp. 167-176. Posener-Kriéger, Paule. “Aspects économique des nouveaux papyrus d'Abousir,” in Sylvia Schoske (ed.), “Akten des vierten Internationalen Ägyptologen-Kongresses: München 1985”, and within SAK - Beihefte 4, pp. 167-176. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag, 1991.


Contact info for Prof. Paule Posener-Krieger noted p. 366:

12, rue Gabriel Peri

F – 91300 Massay

Also for SAK see alternate below:

[B_541b,ignr] CATNYP# *OBH 86-1020 Bd. 1

“Studien zur altagyptischen Kultur.”

Hamburg, 1974-?



SAKAON: (Greek) archive

P.Sakaon: The Archive of Aurelius Sakaon: Papers of an Egyptian Farmer in the last Century of Theadelphia

P.Sakaon 1. Declaration of Persons:

(Greek; AD 310; from Theadelphia)

Math content.



SALAMIS: (Babylonian/Greek) counting board [Abacus] at Island of

(as per G. Ifrah [B_359])

5-400 BCE Ancient Greek counting board at National Museum of Epigraphy, Athens.


See also RYLANDS; [B_093]





Try the hard salami at Katz’s Deli

205 East Houston St. (At corner of Ludlow Street)

New York, NY 10002


See [B_221]; figure 17 on page 72. [poor image of SALAMIS counting board from original photo]

Item stated to be in National Museum in Athens. This text also mentions Lalitavistara.



SALLIER: (AE; Hieratic) papyrus



(as per W. Spiegelberg and Virginia Condon [B_034],TURIN)

Seek Feast Calendar of Merenptah.

See Epagomenal.


(as per Bernard Pyne Grenfell,[B_051], HIBEH) seek:

[B_056,IGNR] CATNYP# *OAC p.v.266, "Le calendrier des jours fastes et nefastes de l'annee egyptienne. Traduction complete de Papyrus Sallier IV, par F. Chabas", 1870.

See Sallier IV, Calendrical.

Seek Melanges Egypt I. Identify text.

(Lepsius, [B_149]) refers to the above: Chabas, F.J., Melanges Egyptologiques, Volume two. See [B_195], MELANGES.


(as per A.H. Gardiner) BM 10699=Chester Beatty XIX = Sallier II?


P. Sallier III=BM 10181; discusses the battle of Qadesh.


(as per B.P. Grenfell,[B_051],HIBEH) Sallier IV mentions the birthday of Isis on the 4th intercalary day.


[W_065,rvw] WATSON# 533.6 B832, "Die Lehre des Cheti : Sohnes des Duauf / von Hellmut Brunner." 1944.


[W_066,pursue] WATSON# 553.6 G555, "The Quarrel of Apophis and Seqenenre [superscript]c / Hans Goedicke. Texas, 1986. About P. Sallier I.


(as per L. Bailey) see work ed. by William Kelly Simpson.

“The Literature of AE”.


(as per LEX) See work by E.A. Budge.


[B_189, 8.5, IGNR, MIFAO] CATNYP# *OBKG+(Inst. Fr. D’arch. Orientale, Cairo. Memoires…), Memoires publies par les membres de la mission archaeologique francaise au Caire, Cairo 193_[4]?

Includes remarks on P. Raife-Sallier III, by Charles Kuentz [and Geuthner]?


(as per S. Katary, [B_100]) Sallier IV review, letter to Lepsius, ZAS 6 (1868), pp. 129-34.

See Sallier I. The expulsion of the Hyksos.


(as per EEF, A. Malahov) See lucky and unlucky days discussed in (Sallier IV and) [B_056].



SALT: (AE; Hieratic) papyri

(as per 2terres) Salt #825 = (BM 10051)


[B_027,rvw] CATNYP# Sc 299.31-P

“Le Papyrus Salt 825 (BM 10051). Rituel pour la conservation de la vie en Egypte par Philippe Derchain.”

Bruxelles, Palais des Academies, 1965.

Said to include Hieratic images.

Only available at Schomburg Library in NYC.


(as per H. Goedicke) Seek P. Salt 825, 125.


(as per A.H. Gardiner) Chester Beatty P. III (The Battle of Kadesh [QADESH] refers to the Scribe (Author) Kenhikhopshef, twice named in Salt 124.


(as per LEX) See work by T.W. Budge.


[W_067,rvw] WATSON# 533.5 Sa3, "Essay on Dr. Young's and M. Champollion's phonetic system of hieroglyphics : with some additional discoveries, by which it may be applied to decipher the names of the ancient kings of Egypt and Ethiopia." London, 1825. By Henry Salt (1780-1827).


(as per E. G. Turner) Henry Salt was Consul General in Cairo 1816-1827.


[W_068,rvw,bio,trvl,vocab] WATSON# 913.3 Sa3, "A voyage to Abyssinia......" London, 1814, by H. Salt.


(as per L. Bailey; excerpted from J. Bergman) See P. Salt 825:

“It did not become day…gods and goddess put their hands on their heads. The earth…The sun did not rise. The moon failed to appear…The sky fell into darkness…The earth had turned upside down, the water had changed. It did not move downstream…All of the world lamented and cried, the souls…gods and goddesses, people, ghosts and the dead, livestock and herds.”



SAMMLUNG: (museum; varied ANE; demotic) papyri





[W_013,rvw] WATSON# 533.4 K85. "Ein neuer historischer Roman in demotischer Schrift", Krall, Jakob. Wien, 1897.


(as per EEF) Visit this link to the Koeln index. Sammlung exhibits.


(as per EEF)

It states that the Museum is open from tuesday till friday (9-16h),

and also on saturdays and sundays (10-17h).


for a directory of museums with egyptological collections.

Entrance 3 DM

Don't try to get lunch at the restaurant in the courtyard - the service is diabolical!!! The bookshop has quite interesting selection of books (most in German), cash purchases only. There is a catalogue available in English. The museum is situated in a complex called the Residenz, near the centre of the city and near Ubahn station Odeonplatz.


[B_395,rvw] CATNYP# *OBL (Wangstedt, S. V. Ausgewahlte demotische Ostraka)

“Ausgewahlte demotische Ostraka : aus der Sammlung des Victoria-Museums zu Uppsala und der staatlichen Papyrussammlung zu Berlin / Sten V. Wangstedt.”

Uppsala, 1954.

See KORANFRAGMENTE; [B_450=O_018,8.5,IMG]




SAQQARA: (AE;OK); flake, tombs et al

[B_229,LB,HOUSE] CATNYP# *OBY 91-6577

“Building in Egypt: pharaonic stone masonry / Dieter Arnold.”

NY, 1991.

( as per M. St. John request)

p. 283 NOTE on nbj; rods; REFERRING TO HAYES WORK:

"Ostraka and name stones from the tomb of Sen-Mut"

See the image of the saddle back roof sketch, (i.e. the flake).

See also Engelbach; CONSTRUCTION; CUBITS.


(as per EEF; M. Luban)

In Horemheb's commoner tomb at Saqqara, his sovereign seems to be Tutankhamun.  At some later point, Horemheb makes a monument, now at Turin, the text describing his coronation and how he had once been "idnw" (deputy, regent or viceroy) of all the land.  I have previously suggested that, if Horemheb is the "Harmais", aka "Danaus" of the antique authors, then perhaps "Danaus" comes from "idnw".


See also Gisr el-Mudir.


[B_256,no copies] CATNYP# *OBL 76-1722

“Saqqara : the royal cemetery of Memphis : excavations and discoveries since 1850 / Jean-Philippe Lauer. With 210 ill., 20 in color.

Verify tomb Lepsius #22 = IYZEFA=At-efa=Adjefa!

See benchmarks. CUBITS. See [B_149] page 12 error.

Found no more useful info about the above Leppy Error..

The Tomb of Two Brothers [lovers?] I visited at Saqqara is actually the Mastaba of :

1.       Khnum-Hotep

2.       Ni-Ankh-Khnum,1113,2-13-46_1087917,00.html


See the excellent bibliography:

  Digitized book:

Gaston Maspero, Les inscriptions des pyramides de Saqqarah, Librairie /

Émile Bouillon, Paris, 1894. 458 p., pls. First publication of the pyramid texts

(Ounas, Teti, Pepi I, Mirinrî I, Pepi II) as a book with typeset hieroglyphs.


(As per M. Tilgner; EEF; 042403)

dyn. 1 tombs at Saqqara:

Note to readers: this Dyn. 1 tomb of dimensions 32 x 52 meters very closely approaches 1/phi or .61803…


SARAI: (Biblical) Abraham’s wife

Note on Sara/Sarai as Abraham’s Sister.

A ½ sister as per JH text.

ENDOGAMOUSLY=[marrying] within the Tribe.

EXOGAMOUSLY=[marrying] from beyond the Tribe.

See TORAH; [B_267,JH,8.5]


SARAPION: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) P. Sarapion = Les Archives de Sarapion et de ses fils: une exploitation agricole aux environs d’Hermoupolis Magna (de 90 a 133 p.c.), ed. Jacques Schwartz, Cairo, 1961.


P.Sarap. 1. Official order to deliver grain:

(Greek; AD 125; Hermopolite)


CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t. 29

BOBST# S471 .E3 S3

Les archives de Sarapion et des fils; une exploitation agricole aux environs d'Hermoupolis Magna (de 90 à 133 P. C.) par Jacques Schwartz.”

See index, plates.






SARGON[IDES]: (Assyrian Kings’) inscriptions



(as per W. Muss-Arnolt) See J. Oppert in:

Les Inscriptions des Sargonides, traduits pour la premiere fois: APC Vol. 65 (J1 & S 62) 5th S VI 43-75 & 182-208; Published separately under the title:

Les inscriptions assyriennes des Sargonides et le fastes de Ninive:

(Paris ’62) 60 pp. 8(0).

J. Oppert works to harmonize biblical and Assyrian chronology.


See also: Les fastes de Sargon, roi d’Assyrie (721-703 BCE.) traduits et publiees dapre le texte assyrien de la grande inscription des salles du palais de Khorsabad (Paris ’63) 2 Vols. 8(0); text & Latin tr. in folio.


