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Last updated 12/25/05




See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID



PACHERENMIN: (AE; Hieratic) papyrus



(as per 2terres) Arwik,M., "Du nouveau sur le papyrus de Pacherenmin au muse". See RdE 46 (1995) 3-7.

This paper demonstrates that papyrus fragments kept in the Czartoryski Museum in Cracow…”



PACHYMIUS: (Greek) papers of

(as per E. G. Turner) (Greek); Byzantine.


A bishop of an Egyptian (Coptic) Church.



PAHLAVI: (Egyptian/Persian period) papyri

(as per ZAS, index# 1321) Seek “Fragmente von Pahlavi-Papyri aus Aegypten”, ZAS 16, p. 114-116, 1878.




(as per EB)

the Pahlavi text calls him [Zoroaster’s Auramazda]

Gopatshah, “King of Gopat.”


Pahlavi was used during the Persian or Sasanid occupation of Egypt in the early seventh century AD (616-628).





PALAU RIBES: (Greek) papyri



BOBST# PJ1681.P35 S78 1991 Non-circulating

“The funerary Papyrus Palau Rib. Nr. Inv. 450 / Christian Sturtewagwagen.”

Barcelona, 1991.

Alternately titled: “Papyrus Palau Ribes.”

Copy these plates determine era and content.


P.Palau-Rib. = Papiri documentari greci del fondo Palau-Ribes, ed. S. Daris. Barcelona 1995. [o.e.

Instituto de Teologia Fonamental]



PALENQUE: (Mayan) inscription


See UHN: p. 318: Palenque stairs inscription.

The great Pacal began his rule in 612 A.D. when he was 12 years old. But it takes some 40 years in battles to consolidate his empire before he begins building several large great temples at this site, including the palace, his burial temple and another large temple near it. Since he is not in the direct line of rulership (no chemical analysis has been done on his bones; in fact, authorities at one point attempted to remove his bones and were thwarted by locals), he invents his connections to the gods and the reasons for his power. When he dies in 684 his origin is directly connected to the gods. In huge murals on the Temple of the Cross, built by his son, Kam Balam, Pacal and the Smoking God (or god L) are depicted blessing Kam Balam as he begins his own rulership. He built several more temples, and in a mural on the Temple of the Foliated Cross, Kam Balam is receiving corn from the maize god.


PALEOLITHIC: early Man’s worksn


(051298) Lucia Birnbaum — “Rock art, the dark mother, and African origins of world religions” Author of Black Madonnas, Lucia traces the signs, icons and images of the dark mother out of Africa to the Sinai and into Europe and Asia. Focusing on the case of Har Karkom in the Sinai, Lucia will explore the origins of world religions in the dark ochre of cave paintings of Africa 900,000 years ago, to the incised megaliths leading to the Mountain of God 40,000 B.C. E. in the Sinai (west Asia) where Africans migrated, to figurines of the dark mother found all along paths of African migrations into Spain, France, Italy, central and eastern Europe, icons dated ca. 26,000 B.C.E. to the triangular pubic shaped ochre red divinities painted on the walls of Cava dei Genovesi in the Egani Islands dated 15,000 B.C.E., veneration of Isis at Philae in Africa, to black madonnas and other dark women divinities of the common era. Slides, lecture and movement.


CATNYP# Sc E 78-329

“Origins: what new discoveries reveal about the emergence of our species and its possible future / Richard E. Leakey and Roger Lewin.”

NY, 1977.



PALERMO: (OK; AE) The Palermo Stone (and related fragments).

[B_354,HOUSE,NO CATNYP,Spare lent to J. Norinsky]

(as per John Legon; M. Gardner) Seek Michael St. John's

"The Palermo Stone-an arithmetical view", 1999.

See 5th Dynasty (math) Nilometer readings, Canonical records.

The Palermo Stone ceases to display the unit of a SPAN,

(handsbreadth/handspan=~9”), early in its records.

This is similar to what happens in the TORAH [Exodus].

See HEBREW CUBITS; TORAH and Metrology.

See MSJ flyers filed with [B_354]


[W_035,rvw] WATSON# 533.5 Om1. "The Palermo stone and the archaic kings of Egypt / Patrick F. O'Mara." California, 1979.


[W_036,hold] WATSON# on order! (ISBN/ISSN 0710306679). "Royal annals of ancient Egypt : The Palermo Stone and its associated fragments", NY, 2000. By Wilkinson, Toby A. H.