[B_531,NO COPY]

CATNYP# *OCP 84-2501

Sargonic texts from Telloh in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum / by Veysel Donbaz and Benjamin R.

Foster ; with the assistance of Mustafa Eren.”

Philadelphia, 1982

Within the series: Babylonian Fund. Occasional Publications 5.

Benjamin Read Foster, Professor of Near Eastern Languages at Yale University, 2001.

See GILGAMESH; [B_532 alt,HOUSE] also with Benjamin Read Foster.


SASKATCHEWAN: online library index for university of


SATIAH: [BOTD, 18th Dynasty] papyrus fragments


See link to PETRIE museum item#: UC71001


SB: Publication

=Sammelbuch gr. Urkunden aus Agypten (Collection of papyri and inscriptions published in journals, or unindexed catalogues. Begun by F. Preisigke in 1915, continued by F. Bilabel and E. Kiessling) 8 volumes as of 1965. In progress.


SB: Sammelbuch griechischer Urkunden aus Aegypten

SB 1.1. Inventory of supplies for a boat: (Greek)  

SBL: society

Patrick Durusau
Director of Research and Development; Society of Biblical Literature

SCHEIDE: (Greek; Biblical) papyri


NO CATNYP BOBST# BS1544.G7 J76 Oversize

“The John H. Scheide Biblical Papyri: Ezekiel, edited by Alan Chester Johnson, Henry Snyder Gehman, [and] Edmund Harris Kase, jr.”

Princeton, 1938.

From an ancient Greek codex.

Alternate title: “Scheide Biblical Papyri.”


SCHEM HAMPHORAS(H): mystery of the TORAH

Write (in Hebrew) the verses of Exodus chapter 14.

As follows:

[Each has 72 hebrew symbols.]

Verse 19 (right to left)

Verse 20 (left to right)

Verse 21 (right to left)


This produces His name (differently) 72 times.


(as per Mike at JH, See [B_233])

[B_233, NO COPY] CATNYP# *PNK (Marmorstein, A. Old Rabbinic doctrine of God)

“The Old Rabbinic doctrine of God. By A. Marmorstein.”

London, 1927-1937.

I have studied this and need much help with it.

Any input would be nice.



Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli [1835-1910]

[B_305; JH;folded OS;p1-25 only]

CATNYP # *PVE (Schiaparelli, G. Astronomy in the Old Testament)

By Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli; 1835-1910.

“Astronomy in the Old Testament, by G. Schiaparelli. Authorized English translation, with many corrections and additions by the author.”

Oxford, 1905.

Schiaparelli was Director of the Brera Observatory in Milan.

References to Jewish Astronomy [math].

Includes some cross-references and citations which may help clear the way to source texts on the Avesta;


This copy at JH is crumbling.

An Italian copy from 1903 is alive and well at JH.

The English version is also available at the Jewish Theological Seminary and across the street from JTS at the Union Theological Seminary [UTS].

The Library of Congress lists a microfilm of the English translation.



See “reperito Schiaparetti [Schiaparelli!] nella tomba di Cha”.

Dynasty XVIII, ~1500 BCE.

Notes on the discovery in:

Schiaparelli’s “Account of the Work and Results Achieved by the Archaelogical Mission in Egypt – The Intact Tomb of the architect Cha”



See also [B_028]; [B_353]


See [B_353] reference:

“Venusbeobachtungen und berechnungen der Babylonier”, 1906, ISIS VIII, 505.


SCHLOTT: (Author) of cubit study

C. Univ. Coll Petrie (London) Basalt or schist, from 3rd intermediate


No. 16374 as per Petrie’s “Weights and Measures”. [B_187].

Plate XXVI, 3.

See also Schlott, “Die ausmasse”, Plate XXIII.

This is not the Kahun wood cubit.


[B_264,rvw] CATNYP# *OBT+ 82-2239

“Die Ausmasse Agyptens nach altagyptischen Texten / von Adelheid


Weisbaden : Harrassowitz, 1981.



SCHOYEN: (multicultural, historical, semi-private) museum collections

Pronounced (SKOO-YEN); collection is for sale!



SCHUBART: (Greek) papyrus

(as per E. G. Turner) P. Schubart = Gr. Lit. Papyri, by W. Schubart, Berlin, 1950.




On dating Greek papyri by their script: W. Schubart, Papyri Graecae Berolinenses (Bonn: Weber, 1911); W. Schubart, Griechische Paläeographie (München: Beck, 1925); M. Norsa, La scrittura letteraria greca (1939); C.H. Roberts, Greek Literary Hands (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1955); G. Cavallo, Ricerche sulla maiuscola biblica (Firenze: Le Monnier, 1967); E.G. Turner, Greek Manuscripts of the Ancient World (2nd ed.; London: Institute of Classical Studies, 1987); G. Cavallo and H. Maehler, Greek Bookhands of the Early Byzantine Period (London: Institute of Classical Studies, 1987); R. Seider, Paläographie der griechischen Papyri I- III 1 (Stuttgart: Hiersemann, 1967-1990)



SCIENCE AWAKENING: (History of arithmetic) text supreme

[B_344,HOUSE] CATNYP# OHC (Waerden, B. Science awakening)

“Science Awakening. English translation by Arnold Dresden, with additions of the author.”

Groningen, P. Noordhoff, [1954-74].


See also:

Van der Waerden, B. L. “Die Entstehungsgeschichte der aegyptischen Bruchrechnung”. Quellen und Studien zu Geschichte de Mathematik, Abteilung B: Studien 4 (1937–1938), 359– 382.


Korostovtsev, M. A. The Science of Ancient Egypt. Moscow: “Nauka”, 1982. In Russian.


Van der Waerden, B.L. Geometry and Algebra in Ancient Civilizations. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1983.



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN: (magazine) Publication

“Scientific American.”
New York, Munn and Company.
September 2004 issue focused on the impact of Albert Einstein’s accomplishments.


SCORPION: (OK; Predynastic; AE) inscriptions and artifacts in tomb of

Pre-dynastic King Scorpion I.


See MDAIK 1998,1999 digs and work by Gunter Dreyer at UMM EL QAAB (Mother of the Holy Land) near/see ABYDOS. See [B_269]



(as per MDAIK) seek work by Barry Girsh.


See these related links:



SCRABBLE: the "more math than words" word game




SEDINGA: (AE) temple; now gone?

See images of Queen Tiy (AKA Teye)


(as per EEF, V. Solkine)

There is a photo of Teye from Sedeinga (not very large, but, as I remember,colourful) in:

Willeitner J., Nubien. Antike Monumente zwischen Assuan und Khartum. München, 1997. - S. 199.


(as per EEF; S. Onstine)

You should look in Breasted's photographic record of his travels to Egypt and Sudan "The 1905-1907 Breasted Expeditions to Egypt and the Sudan: A photographic study".


Amenophis III himself was actually worshipped as a god in the Nubian temples of Soleb and Sedinga.



SEHEL: (NK or later AE fraud) or SEHEIL famine relief

See Charles Edwin Wilbour 1833-1896.


Study the discovery of the [fraudulent] famine relief at Seheil Island.



CATNYP# *OBQ (Brugsch, H. K. Biblischen sieben Jahre der Hungersnoth)

“Die biblischen sieben Jahre der Hungersnoth nach dem Wortlaut einer altagyptischen Felsen-Inschrift.”

Leipzig, 1891

An inscription from the island of Sehel (Nile) of the 2nd or 3rd century B.C., pretending to be written under King Zoser (3rd Dynasty).

A FRAUD! An old one.


Alt title: “Sieben Jahre der Hungersnoth”. [7 years of famine]


SEKED: (OK; AE terminology for) Slope

sqd=skd=Slope or pitch (or cotangent)


A term for the number of lateral cubits (or fingers) per one cubit vertically. Run/Rise.




(as per AEB 87.1015) Trench, Jorge A., Slopes and the seked of the pyramids, GM 99 (1987), 45-49


(as per AEB 91/2.2040) Legon, John A.R., The 14:11 proportion at Meydum, DE 17 (1990), 15-22. Re: the 5 1/2 seked.


(as per AEB 91/2.2041) Legon, John A.R., On Pyramid Dimensions and Proportions, DE 20 (1991), 25-34.


(as per AEB 91/2.2052) Robins, Gay, The 14 to 11 proportion in Egyptian architecture, DE 16 (1990), 75-80.


(as per AEB 91/2.2053) Robins, Gay and C.C.D. Shute, Irrational Numbers and Pyramids, DE 18 (1990), 43-53.


(as per AEB 91/2.2060) Trench, Jorge A., The concept of seked applied to the Great Pyramid (Cheops), GM 101 (1988), 69-71.


(as per AEB 91/2.2061) Trench, Jorge A., Geometrical Model for the Ascending and Descending Corridors of the Great Pyramid, GM 102 (1988), 85-94.



SELECT: (Greek) papyri

P.Select.: Papyri Selectae

P.Select. 1. Loan of Money: (Greek; AD 454; Oxyrhynchus)


P.Sel.Warga: Select Papyri

P.Sel.Warga 2.: (Greek; AD 161; from Berenikis Thesmophorou)




SELECTAE: (Greek) papyri



CATNYP# *OBKQ (Papyrologica lugduno-batava. v.13)

BOBST# PA3301 .P34 vol.13/14

“Papyri selectae / ediderunt Instituti [Papyrologici Universitatis Lugduno-Batavae] alumni ; collegerunt E. Boswinkel, P. W. Pestman, P. J. Sijpestijn.”

Lugdunum-Batavorum [See LUGDUNO-BATAVA], E. J. Brill, 1965.

Translations of Greek papyri with contributions by:

Ernst Boswinkel and co.




AKA SENMUT or SENMOUT: tomb; ostraca;

Hapshetsut’s Architect [and lover?] for Deir el Bahari.

Astrology and astronomy


His ~1500 BCE tomb depicts:

astrological images with circles dissected into 24 parts (math).


(as per M. Gardner) This type of dissection of the circle may be evidence of the use of sidereal time.


(as per Art in Ancient Egypt, ed. by Michalowski)

He is not buried in his own tomb!

Senenmut was a tutor to Hapshetsut’s daughter NEFERIRKARE.


(as per ZPE, D. Fowler) Seek photo of Ostraca Sen-Mut 153, “fragment of a table of 7’ with auxilliary red numbers.”


[B_108,HOUSE] CATYNP# *OBM+(Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Egyptian Expedition. V. 15), “Ostraka and name stones from the tomb of Sen-Mut (no. 71) at Thebes, by William C. Hayes; photographs by Harry Burton.” New York, 1942. PURCHASED VIA ABAA 110005

This text includes one small (math) problem which converts

1/3 of a palm into 1/21 of a cubit. From O. Sen-Mut 153.

[on plate XXIX] O. 153.:

Nearly complete. 10 x 10  x 1.7 cm.

Written in black ink, the small numbers below lines 2-4 inserted in red ink:


Line 1:

missing...cubit, palm (?) 1/3  1/14  1/2  1/21  1/3 (?)


Line 2:

1  1/7




Line 3:

2  1/6  1/14  1/21


     3 1/2  1 1/2  1


Line 4:

4  1/2  1/14


    10 1/2  1 1/2



Problem: convert into cubits, 1/3 palm?

First step:

1/14 cubit = 1/2 palm

Second step:

1/21 cubit [answer] = 1/3 palm.


With obvious validation of a 7 palm cubit.

See also page 15: Tomb plan on Ostraca 31. Dimensioned in CUBITS.

See also page 20: Offering lists with number quantities.

See also pages 21; 22; 24; 26; 29; 36; 40: CUBITS and RODS=NBJ.

See Plate XXVIII: Fragment of SINUHE.

See this link to Ankhonline:


(as per CATNYP) [B_112,rvw] CATNYP# *OBM+ 73-2529 v.24

“The tombs of Senenmut: the architecture and decoration of tombs 71 and 353/ by Peter F. Dorman.” New York: Met., 1991.


See P. Dorman "The Monuments of Senenmut: Problems in Historical Methodology, (Kegan Paul International, New York, 1988).


Refer to the article by Charles F.Nims, "The Date of the Dishonoring of Hatshepsut," in the Zeitschrift fuer aegyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, [ZAS] vol. 93 (1966): 97-100.


See the end of this link for the numbers for both of his tombs.



SENET: (AE) game of

Learn more and clarify logic basis of rules.


See JEA #39, 1953, article in English by Needler – inconclusive.
See ZAS #66, 1931, article in German by Pieper – also inconclusive.
Apparently the rules are lost to time.
Game clearly involves an element of chance as parts [bones?] are cast before pieces are moved. Game appears mathematical in nature at least in part as the board has three rows of ten squares like the month has 3 weeks of 10 days. Also on some/many boards there are 5 tiles with special marks [epagomenal days?] See CALENDAR.



SENNACHERIB: (Babylonian) Annals of

The Annals of Sennacherib, third to seventh campaigns, in R. Borger, Babylonisch-assyrische Lesestücke, 2nd ed. (1979), pp. 329-32. In cuneiform.


Borger, Riekele, 1929-?


See Caminos; Osorkon, in Analecta Orientalia (1956). See [B_290].


[B_290,8.5,IMG] CATNYP# *OAC+ (Analecta Orientalia v. 54), “Babylonisch-assyrische Lesestücke / [di] Rykle Borger.”

Rome, 1979.

Akkadian goodies:

1. Die texte im Umschrift

2. Elemente der Grammatik und der Schrift. Glossar.

Die Texte in Keilschrift


See p. 285 [heft 2] Hammurapi Borsippa and Hammurapi Sippar

See p. 288 [heft 2] Kodex Hammurapi

See p. 289 [heft 2] Die Gesetze des Kodex Hammurapi

See p. 326 [heft 2] Sargon

See p. 327 [heft 2] Sanherib (Konigsinschriften)

See p. 336-7 [heft 2] Assurbanipal

See p. 343 [heft 2] Ishtar’s Descent into Hades (K. 7600)


See also Oppert




SEPTUAGINT: the five books of MOSES



CATNYP# *P-*PDP 92-3884

“The Septuagint with Apocrypha—Greek and English / Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton.”

Copies of cubit rich portions from pages 1033-1047; Ezekiel.


Note: Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton, 1807-1862.


As follows:

Ezekiel = IESEKIHA = Jezekiel

(with abundant references to METROLOGY/CUBITS/CONSTRUCTION terms/numerical content)

This texts pages (of interest to me):

P. 1033: “And it came to pass in the twenty-fifth year of our captivity, in the first month, on the tenth day

of the month, in the fourteenth year after taking the city…”

25th = pempton kai eikostoh

1st = prohtoh

month = me-knee

10th = thekatoh

14th = tessareskaithekatoh


“in his hand was a builder’s line, and a measuring reed; …”

builder’s line = sparteeohn eekhothomon

measuring reed = kalahmohs mehtrohn


measure = mehtrohn

“six cubits” = peehohn ecks

six = ecks

cubits = peehohn


2nd = thefterohn

breadth (or length) = plahtos (NOT PLATO!)

 five = pendeh


P. 1034:

Eight = oktoh

Two = deeoh

Three = treece

Ten = thekah

Thirteen = thekatriohn


“twenty-five cubits” = peehohn eekosee kai pendeh = 20 and 5

Twenty = eekosee

Fifty = Pehnteekhohnda

Peristyle = Pereesteelohn

Measure = diehmetreeseh

100 = eckatohn


“twenty-five cubits” = peehohn eckosipendeh = 20 and 5

Seven = ehptah


P. 1035:

Gate = peelee


Palm (fraction of a cubit) = pahlm

Steps = Kleemackteeress


Four = tessaress

“a cubit and a half” = peehohn kai eemeesoose

“Two cubits and a half” = peehohn duo eemeesoose


P. 1036:

Fourteen = thekahtessaron

Three = treeohn

Twelve = thodekah

Pillars = ?

Porch = ?

Seven = Eptah

Forty = tesserahkondah


“and the sides were twice ninety, side against side..”

Side = Plevrohn

Twice ninety = treeahkohndah treese theese [(30 x 3) x 2]

This looks very mesopotamian to me.


“third story..” = treeorohfah

Story [of a structure] = orohfah


“reed of six cubits” = kalahmoh peehohn ex


Seventy = ehbthomahkondah?

Ninety = Esessehkondah?


P. 1037:

“three stories [structure]”=toiss treesess


“window shutters” = ?

“from the floor to the ceiling..” = ?

“and the Holy Place and the Temple opened on four sides..” = ?

“in front..” = ?

“wooden altar” = ?


“and the Temple had two doors” = kai duoh thurohmatah toh vowh

“and the Sanctuary had two doors” = kai duoh thurohmatah toh agioh?

[doors with] “two leaves” = ?

“carved work upon them” = ?

“carving” = ?

“Secret windows” = Thureethess cryptayh

[structure] “side” = essthess?

“chambers” = ?

“Northern partition” = ?

“ornamented” = ?

“gates” = ?

“inner court” [i.e. courtyard?] = ?

“porticos” = ?

“upper walks” [i.e. terraces?] = ?


Triple = triplayh


P. 1038:

“pillars” [i.e. same as columns?] = ?

“lower” = ?

“middle” = ?

“ground” = ?

“chambers” = ?

“front” = ?

“walk” [i.e. pathway of grounds?] =?

“openings” = ?

measures = metrah

“offerings” = ?

“meat-offering” = ?

“trespass offerings” = ?

Priests = Ee-ehrayohn



“house” = ?

500 = penthehkoseeose


“and he marked out the house..” = ?

“circumference of the parts” = ?

“make a division” [i.e. a partition?] = ?

“the design of the house” = ?


P. 1039:

“gate” = ?

“eastward” = ?

“eastern way” = ?

army = ?

Earth = ?

City = ?

Chariot = ?

River = ?

Throne = ?

Israel = Israh-ell

Entrances = ?

Plan [i.e. floorplan] = ?

Top = ?

*Jezekiel XLIII: 13

“And these are the measures of the altar by the cubit of a cubit and a span, the cavity shall be a cubit

deep, and a cubit shall be the breadth, and the border on the rim of it round about shall be a span…”


Fourteen  = theckatessarohn


P. 1040:

“four sides’  = ?

“rim” = ?

“steps” = ?

“looking” = ?

“eastward” = ? 

“Lord” = ?

“G-d” = ?

“corners” = ?


“shut” = ?

“prince” = ehluminosse [enlightened [one]]?

“northward” = ?

“front” = ?

“regulations” = ?

“entrance” = ?

“outlets” [i.e. exits?] = ?


P. 1041:

“aliens” [i.e. strangers/foreigners/heathens/philistines?] = ?

“uncircumcised” = ?

“bread” = ?

“blood” = ?

“sanctuary” = ?

“idols” = eeyohdeelos?

“Holy of Holies” = ?

“fat” [i. e. animal fat] = ?

“enter” = ?

“approach” = ?

“inner court” = ?

“and they shall not shave there heads” = ?

(as did the Ancient Egyptian and Late Egyptian Sem-Priests!)

“wine” = ?

“widow” = ?

“virgin” = ?

“seed [Man’s sperm philosophically]” = ?


P. 1042:

“Holy” = ahleeosse?“profane” = Behbehlohn [*Like a Babylonian!!] ?

“clean” = ?

“unclean” = ?


“seven days” = ?

“first fruits” = ?

“first born” = ?

“in length twenty and five thousand reeds” = ?

“five hundred reeds in length” = ?

“a square round about” = ?

Egyptians – much later Greeks – and Jews – always trying to “square the circle” see my notes on this at :

[B_004,OS,IMG, see notes filed with it]

“a vacant space” = ?

“portion” = towhton?

“prince” = ehloumenoh?

“westward” = ?


P. 1043:

“equal” = ?

“western” = ?

“princes” = ?


Jezekiel XLV: 10

“Ye shall have a just balance and a just measure, and a just choenix for measure.” = ?