[W_037,rvw] WATSON# 533.5 Om12. "The chronology of the Palermo Stone and Turin canons / Patrick F. O'Mara." California, 1980.


[W_038,rvw] WATSON# 533.5 Sch1. "Ein Bruchstuck altagyptischer Analen / von Heinrich Schafer ; mit Beitragen von Ludwig Borchardt und Kurt Sethe." Berlin, 1902.


[B_182a,IMG,8.5] CATNYP# *OBL, Institut Francais d’Arch. A la Bibliotheque nationale de Paris, Le Caire, 1931, Tome 30(3-4). Plate II.

Image of a Palermo Stone fragment from James H. Breasted’s “The Predynastic union of Egypt.”

(as per EEF; M. Tilgner, 021705)
a) The PALERMO Stone (PALERMO Museo archeologico 1028) [PS]
-- Photographs, drawings of the different sections, German translation
commentary by Heinrich Schäfer, Ein Bruchstück altägyptischer Annalen,
Berlin, 1902
-- Photograph (recto) only [= pl. I] - 320 KB
-- Hieroglyphic text: Urk. I, 235-249 [4th and 5th dyn. only; including
CF1 - CF4]
-- English translation in: James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of
Egypt, vol. I, Chicago, 1906, sections 76-167
-- French translation in: Alessandro Roccati, La littérature historique
sous l'Ancien Empire égyptien, Paris, 1982, pp. 36-52 [including other


b) The Cairo Fragments 1 - 4 (JE 44859, JE 39735, JE 39734, JE 44860)
[CF1 - CF4]
-- Photographs, typeset hieroglyphic text, French translation and
commentary by Henri Gauthier, Quatre nouveaux fragments de la pierre de Palerme, in: G. Maspero, Le Musée égyptien: recueil de monuments et de notices sur les fouilles d'Egypte, vol. III, Le Caire, 1915, pp. 29-53,
-- Photograph of CF2 (25 KB)
-- Photograph of CF3 (26 KB)
-- Photograph of CF4 (22 KB)
-- Hieroglyphic text: Urk. I, 235-249 [see above]

c) The London Fragment (UC 15508) [LF]
-- Photographs of LF recto and verso:
recto (210 KB):
verso (114 KB):
-- Photograph of LF recto with roll-over translation
-- William Matthew Flinders Petrie, New Portions of the Annals, in:
Egypt, vol. III, pp. 114-120 (1916) [LF recto only]
-- Photograph, drawing and English translation of LF verso by C.N.
Reeves, A Fragment of Fifth Dynasty Annals at University College London, in: GM, no. 32, pp. 47-52 (1979)


d) The Cairo Fragment 5 (JE 18220) [CF5]
-- Photograph (28 KB)
-- Jean-Louis de Cenival, Un nouveau fragment de la Pierre de Palerme,
BSFE, no. 44, pp. 13-17 (1965)


e) Basic book on the theme:
-- Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Royals Annals of Ancient Egypt. The Palermo
Stone and its associated fragments, London/New York, 2000



PALMISTRY: a lost art

See [B_545, SIBL]; PETERHOUSE; [B_546] DIGBY

See KESKINTO; CLOCKS (work by Derek Price)


[B_546, Pursue]

CATNYP# YOI (Old Palmistry)

“An old palmistry, being the earliest known book of palmistry in English. Edited from the Bodleian ms Digby roll IV, by Derek J. Price.”

Cambridge, 1953.

At 42nd st!

The Digby Roll Manuscript. Original Manuscript kept at the Bodleian Library, Oxford, dated c1440

“the science of chiromancy.”



PAMONTH or PAMONTHES: (AE; BOTD; demotic) papyri

[B_090,IGNR,BOTD] CATNYP# *OBZM (Revillout. Rituel funeraire de Pamonth), "Book of the Dead. Rituel funeraire de Pamonth en Demotique, avec les textes hieroglyphiques et hieratiques correspondants, par Eugene Revillout." Paris 1880.


See ANI.



CATNYP# *OBS+ 91-2903=WATSON# 533.4 Sp4 v4.,

"Das demotische Totenbuch der Pariser Nationalbibliothek (Papyrus des Pamonthes) / unter Mitarbeit von W. Spiegelberg Studien." Liepzig, 1910.