Jezekiel XLV: 11

“and in like manner there shall be one choenix as a measure of capacity ; “ = ?

“the tenth of the gomor shall be the choenix” = ?


“the tenth of the gomor shall be in fair proportion to the gomor” = ?


Jezekiel XLV: 12

“And the weights shall be twenty oboli” = ?


“your pound shall be five shekels, fifteen shekels and fifty shekels” = ?

[5+15+50=a 70 shekels pound! Heavy man]


“a sixth part of the gomor” = ?

“shall consist of an ephah of a cor of barley” = ?


“appointed measure of oil, one bath” = ?

“for ten baths are a gomor” = ?

if a gomor is dividable to 10 choenix AND 6 ephahs (of a cor) then we are accomodating the BABYLONIANS BASE 60 MATH HERE!!! - Or, I’m nuts.

“new moons” = ?

“feasts” = ?


“seventh month” = ?

“the feast of Passover [H. = paysach]” = ?

“first day” = ?mooayrah

“cake” = ?


P. 1044:”“ = ?

“a hin of oil” = ?

Compare to the Ancient Horus-Eye Egyptian units: Hekat; Remen; Deben; Rho…

“the six working days” = ?

“south” = ?

“north” = ?


“a lamb of a year old” = ?

“the sixth part of a measure of flour, a third part” = ?



“a perpetual ordinance” = ?

“the place behind the gate” = ?

“forty” = ?

“thirty” = ?

“water” = ?


“right side” = ?

“opposite” = ?


Jezekiel XLVII: 3

“a measuring line in his hand” = ?

“and he measured a thousand cubits with the measure” = ?

“fountain” = ?

“rose as of a torrent” = ?

“brink of the river” = ?


P. 1046:

“Arabia” = ahraybeeahs?

“animal” = ?

“creature” = ?

“fish” = ?

“everything” = ?

“foliage” = ?

“portion” = ?

“land” = ?

“great sea [i.e. Mediterannean” = ?

“twelve tribes of the children of Israel” = ?

“borders” = ?

“palm-trees” = ?

“west” = ?

“south-west” = ?

To acknowlege the southwest direction, one must draw a plane and an intersection creating a 45 degree

angle. Evidence of the use of the square root!


“proselytes” [i.e. converts?] = ?


P. 1047:

“measured from the east” = ?

“mountain” = ?

“sold” = ?

“sale” = ?

“suburb” = ?

“city” = ?

“four thousand five hundred” = ?

“northward” = ?

“southward” = ?

“eastward” = ?

“westward” = ?

two hundred and fifty” = ?


Note, my independent analysis of the numerical content of Torah: Nu. 26-9 filed with [B_528]

SERABIT AL-KHADIM: (Proto-Canaanite) inscriptions

(as per personal correspondence; LB; 100702)

“The proto-Canaanite alphabet found at sites such as SERABIT AL-KHADIM in SINAI was adopted to form the basis of the alphabet for writing other Semitic languages including Phoenician, Aramaic and, later, Hebrew and Arabic.  It was also taken up by the Greeks and was used for European languages.”

Roaf, Michael.  _Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East._ Facts of File, New York, 1998.  p. 150



SERAPEUM: (AE; OK; MK) inscriptions at Apis mausoleum

See also Serapeum [Serapieion] von Memphis [extinct city].



See [B_161], MARIETTE.


See MDAIK 1997; Tafel 3 for image of inscriptions.


[W_069,rvw] WATSON# 529.5P21 L936, "Catalogue des steles du Serapeum de Memphis / par M. Malinine, G. Posener, J. Vercoutter…” Paris, 1968.

Texte et Planches.


[W_070,rvw] WATSON# 530.6 M33, "Renseignements sur les soixainte-quatre Apis trouves dans les souterrains du Serapeum / Aug. Mariette. Paris 1856.


[B_270=W_071,rvw] CATNYP# *EN E22 fasc.316=WATSON# 533.54 V58, "Textes biographiques du Serapeum de Memphis : contribution a l'etude des steles votives du Serapeum." Paris 1962.

By Jean Vercoutter (1911-)


(as per EEF; G. Shushan) There is a translation in English of the Dream of Nectanebo in Naphtali Lewis':

'Dreams and Portents' (1980).  The text comes from the archive of the Serapeum 'recluse' Ptolemaios.


(as per EEF; J.H. Sibal)

APIS Bibliography:



Enking, Ragna: Die Apis-Altar Johann Melchior Dinglingers. Ein Beitrag zur Auseinandersetzung des Abendlandes mit dem alten Agypten ; Gluckstadt:

J.J.Augustin, (1939).  (OP but might be of interest to you).

Also check: Piranesi bibliography.



Vos, R.L.: Apis Embalming Ritual: P. Vindob. 3873. (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 50) Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters en Departement Orientalistiek, 1993. 423pp.


Kater-Sibbes, G.J.F. & M.J. Vermaseren:

Apis. Volume 1: The Monuments of the Hellenistic-Roman Period from Egypt; Leiden: E.J. Brill,1975,

Volume II, Monuments from Outside Egypt, Leiden 1975.

Volume III, Coins, Inscriptions, Coins and Addenda, Leiden 1977.


Animal Mummification, etc.:

Houlihan Patrick: Animal World of the Pharaohs, (Thames & Hudson 1996), 256 p.

Ikram, Salima: popular article in first Egypt Revealed, Vol. I, #1, Fall

2000, & various other articles.  She is a specialist on this topic.


You might also see what Erik Hornung writes on animal cults in general in Conceptions of God: The One and the Many, which has been translated into about everything by now, or go into the specific literature on the broader topic of animal cults or bull cults specifically.


Aidan Dodson, from the U. of Bristol, UK,  is doing work on the Memphis Serapeion, its history and evolution (and fascinating excavation history as well), but I don't know off the top of my head if he has yet published his findings.  However, he is lecturing on the topic as I write.



CATNYP# *IPF (Sotzman. Ueber die gedruckten Literae Indulgentiarum)

“Ueber die gedruckten Literae Indulgentiarum Nicolai V. Pont M., pro regno Cypri von 1454 und 1455 / von Sotzmann; mit einer lithographischen Tafel.”

Leipzig, 1844.



CATNYP# *GAA (Serapeum)(Proctor, R. Classified index)

“A Classified Index to the Serapeum.”

London, 1897.

(as per EEF; F. Raffaele; 061102)
Bull tails:
On-line photos (note that due to servers' maintenance the
images/pages may need more click-attempts before appearing,
but they are ALL present).
For Scorpion II's tail-detail
(above, central image)
Narmer palette, recto detail
(last image-detail)
Note in this latter image also other features of the attire and physical
characters of Narmer and the Tjat(j); it is also visible, in the column of
slain captives, that the last corpse (of the first and only column visible
in the image) has strangely his penis still in its place whereas the other
(9) have it severed and tied onto their respective beheaded heads
(Davies, W.V. & Friedman, R.F.: The Narmer Palette: A Forgotten
Member, in: Nekhen News 10, 1998, 22).




Stele of Pharaoh of 2 years

See also ELEPHANTINE stela.


(as per K. Weeks) This 1st Pharaoh of the 20th dynasty is buried in KV14.


[W_072,rvw] WATSON# 533.54 D81, "Die Elephantine-Stele des Sethnacht und ihr historischer Hintergrund / von Rosemarie Drenkhahn." Wiesbaden, 1980.

(as per EEF; V. Solkine) The list of monuments of the king [from the above text] (Elephantine, Heliopolis, Samalout, especially temple of Mut at Karnak) is mentioned with references to sources in:

Grandet P. Ramsès III: Histoire d'un Règne. - Paris, 1993. - PP. 44-46.

It has also a photo of the Karnak chapel of Sethnakht.


(as per EEF) Hartwig Altenmuller of Hamburg University researched the tombs of Tawosret (principal wife of Sety II, who claimed Sethnakte’s tomb after the 6 year reign of Siptah the cripple [Siptah's mother was Ti'aa])/Setnakhte (pharaoh after Siptah and Tawosret) and Bay (chancellor of Sety II,defeater of Amenmesse who was Siptah’s father).


(as per EEF; P. Sullivan) a good collection of Sethnakht's records giving original publication sources is on pp1-7, 671-672 of Ken Kitchen's 'Ramesside Inscriptions, Historical and Biographical' vol V.


See this link and follow along


(as per S. Rosmorduc and M. Luban and M. Tilgner; EEF)

Michael Tilgner writes that Marianne Luban wrote:


“The Elephantine Stela advertises that Setnakht fought an unnamed foe who, in flight, left behind a good deal of gold and silver.  This enemy was routed to a location I do not recognize.  Does anyone have any thoughts about the stela and the identification of this enemy and the place in question?”


(M Tilgner on the Enemy)

According to Drenkhahn the enemy in question was the chancellor Bay who tried to seize power after Tausret had died. However, Altenmueller argued that both Siptah and Bay did not live any more and that Tausret was Sethnakht's enemy.

About Bay a very important and rather definitive article has just been

published by Pierre Grandet in the latest [2000 or 2001] BIFAO :


P. Grandet, L'exécution du chancellier Bay O. IFAO 1864, BIFAO 100, pp. 339-345.


In short, he has assembled two ostraca fragments which together give :


Year 5, 3 shemu, day 27. This day the scribe of the Tomb Paser has come to say "Pharao VSF has killed the great enemy Bay".


From various details, Grandet concludes that the document's date is year 5 of Siptah.


(Anyway, this doesn't preclude Bay from being the enemy in Siptah's

stela. After all, we have examples of pharaohs boasting of the defeat

of long bygone enemies (e.g. Hatchepsout alluding to the expulsion

of the Hyksos in the Speos Artemidos)).S. Rosmorduc


I viewed a long version of the BOTD at the MET, 4/24/02.

This was attributed to a Sethnakhte of the 19th Dynasty and was seen in excellent condition.

See also WATSON.

See HARRIS; [B_448=O_013]


(as per EEF; M. Tilgner, 122504)

* The King-list in the temple of Sethos I in Abydos

-- Drawing (560 KB)


-- Drawing (130 KB)


-- Drawing: Jürgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des pharaonischen

Ägyptens, Mainz, 1997, p. 215

-- A series of 9 overlapping photographs covering nearly all of the king-list


-- Photograph of Seti I and Ramesses II offering to a list of royal ancestors


-- Translation of the names of the Kings


-- recently: Hieroglyphic text: KRI I, 178-179; English translation:

RITA I, 153-156; commentary: RITANC I, 118-123

* The King-list of the temple of Ramesses II in Abydos (BM EA 117)

-- Photographs


-- Drawing and photograph in: T.G.H. James, British Museum.

Hieroglyphic Texts from Egyptian Stelae, etc., Part 9, London, 1970, pl. VIII;

description pp. 13-14

-- Drawing and translation of the names of the Kings


-- recently: Hieroglyphic text: KRI II, 539-540; English translation

(full reconstruction despite damage): RITA II, 348-349; commentary:


* The King-list in the tomb of Tnrj / Tjunuroy in Saqqara (CG 34156)

-- Drawing: Revue archéologique, Nouvelle série, vol. X (1864), pl. XVII

between pp. 168-169; see also the article: Auguste Mariette, La table

de Saqqarah, pp. 169-186


-- Drawing: Jürgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens,

Mainz, 1997, p. 216

-- Drawing, transliteration and translation of the names of the Kings


-- recently: Hieroglyphic text: KRI III, 481-482


* Summary about king-lists: Donald B. Redford, Pharaonic King-Lists,

Annals and Day-Books. A Contribution to the Study of the Egyptian Sense of

History, Mississauga, 1986, pp. 18-59.


SETI I: (AE) Pharaoh

See ABYDOS; [B_442=O_006]; See CEN

[O_004,pursue,plates] BOBST# NA216.A2 C162

“The Cenotaph of Seti I at Abydos.”

London, 1933, 2 volumes.

Henri Frankfort; 1897-?

Also listed as:

Frankfort , H . and De Buck , A . and Gunn , B . The Cenotaph of Seti I at Abydos , 2 vol. , Memoir of the Egypt exploration society , Egypt exploration society , London , 1933 .

the BLPC also lists Cenotaph I



SHEN: (AE; OK) symbol of eternity

(as per E.A. Budge) See BOTD.


See an image from Dendera



SHENIT: a class of divine beings?



My study of the Old Testament’s (Torah) for obscure references has found: Genesis 6.1-4


{When the men began to increase on earth and daughters were born to them, the divine beings saw how beautiful the daughters of men were and took wives from among those that pleased them- The Lord said, "My breath shall not abide in man forever, since he too is flesh; let the days allowed him be 120 years."-It was then, and later too, that the Nephilim appeared on earth-when the divine beings cohabitated with the daughters of men, who bore them offspring. They were the heroes of old, the men of renown.}


This tr. is very different from others I have read and this version of the Masoretic text is the only one that I know of which suggests visitors from beyond.


(as per E.A. Budge) See chapter XXXb, BOTD.

”Mayest thou come forth in the place of happiness [to which] I advance. May the Shenit, who make men to stand fast, not cause my name to stink.”


See Shenit in the papyrus of Hunefer.


(as per F. Lopez) Shenit are gods who:

“give fate after the judge[ment] of Osiris.”

(Faulkner); “the Entourage who make men.”

(Barguet); “the Advisors who put men in their true places.”



SHERA or SHERI: (AE; OK; BOTD) monument to a Scribe/Priest

(as per E.A. Budge) Old Kingdom; See BOTD.


Second Dynasty.

See: Les Mastaba de l'ancien Empire; Paris, 1882.


SHIPS: older than you think



(as per EEF; 011603)

*Archaeology Odyssey Jan/Feb 2003 has abstracts of several

articles on-line at

-- "Ancient Ships: An Iconographical Tale"

which includes the voyage to Punt


The earliest tales extant from  Egypt were composed on papyrus at a comparable date. The ancient Egyptians seem to have written their narratives largely in prose, apparently reserving verse for their religious hymns and working songs. One of the earliest surviving Egyptian tales, “The Shipwrecked Sailor” (c. 2000 BC), is clearly intended to be a consoling and inspiring story to reassure its aristocratic audience that apparent misfortune can in the end become good fortune. Also recorded during the 12th dynasty were the success story of the exile Sinuhe and the moralizing tale called “King Cheops [Khufu] and the Magicians.” The provocative and profusely detailed story “The Tale of Two Brothers” (or “Anpu and Bata”) was written down during the New Kingdom, probably around 1250 BC. Of all the early Egyptian tales, most of which are baldly didactic, this story is perhaps the richest in folk motifs and the most intricate in plot.


SHOPPING: An awful chore

BOOKS [old ones]



SHURUPPAK: (Sumerian) Extinct city of

See FARA; [B_513]



SILLY FELLOW: Aboriginal Australians called the visiting creator

The Aboriginal people stated they were visited by “others” and that these “others” created much of the artwork as follows:


This page is for the original inhabitants of this land, who have lived here for more than 60,000 years. Latest news in is that researchers have apparently laid claim to carbon 14 dating etc of aboriginal cave paintings; (near Kakadu in the Northern Territory), aging them at least to 60,000 years BC!


SILOAM: (Hebrew) inscriptions at Jerusalem

Within Hezekiah’s tunnel (aqueduct)

The inscription was discovered in 1880 by a boy who was bathing in the waters of the Gihon Spring, and was studied by Conrad Schick, one of the first explorers of Jerusalem. Engraved in the rock, the inscription describes the meeting of the two groups of hewers who had begun digging from opposite ends of the tunnel. "The tunneling was completed... While the hewers wielded the ax, each man toward his fellow... there was heard a man's voice calling to his fellow... the hewers hacked each toward the other, ax against ax, and the water flowed from the spring to the pool, a distance of 1,200 cubits..." The inscription is now in the Istanbul Museum.

(see 2 Kings 22:20 and 2 Chronicles

32:30) to the reign of Hezekiah.


 [...when] (the tunnel) was driven through.

And this was the way in which it was cut

through:- While [...] (were) stil [...] axe(s),

each man toward his fellow, and while there

were still three cubits to be cut through,

[there was heard] the voice of a man calling to

his fellow, for there was an overlap in the

rock on the right [and on the left].  And when

the tunnel was driven through, the quarrymen

hewed (the rock), each man toward his fellow,

axe against axe; and the water flowed from the

spring toward the reservoir for 1,200 cubits,

and the height of the rock above the head(s) of

the quarrymen was 100 cubits.



SINAI: (AE; MK; Hieroglyphic) Inscriptions

[B_009,8.5 file folded OS,IMG] CATNYP# *OBQ++(Gardiner, A.H. Inscriptions at Sinai)"The Inscriptions of Sinai", by Peet and Sir Alan Henderson Gardiner, 1917.


(as per PM) Seek MK statues with proto-Sinaitic texts; JEA 3 [B_303], plate 1; cf 3; p. 13; “The Egyptian origin of the Semitic alphabet”.


(as per PM) See work by Leibovitch, “Die Petrie’schen Sinai schriftdenkmaler”.

In Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen gesellschaft, NF IX (1930).


(as per EEF)

Report on recent [2002] finds of Ramses II; vague.


(as per S. Parcak; EEF; 011603)

On behalf of Greg Mumford, Director of the Tell Tebilla and the South SINAI and Survey and excavation Project, we invite you to visit the new website:


SINAITICUS: (Greek) codex

(as per E. G. Turner) This Greek codex was drawn on “uterine vellum”.

[The skin of stillborn antelopes].

Originally this may have included the entire New Testament and the Old Testament Apocrypha. ~400 CE.

Codex Sinaiticus is supposed to have required the hides of some 360 animals (Metzger, 1981, 76).


Fee, Gordon D. “Codex Sinaiticus in the Gospel of John: A Contribution to Methodology in Establishing Textual Relationships.NTS 15 (1968-69): 23-44.


Lake, Helen, and Kirsopp Lake. Codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1911-1922.


SINUHE AKA SINUHIT AKA Saneha: (AE; Hieratic) inscriptions; papyri; ostraca

[B_094,rtrn cpy, OS, IMG] CATNYP# *OBR+ (Sinuhe. Ashmolean ostracon), "The Ashmolean ostracon [edited] by John W. B. Barns", London 1952.

Excellent photos of the Hieratic Ostracon. A late Ramesside version of the Story of Sinuhe.

Little or no math.

Possibly copied by an illiterate (unskilled) Scribe.

No copies to date 10/9/01.


[B_095,rvw] CATNYP# *OBN+++ 84-4081, "The Ashmolean ostracon of Sinuhe" also by John Wintour Baldwin Barns, London, 1952.


See BERLIN, [B_038], Goedicke.




(as per T.E. Peet) See Gardiner, A. H., “Notes on the story of Sinuhe”.

See (B. M., [ostraca] No. 5,629).

See l'Ostracon 27,419 du musée de Boulaq


This is an account of an Egyptian who flees into exile on hearing of the death of Pharaoh Amenemhat I (first ruler of the 12th dynasty), heading for Byblos. He marries the daughter of a tribal chieftain and builds a new life in the north Palestine/south Syria area. Eventually he is restored to a position of authority in Egypt and returns, leaving his eldest son in charge of his wealth. It is not known if the tale is fictional or biographical, but the details mentioned in the story are accurate where they can be confirmed. In OC terms this is dated around 1950 BCE, whilst in the NC it is around 1800. Israel is not mentioned in the account, but other details regarding customs and coastal locations are consistent with Genesis.



(as per EEF; M. Tilgner, 021705)
* The Tale of Sinuhe
The following links are based on R = pBerlin 10499 vs and B = pBerlin
(partly also on AOS = the Ashmolean ostracon)
-- Hieratic facsimiles: Georg Möller, Hieratische Lesestücke für den
akademischen Gebrauch, Erstes Heft: Alt- und mittelhieratische Texte,
2nd ed., Leipzig, 1927, p. 7 (pBerlin 10499 vs), 8-12 (pBerlin 3022)
-- Hieroglyphic text, transcription, English translation and notes on
specific points
-- Hand-drawn facsimile of pBerlin 3022: LD VI, 104-107
LD VI, 104 (520 KB):

LD VI, 105 (510 KB):

LD VI, 106 (503 KB):

LD VI, 107 (520 KB):

-- Alan H. Gardiner, Notes on the Story of Sinuhe, Paris, 1916. 195 pp.