(as per EEF; 041803)

Available from HARRASSOWITZ publishers:

Martin Andreas Stadler (Bearb.), "Der Totenpapyrus des Pa-Month

(P. Bibl. nat. 149)"  (Studien zum Altaegyptischen Totenbuch 6)  2003.

186 Seiten, 5 Abb., 1 Klapptafel, br   ISBN 3-447-04651-1

EUR 46,- [D] / sFr 79,-, appr. 50 US $

PAMPREPIOS: (Greek) works of


CATNYP# JFD 88-1727

Pamprepii Panopolitani carmina : (P. Gr. VINDOB. 29788-A-C) / edidit Henricus Livrea.”

Leipzig, 1979.

BOBCAT# PA4261.P73 L5

Commentaries on the works of Pamprepios.



PANOPOLIS.: (Greek) papyrus

See (Greek) P. Beatty Panop.



PAPPUS: (Greek) mathematician, astronomer

See [B_390; KESKINTO].


PARACELSUS: Father of Biology; Alchemist


[B_423,rvw,hold,SIBL] CATNYP# *XMQ-261 (Microfiche)

"The hermetic and alchemical writings of Aureolus Philippus Theophrastus Bombast, of Hohenheim, called Paracelsus the Great. Now for the first time faithfully translated into English. [Microform] Edited with a biographical pref., elucidatory notes, a copious hermetic vocabulary, and index, by Arthur Edward Waite.”

London, 1894.


Father of Urea!

Pet Homonculus?


AKA Theophratus Bombastus von Hohenheim.

See Theophrastus von Hohenheim’s [PARACELCUS] signature from 1526 CE.

On file with [B_423]

From: Centaurus volume one, 1951, page 356-6.

PARAÍBA INSCRIPTION: (Phoenician) in Brazil

[A likely fraud]


Dr. Gordon <snip> crossing from Canaan to Brazil in 534-531 B.C.

<snip> initially branded as a forgery

<snip> stone tells of the separation of a Sidonian Canaanite ship from a fleet of ten voyaging for two years westward around Africa, and then being cast onto the shores of the “Island of Iron” (or Brazil).


probably a fraud or accidental misinterpretation of a Freemasons ritual inscription, in Brazil? Still too weird.



PARIS: (Greek; CALENDRICAL) papyri and (Greek) ostraca

(as per B.P. Grenfell, [B_051], HIBEH) seek Papyrus Paris.

A later (than 300 BCE) festival calendar.

Based on the work of Eudoxus.


(as per WATSONLINE keyword search of papyrus + paris)

Seek KOLLER; ROLLIN; Temple of Seti at ABYDOS; and [W_058] below.


[W_058,rvw] WATSON# 533.4 Sp4 v7. "Die sogenannte demotische Chronik des pap. 215 der Bibliotheque nationale zu Paris nebst den auf der Ruckseite des Papyrus stehenden Texten / hrsg. und erklart von Wilhelm Spiegelberg." Leipzig, 1914.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Par. = Notices et textes des papyrus grecs du musee du Louvre et de la Bibliotheque imperiale (Notices et extraits des manuscripts de la Bibl. Imperiale et autres bibl. 18. 2), ed. A. J. Letronne and W. Brunet de Presle, Paris, 1865, separate volume of plates*.


[B_393,rvw] CATNYP# *EM A174 t. 59, fasc. 4.

“Commentary on the Astronomical Treatise Par. gr. 2425 [by] O. Neugebauer.”

Bruxelles, 1969. See plates.


O. Paris 2: (Greek AD 68; from THEBES)


P.Paris: Notices et textes des papyrus du Musée du Louvre et de la Bibliothèque Impériale

P.Paris 5.: (Greek)[1891]


See P. PARIS 1; parapegma:
C. Wessely, Bruchstucke einer optischen Schrift aus dem Alterthum. Wiener Studien 13 (1891) 312-323.

PARIS: (Mayan) codex:


Current location of Paris Codex: Bibliotheque Nacional, Paris, France

Amatl paper screenfold painted on both sides. 11 leaves.

The relatively thin bibliography of recent books published on any of the Maya codices was significantly updated by Bruce Love's:

The Paris Codex : Handbook for a Maya Priest.

Published by the University of Texas in 1994, it includes an introduction by George Stuart that provides an annotated publication history.