-- Transcription and English translation
-- English translation by Alan H. Gardiner, Notes on the story of
Sinuhe, Paris, 1916, pp. 168-176 (0.8 MB)
-- English translation: Lichtheim I, 223-233
-- French translation in: Gaston Maspero, Les contes populaires de
l'Egypte ancienne, 4th ed., Paris[, 1911], pp. 72-103
-- French translation
-- Hieroglyphic text, transcription and German translation
-- Bibliography, transcription and German translation of pBerlin 3022
and A
= pAmherst m-q:
and of pBerlin 10499 vs:
-- Transcription of "ideal text"
-- German translation by Erik Hornung, Gesänge vom Nil. Dichtung am
Hofe der
Pharaonen, Zürich / München, 1990
-- German translation: TUAT III, 884-911
-- Hieroglyphic text, transcription and Spanish translation

-- Transcription and Japanese translation
-- Russian translation
-- Bibliographies
-- David Lorton, Reading the Story of Sinuhe
-- Claude Obsomer, Sinouhé l'Egyptien et les raisons de son exil, in:
Le Muséon, vol. 112, pp. 207-271 (1999) - excerpts
-- recently: Hieroglyphic text of all sources in Roland Koch, Die
Erzählung des Sinuhe, Bruxelles, 1990 (Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca, XVII)

A list of duplicate texts
-- Graphical display of text source alignment (6 papyri, 25 ostraca)

[labels according to Koch, p. VI]

- Am-q = pAmherst no. 4
-- Hieroglyphic text in: Alan H. Gardiner, Notes on the story of
Paris, 1916, m = p. 121, n = pp. 122-124, o = p. 124, p = pp.
124-125, q
= p. 125 (1.1 MB)


- H = pHarageh 1 (UC 32773)
-- Photograph
-- Hieroglyphic text in: Alan H. Gardiner, Notes on the story of
Sinuhe, Paris, 1916, pp. 177-178 (0.4 MB)
-- Transcription and German translation

- BA = pBuenos Aires
-- Transcription and German translation

- G = pMoscow 4657
-- Photograph and Russian translation
-- Hieroglyphic text in: Alan H. Gardiner, Notes on the story of
Sinuhe, Paris, 1916, pp. 120-130 (1.1 MB)
-- Transcription and German translation

- S = ostracon Senenmut 149 ro from the tomb of Senenmut (TT 71)
-- Transcription and German translation

- AOS = ostracon Ashmolean Museum 1945.40
-- Transcription and German translation

- C = ostracon Cairo (CG 25216)
-- Hieroglyphic text in: Alan H. Gardiner, Notes on the story of
Sinuhe, Paris, 1916, pp. 120-132 (1.1 MB)
-- Transcription and German translation

- Bdt = ostracon Borchardt
-- Transcription and German translation

- L = ostracon BM EA 5629
-- Photograph
-- Drawing and English translation
-- Hieroglyphic text in: Alan H. Gardiner, Notes on the story of
Sinuhe, Paris, 1916, pp. 150-151 (1.1 MB)
-- Transcription and German translation


- B 2 = ostracon Berlin 12379
-- Drawing in: Alan H. Gardiner, Notes on the story of Sinuhe, Paris,
1916, pl. I (1.1 MB)
-- Hieroglyphic text in: Alan H. Gardiner, Notes on the story of
Sinuhe, Paris, 1916, pp. 149-150 (1.1 MB)


- B 3 = ostracon Berlin 12623
-- Hieroglyphic text in: Alan H. Gardiner, Notes on the story of
Sinuhe, Paris, 1916, ro = pp. 120-124, vs = pp. 131-136 (1.1 MB; 1.1 MB)


- B 4 = ostracon Berlin 12624
-- Hieroglyphic text in: Alan H. Gardiner, Notes on the story of
Sinuhe, Paris, 1916, pp. 128-132 (1.1 MB)


- P 1 = ostracon Petrie 58 (UC 31996)
-- Photograph


- P 2 = ostracon Petrie 12 (UC 34322)
-- Photographs
-- Drawing in: Alan H. Gardiner, Notes on the story of Sinuhe, Paris,
1916, pl. I (1.1 MB)
-- Hieroglyphic text in: Alan H. Gardiner, Notes on the story of
Sinuhe, Paris, 1916, pp. 146-148 (1.1 MB)

- P 3 = ostracon Petrie 59 (UC 31997)
-- Photograph


- P 4 = ostracon Petrie 66 (UC 34323)
-- Photograph
-- Hieroglyphic text in: Alan H. Gardiner, Notes on the story of
Sinuhe, Paris, 1916, pp. 178-179 (0.4 MB)


SITOLOGEN: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) P. Sitol=Sitologen-Papyri aus dem Berliner Museum, ed. K. Thunell, Uppsala, 1924.



SKL: Sumerian Kings List

Shows an image of the [OXFORD] prism

AKA The Weld-Blundell Prism; at Ashmolean Institute.

Links links links!

lists book/web cuneiform resources!

See my analysis of early reigns of Sumerian Kings as per SKL link above.

…After the Kingship descended from Heaven, the Kingship was in Erudig..


In the beginning of the SKL we account for the first 241,200 [years?!]

Reign of first king – Alulim = 28,800 [years?!]

1, 7, 0, 0 = [in base 60] = 241,200 y* =

(number of years remaining in passage from commencement of King Alulim; i. e. the start of the SKL.)

1 [x] 216,000

7 [x] 3,600

0 [x] 60

0 [x] 1


28,800= [in base 60] = 0, 8, 0, 0

8 [x] 3,600


Reign of second king – Alaljar = 36,000 [years?!]

0, 59, 0, 0 = [in base 60] = 212,400 y* =

(years remaining in passage from commencement of King Alaljar.)

0 [x] 216,000

59 [x] 3,600

0 [x] 60

0 [x] 1


36,000= [in base 60] = 0, 10, 0, 0

10 [x] 3,600


Reign of third king – Enmenluana = 43,200 [years?!]

0, 49, 0, 0 = [in base 60] = 176,400 y* =

(years remaining in passage from commencement of King Enmenluana.)

0 [x] 216,000

49 [x] 3,600

0 [x] 60

0 [x] 1


43,200= [in base 60] = 0, 12, 0, 0

12 [x] 3,600


Reign of fourth king – Enmengalana = 28,800 [years?!]

0, 37, 0, 0 = [in base 60] = 133,200 y* =

(years remaining in passage from commencement of King Enmengalana.)

0 [x] 216,000

37 [x] 3,600

0 [x] 60

0 [x] 1


28,800 = [in base 60] = 0, 8, 0, 0

8 [x] 3,600


Reign of fifth king – Dumuzid = 36,000 [years?!]

0, 29, 0, 0 = [in base 60] = 104,400 y* =

(years remaining in passage from commencement of King Dumuzid.)

0 [x] 216,000

29 [x] 3,600

0 [x] 60

0 [x] 1


36,000 = [in base 60] = 0, 10, 0, 0

10 [x] 3,600


Reign of sixth king – Ensipanzidana = 28,800 [years?!]

0, 19, 0, 0 = [in base 60] = 68,400 y* =

(years remaining in passage from commencement of King Ensipanzidana.)

0 [x] 216,000

19 [x] 3,600

0 [x] 60

0 [x] 1


28,800 = [in base 60] = 0, 8, 0, 0

8 [x] 3,600


Reign of seventh king – Enmendurana = 21,000 [years?!]

0, 11, 0, 0 = [in base 60] = 39,600 y* =

(years remaining in passage from commencement of King Ensipanzidana.)

0 [x] 216,000

11 [x] 3,600

0 [x] 60

0 [x] 1


21,000 = [in base 60] = 0, 5, 50, 0

5 [x] 3,600

50 [x] 60


Reign of eighth king – Ubaratutu = 18,600 [years?!]

0, 5, 10, 0 = [in base 60] = 18,600 y* =

(years remaining in passage from commencement of King Ubaratutu.)

0 [x] 216,000

5 [x] 3,600

10 [x] 60

0 [x] 1


18,600 = [in base 60] = 0, 5, 10, 0

0 [x] 216,000

5 [x] 3,600

10 [x] 60

0 [x] 1


*18,600 = 5 “sars” + 1 “ner”





Note that after this flood we find all reigns (lifespans) sharply reduced as in GENESIS.

Also that a reduction of the above reigns by a power of 60 reveals that 36000/60=600 = lifespan of NOAH.

My notes from the above link are filed with [B_165].


[B_412,rvw] CATNYP# *OBF (Chicago University. Oriental Institute. Assyriological studies. No. 15)

“The second dynasty of Isin according to a new king-list tablet.”

Chicago, 1955.

Sumerian inscriptions.



See GENESIS; TORAH. The Flood “myth.”

Further Reading: S.N.Kramer, The Sumerians: Their History, Culture and Character (University of Chicago Press, 1963): Appendix E gives a translation of the Sumerian King List.


SMELTING: process


(as per S. Whittet; EEF; 071102)
Re: nitriding.
This can be done quite accidently at low temperatures (bread oven)
by the addition of legumes and other organics that concentrate nitrates.
The result is a hard non brittle edge.


SMITH COLLEGE: (cuneiform) tablets

(as per Y. Muffs) See [W_012], ELEPHANTINE.

See: Gordon, C., Smith College Tablets: 110 Cuneiform Texts selected from the College Collection.

Mass. 1952

(= Smith College studies in History 38).

SMITHSONIAN: institute

[B_505,8.5,MAG,SIBL] CATNYP# JFM 72-210 and

CATNYP# JBM 98-484 [for my 2002 issue]


[Library has most volumes from 1970 to present.]

See also [B_505b] for internet link as follows:



See Smithsonian Magazine, July, 2002.

p. 86: “Romancing the Stones.”

By David Roberts.

See p. 87: Ring of Brogdar on Orkney Islands off coast of Scotland. From ~2500 BCE. These Megaliths describe a stone ring 340 feet in diameter.

These stones have slanted tops, perhaps due to erosion or design.

See p. 88: Stonehenge. Made of stones of 40 tons.

See p. 89: Avebury. 20 miles north of Stonehenge. ~2500 BCE. The largest prehistoric stone circle in the world.

See p. 90: Ring of Stenness on Orkney Islands off coast of Scotland. From ~2500 BCE. Only 4 surviving Megaliths remain.

P. 90: Maes Howe [AKA Maeshowe]: chambered tombs. Half a mile east of Stenness. Built of flagstone. 30 foot tunnel in earthen mound with 15 foot x 15 foot squared central chamber.

See p. 92: Skara Brae. Neolithic dwellings

p. 92 Seahenge: Ancient circle of lumber with a central inverted tree trunk at Norfolk.

See these websites and see STONEHENGE:


SNEFERU: (AE) Pharaoh



SOC.: (Greek) papyri

See HIBEH; [O_008,8.5,IMG]

SOLEB: (AE; MK) temple of

(as per EEF; R. Gozzoli) I came accross the reliefs of the

Soleb temple of Amenhotep III. As fas as I know, the Schiff Giorgini publication project has been delayed. Dr Natalie Beaux is now in charge of such publication.


Roberto Gozzoli,

The University of Birmingham,

Department of Ancient History and Archaeology

Edgbaston B15 2TT

United Kingdom


During the later XVIIIth and XIXth Dynasties, Lower and Middle Nubia, areas north of the Third Cataract were governed by an Egyptian Viceroy. Major settlements and/or temples south of the Second Cataract were located at Sesibi, Soleb, Sedeinga, Sai and Amara West.


…(temple of Soleb is on the western side of the Nile) is the other obstacle. Just some few kilometres north of Soleb, the temple of Saddenga is found, this too built by Amenophis III.



SOKNOBRAISIS: (Greek/Egyptian) Temple of

[O_022,8.5,IMG,NO CATNYP]

BOBST# PA3343 .G5

“The archives of the Temple of Soknobraisis at Bacchias / by Elizabeth H. Gilliam.”

New Haven; 1947.

Reprinted from Yale Classical Studies, New Haven, 1947, v. 10 p. 179-281.

Fuller treatment in the Authors’ unpublished Yale dissertation.

See BOBST Archive: O 1

Religion and Crocodiles.On crocodiles and folklore from egyptian/greek papyri; See ASP


Includes receipts and reports:


Refers to these papyri:

P. Aber. 62 ~100 AD

BGU 15; 149; 176; 162; 296; 337; 387; 406; 488; 590; 627; 950; 1023; 1196

P. Brux 7535

P. Enteux

P. Fay

P. Jand. 34

P. Lond 353

P. Lund 4

P. Oxy. 1029; 1143 [~1 CE]; 1256

P. Petrie II

PSI 950; 1146

P. Rainer 8

P. Ryl. 110

P. Teb. 88; 295; 298-9; 309; 315

SB 7342


Includes these papyri:

P. Fouad 11; 12; 13; 14.

P. Lund. 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 38; 42.

P. Yale 324; 344; 348; 349; 350; 351; 361; 362; 363; 378; 379; 902; 903; 904; 906; 907.


Originally within: “Soknobraisis at Bacchias”, in Yale Classical Studies, X, 1947, p. 179-281, by E.H. Gilliam.


P.Bacch.: The Archives of the Temple of Soknobraisis at Bacchias



SOKNOPAIU NESOS: (Greek) papyri from

See KARANIS; [O_060,rvw]




See NAG HAMMADI; [Y_007b,rvw]



SUMMIT# PA4413 .Y9 1974

“The papyrus fragments of Sophocles : an edition with prologemena and commentary.”

Berlin, 1974.



SORBONNE: (demotic, coptic, greek, latin, and arabic) papyri

(as per D. Fowler) See (Greek) P. Sorb. 61.16 ~500 CE.

Roman period. Math.


(as per Duke Univ.) Papyrus de la Sorbonne

I, ed. H. Cadell. Paris 1966. (Publications de la Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines de Paris, Série "Textes et Documents," t. X: Travaux de l'Institut de Papyrologie de Paris, fasc. IV). Nos. 1-63 are papyri, 64-68 ostraca. [o.e. PUF]


II, Un Codex fiscal Hermopolite (P.Sorb. II 69), ed. J. Gascou. Atlanta 1994.

(Am.Stud.Pap. XXXII). No. 69. [o.e. Oxbow]. Math.


P.Sorb.: Papyrus de la Sorbonne

P.Sorb. 1.9. Official correspondence from Lykomêdês à Hippodamos

(Greek; 268 bce; Hermoupolis Magna)


[Y_003,rvw] SUMMIT# oversize Z6604 .C2

“Papyus de la Sorbonne.”

Paris, 1966-?.

By Helene Cadell.

Summit library has v. 1.

NO CATNYP see and link to :

P.Sorb.: Papyrus de la Sorbonne


SOTERICHOS: (Greek) papyri

P.Soter.: Das Archiv des Soterichos

Bad link?


SPAW: publication

SPAW=Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin) [after 1938: SDAW]

See also APAW.



SPHINX: (AE;OK) riddle of


(as per EEF) Locate these texts:

1. Christiane Zivie-Coche, _Sphinx! Le Pere la terreur_(Paris: Noesis, 1997).

2. Prof Selim Hassan: The Great Sphinx and its Secrets – Historical Studies in the Light of Recent Excavations. This forms volume 8 of his Excavations at Giza set. Cairo 1936-37.

3. Riddles of the Sphinx_ by Paul Jordan, 1998.

Despite the title, it's a very comprehensive and responsible book, with wonderful photographs.

Re: water damage

See GIZA and:

(as per C. Reader; EEF; 123102)

Reader, Colin, 2001, "A geomorphological study of the Giza Necropolis, with

implications for the development of the site', Archaeometry, 43, 1.


See MDAIK, 41 (1985).Mark Lehner's:

"The development of the Giza Necropolis: The Khufu project",


K.L. Gauri, J.J. Sinai & J.K. Bandyopadhyay, "Geologic Weathering and

Its Implications on the Age of the Sphinx", Geoarchaeology Vol 10, No 2

(1995), p 119-133


K.L. Gauri - "Geologic Study of the Sphinx", Newsletter of the American

Research Centre In Egypt, 127 (1984), p24-43.


K.L. Gauri - "Deterioration of the Stone of the Great Sphinx",

Newsletter of the American Research Centre In Egypt, 114 (1981), p35-47.


A.N. Choudhory et al, "Weathering of Limestone Beds at the Great

Sphinx", Environmental Geology and Water Science, 15, (1990), p217-223.


T. Aigner, "A Pliocene Cliff Line Around the Giza Pyramids Plateau,

Egypt.", Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 42 (1983) p313-322.


Lehner, Allen and Gauri, "The ARCE Sphinx Project - A Preliminary

Report", Newsletter of the American Research Center In Egypt, 112 (1980) ,



Emery. K. O., Weathering Of The Great Pyramid, JSP, 30, No 1 1960 140-143



Wilhelm Spiegelberg (1870-1930)

Search this site for his name.



STA. XYLA.: (Greek) papyri

(as per B. Porten; [R_008])

P. Sta. Xyla., The Byzantine Papyri of the Greek Papyrological Society, Athens, 1993.



STAATLICHE: Museen der Berlin

STOCKHOLM: (Greek) papyrus

See HOLMIENSIS; [B_446=O_011]


[B_132,rvw] CATNYP# *QO 89-25245, “Papirusy Tebanskie : antyczne zrodlo wiedzy o technikach artystycznych / Stanislaw Stawicki.” Wroclaw, 1987.

Also includes P. Leiden X. Focus on chemistry.

See images.


STONE: building blocks  

(as per EEF; 062403; S. Whittet)
De PUTTER, Thierry et Christina KARLSHAUSEN,
Les pierres utilisées dans la sculpture et l'architecture de l'Égypte
pharaonique. Guide pratique illustré, Bruxelles, Connaissance de
Ancienne, 1992 = Étude, 4. (16 x 24 cm; 176 p., fig., maps incl.
pl.). ISBN 2-87268-003-9
The authors, a geologist and an Egyptologist, have written a practical
guide which aims at making it possible for anybody to establich
which kinds of stone Egyptian objects are made from.
In the beginning of the chapter a list of a number of museum catalogues
often referred to in the text.
We mention the stones dealt with:
alabaster (calcite; Ss);
amazonite (green feldspar; Hsg; nSmt);
anhydrite; basalt (nmHf?);
fossil wood (xt awA?);
red breccia; green breccia (bxn; wAD?);
limestone (inr HD (nfr n anw);
the diorite and gabbro family (mntt; ibhty?);
anorthositic gneiss (avoid "Chefren diorite"; mntt; ibhty?);
the red-rose granite family (mAT);
greywacke (avoid "(green) schist"; bxn);
sandstone ((inr HD nfr n) rwDt);
silicified sandstone (quartzite; (inr n) biAt and variants; bnwt);
hematite (bqs-anx; biA-qsy);
jasper (Hkn; xnmt; red jasper not be confused with carnelian);
lapis-lazuli (lazurite; xsbD);
marble (aAt HDt);
obsidian (vulcanic glass; mnw km?);
pegmatite; peridotite (pyroxenite; prDn; brgt?);
imperial porphyry (porphyric andesite; ibhty?);
black porphyry; the quartz family comprising agate, amethyst (Hsmn),
carnelian (Hrst);
rock crystal (mnw HD) and
black or smoked quartz (mnw km);
serpentine (avoid "steatite"; nmHf; nSmt; shrt);
steatite (soapstone, talc stone; avoid "serpentinite"). "

STONEHENGE: and related studies



The Orkney Archaological Trust


This website also refers to these discoveries of neolithic activity:

Crantit tomb at Orkney

Minhowe passage at Orkney

And others.

Not much of anything except the megaliths seems to have survived time.

No math in an obvious sense and much hotly debated metrology and interpreted science that defies proof.

Still digging though.


It is thought these may represent an ancient calendar which divided the year into 16 months of unequal length. The months would have been based on the movement of different constellations across the night sky.

Although the authenticity of the drawings has been established by archaeologists, their exact age is not known. However, Guam is believed to have had settlers for at least 3,500 years - perhaps even 4,000 years.

The colours are white, brown and black. Rosina Iping presented her interpretation of the paintings to the 193rd meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Austin, Texas…


STRABO: (Greek) geographer and historian

[~63-3 BCE? Or 64 BCE – 20 CE?]

[B_265,rvw] CATNYP# B-10 592

“Adeisidaemon, sive Titus Livius a superstitione vindicatus.

…Annexae sunt ejusdem Origines Judicae. Autore J. Tolando.”

Hagae-Comitis, Apud Thomam Johnson, 1709.

Re: Origins of the Jews; Strabo; geography

By John Tolando


[B_266,rvw] CATNYP# JFG 89-420

“The Strabo of Vindelinus de Spira and Mr. Herbert Hoover : a historical reconstruction of the travels of a rare book, the 1472 Strabo, from Italy to France to England and finally to the United States / by David Kuhner.”

Claremont California, 1979.

Keyword: Incunabula [collecting]


Seek also keywords: [ancient works of] Apollodorus; Aristotle; Artemidorus; Cleomedes; Eratosthenes; Eudoxus; Hecateus; Herodotus; Homer; Marinus; Megasthenis; Nearchus; Polyvius; Poseidonius;


[B_431,8.5] CATNYP# *RR-NRDY (Strabo. Greek and English. Jones, H. L. Geography of Strabo)

“The Geography of Strabo / with an English translation by Horace Leonard Jones; based in part upon the

unfinished version of John Robert Sitlington Sterrett.”

Cambridge, 1917-1932.


[Intro xxx]: The Geography of Strabo is far more than a mere geography…it is a philosophy of geography.”

See extensive bibliography on file.


[G, 2.5. 36-37@p. 509]: “…the country of the Trogodytes, the longest day has 13 equinoctial hours; and this

inhabited country is approximately midway between the equator and the parallel that runs through Alexandria…”


[G, 2.5. 39-41@p. 513]: “At Byzantium and the regions thereabouts the longest day has fifteen and one

quarter equinoctial hours.”  See Gnomon ratio that follows.


[G, 2.5. 41-42@p. 515]: “And in those regions in the winter-days the sun attains an elevation of at most nine

cubits.” [9 cubits=18 degrees]


[G, 2.5. 42-43@p. 517]: “In the regions about six thousand three hundred stadia distant from Byzantium north of Lake Maeotis, in the winter-days, the sun attains an elevation of at most six cubits, and there the longest day has seventeen equinoctial hours.” [6 cubits=12 degrees]


[G, 2.5. 43@p. 521]: “…in the diurnal revolution of the universe_that is, on the hypothesis that the distance

between the equator and the tropic [arctic circle] is four-sixtieths of the greatest circle.”


STRASSBURG or STRASBOURG: (AE; demotic/ Greek) papyri and ostraca



(as per D. Meeks) seek Spiegelberg's review of P. Dem. Strassburg.


(as per LEX) Spiegelberg, Briefe der 21 Dyn. aus El-Hibe [HIBEH], in: ZAS 53, 1917


[W_001,rvw,restricted access] WATSON# 533.5 C122 v.33. "Les ostraca hieratiques inedits de la Biblioteque nationale et universitaire de Strasbourg / Yvan Koenig." Cairo, 1997


(as per R.A. Parker,[B_057],VIENNA) see Strassburg Ost. D. 521 ~300 BCE.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Strassb. = Greichische Papyrus der Kaiserlichen Universitats-und Landesbibliothek zu Strassburg, ed. F. Preisigke, 1912, 1920, 2 vols.

See also: Bulletin de la Faculte des Lettres a Strassbourg.

P. #’s 126-168, printed 1948

Papyrus grecs, P. Collomp, Paris, 1948.

P. #’s 169-300, 1963

Papyrus grecs, J. Schwartz et ses eleves, Strassbourg, 1963.


(as per E. G. Turner) O. Strassb. = Greichische und greichisch-demotische Ostraka der Universitats-und Landesbibliothek zu Strassburg in Elsass, ed. P. Vierick, Berlin, 1923.


O. Strass. 1: (Greek; Thebaid)


P.Stras.: Griechische Papyrus der kaiserlichen Universitäts- un Landesbibliothek zu Strassburg

P.Stras. 1.1. Purchase of wine:

(Greek; AD 435; Hermoupolis Magna)



CATNYP# *OAC p.v.34,no.3

BOBST# PA3308 .G73

“Ein erbstreit aus dem ptolemaischen Agypten, greichische und demotische papyri der Wissenschaftlichen gesellschaft zu Strassburg i. Els., von Otto Gradenwitz, Friedrich Preisigke, [und] Wilhelm Spiegelberg. Mit vier Tafeln in Lichtdruck.”

Strassburg, 1912.

See BOBST Archive: O 1

Includes legal accounts of inheritance and succession.

STRIKE: (AE; MK) papyri

(as per T.E. Peet,[B_041b], ABBOTT) see Strike Papyrus=? P. Turin P.R.47.10.


(as per J. F. A. Garcia; EEF; VERNUS 1993) seek:

Edgerton, W. E., "The Strikes in Ramses III's 29th Year", JNES 10, 1951.


Eyre, Ch., "A strike text from the Theban Necropolis"?


Ruffle, Gaballa, Kitchen (Ed.), "Glimpses of ancient Egypt. Studies in Honor of W. Fairman", Warminster, (1979).


Frandser, P. J., "Editing Reality: The Turin Strike Papyrus."


Israelit-Gross, S. (Ed.), "Studies in Egyptology. Presented to Miriam Lichtheim", Jerusalem, 1990.


Janssen, J., "Background on the Strike of year 29 of Ramses III.", Orients Antiquus, 18 (1979).


Janssen, J., "The Year of Strike.", BSEG 16 (1992).


(as per E. C. Uribe, EEF) seek "A Strike Papyrus from the Reign of Amasis", Serapis 5, 1979, (p. 21-26), coauthored with George R. Hughes.



STUD. PAL.: (Greek; Coptic; Latin; Demotic) studies

(as per E. G. Turner) See S.P.P.

Studien zur Palaeographie und Papyruskunde, ed. C. Wessely. A periodical publication, issued irregularly and miscellaneous in character, 23 volumes, reprint 1966.

Vols. iii and viii, Gr. Papyrusurkunden kleineren Formats (= P. kl. Form.), ed. C. Wessely, Leipzig, 1904, 1908.


Vol v, Corpus Papyrorum Hermopolitanarum, I (= C. P. Herm.), ed. C. Wessely, Leipzig, 1905.


Vol vi, Kolotes und Menedemos: Texte und Untersuchungen zur Philosophen und Literatur-Geschichte, ed. W. Cronert, 1906.


Vol vii, Demotische und greichische Texte auf Mumientafelchen, ed. N. Reich, 1908.


Vol ix, Greichische und koptische Texte theologischen Inhaltes, I, ed. C. Wessely, 1909. II, see vol. xi, 1911; III, vol. xii, 1912; IV, vol. xv, 1914, V, vol. xviii, 1917.


Vol x, Greichische Texte zur Topographie Agyptens, ed. C. Wessely, 1910.


Vol xiv, Die altesten lateinischen und greichischen Papyri Wiens, ed. C. Wessely, 1914.


Vol xx, Cat. P. Raineri Series Graeca Pars I Textus Graeci Papyrorum qui in libro ‘Pap. Erz. Rainer—Fuhrer durch die Ausstellung Wien 1894’ descriptisunt, ed. C. Wessely, 1921.


Vol xxii, Cat. P. Raineri Pars II Papyri N. 24858-25024, ed. C. Wessely, 1922.


Stud.Pal.: Studien zur Palaeographie und Papyruskunde

Stud.Pal. 1.I. : (Greek)



SULPICII: (Roman) archive

(as per Archaelogy may/june 01) A cache of 127 writing tablets discovered at the resort of Agro Murecine. Commercial documents, possible math content.

Includes Payment orders, IOU’s and receipts.

See “Banking and Business in the Roman World”, by Jean Andreau.

Murecine Tablets


a collection of waxed wooden tablets found at Murecine near Pompeii in 1959. The documents belong to the archive of the Sulpicii, a firm of financiers.<> Of the 170 tablets that have been published (most of them dating from the period AD 35-55) only fourteen mention women.



SUMERIAN: civilization; Mesopotalmian math




Image of YBC 7289; with links to YBC 7302 (a circle) and YBC 7290 (a trapezoid) and multiplication tables.



SUSA: (Achaemnid; Persian ) Capital; Cuneiform math horde AKA SHUSHAN

[B_612,OS,IMG] CATNYP# *OMB (France. Mission Archeologique en Iran)
“Mémoires de la Mission Archéologique en Iran”
Textes mathématiques de Suse
Volume XXXIV. Paul Geuthner, Paris. 1961 {E.M. Bruins and M. Rutten}
More cuneiform studies




SUTIMES: (AE; BOTD) papyrus of

(As per E.A. Budge) See Naville; “Todtenbuch”, Bd. I., Bl. 43; BOTD.


[1. In the papyrus of Sutimes (Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 43) the ape is called neb xemennu ut a maa, "Lord of Khemennu, just weigher"; and in British Museum papyrus No. 9900, "Thoth, lord of the scales."





SWARTHMORE: Math Forum of

Follow this link to the Math Forum.


SYDNEY: (AE) Ptolemaic papyrus

See CAIRO collection.

(See SAK 31 link)

Publication of P. Sydney Nicholson Museum 346 b, a Demotic funerary papyrus from Thebes, probably dating to the 2nd century AD. Its owner, Theonas son of Agathe, is known from P. Cairo 31172, of which a new transliteration and translation are provided.


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