PARKER: (Author)

Richard A. Parker of Otto Neugebauer’s Brown University Colleagues.

See Egyptian Astronomical Texts, 3 volumes.

1. The early Decans

2. The Ramesside star clocks

3. Decans, Planets, Constellations and Zodiacs

Published for Brown University Press, Providence Rhode Island.


See also R. Parker’s The Calendars of Ancient Egypt.

The Oriental Institute of Chicago.

Studies in ancient oriental civilization [SAOC], #36.

The University of Chicago Press.


(as per F. Lopez) Also see the respected texts by Marshall Clagett with related content: See [B_028]

“Ancient Egyptian Science”

3 volumes by the American Philosophical Society.



PARMA: (AE; BOTD) papyrus found at

(as per E.A. Budge) See work by Naville, “Todtenbuch”. BOTD.


PAULY: (Author); encyclopedia


CATNYP# *RR-BTGS (Pauly, A. Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft)

Pauly’s Realencyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft.”

Stuttgart, 1894.


ASAW; See Hultsch’s article on ARCHIMEDES in Pauly-Wissowa’s “Realencyclopadie der class. Altertumswissenschaft, Bd. II”



PEABODY: Museum; papers

See RYLANDS; [B_093]

Papyrological studies


PED-HOR: (AE; literary) papyrus

[B_091,JH,NO IMG,8.5] CATNYP# *PKD 93-807, "Sefer Neveh shalom : uvo-minhage No-Amon / Eliyahu Hazan ; ['im likute he'arot mi-maran'Ovadyah Yosef]", Jerusalem 1989.

This Hebrew text includes:

Some historical headstone images from AE, and Egypt under the rule of Alexander.


The Legends of Moses.

Keyword search:





WATSONLINE Yields nothing.


See AMHERST [B_044,IMG].


PENN. MATH: University website



PENNSYLVANIA: (University) of [Cuneiform collections of]

The U. Penn. Link to many other Universities and collections:



PEREHU: (historical) king of Punt; See PERUAH


PERSEUS: DUKE/OXFORD/TUFT… University’s resources


PERUAH: (historical) king of Punt AKA Perehu or Peruha; See TRADE; PUNT; TORAH


CATNYP# *ORE 78-1648

“Indonesian manuscripts in Great Britain : a catalogue of manuscripts in Indonesian languages in British public collections / by M. C. Ricklefs and P. Voorhoeve.”

Oxford, OUP, 1977. NYPL referred me to Columbia and NYU!

Text not available at NYPL! See pass to NYU on file in index.

A Malay Dictionary for Peruha


(as per Chuck G. Jones) first manuscript [2 sets of 4 strips] on bamboo bark is the Marsden collection in

the British Library  "Oriental and India Office Collections  Malay Manuscripts  D-11"

The second is apparently on "bark" and is catalogued in the same

office..manuscript  A-2 <snip> As there are NO references to ALLAH in either, then I presume it's from the

pre-Islamic period...maybe Hebrew? <snip>

See also PUNT

PETA-AMEN-APT: (AE; BOTD) inscriptions in tomb of

(as per E.A. Budge) See BOTD.


In the XXVIth dynasty we find texts of the Vth dynasty repeated on the walls of the tomb of Peta-Amen-apt, the chief kher-heb at Thebes (see Dümichen, Der Grabpalast des Patuamenap in der Thebanischen Nekropolis, Leipzig, 1884-85)



PETAUS: (Greek) archive; papyri

P.Petaus: Das Archiv des Petaus

P.Petaus 1. Notification of birth of a girl: (Greek; AD 185; Hormou)



CATNYP# *OBKQ (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Forschung des Landes Nordrhein Westfalen.

Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen: Sonderreihe. Papyri.

BOBST# PJ1014 .P3 vol.4

“Das archiv des Petaus <P. Petaus> Herausgegeben von Ursula Hagedorn, Dieter Hagedorn, Louise C. Youtie [und] Herbert C. Youtie.”

Koln, 1969

From the Series: “Papyri Coloniensia.”

Translations of Greek papyri, see plates.

See Universities of Michigan and Cologne which now house the originals


PETEHARSEMTHEUS: (Greek and Demotic) archive of

“private archive of Peteharsemtheus son of Panobchounis”

[from 150-88 BCE] See

P.Grenf. 02; P.Lond. 03; P.Strass. 02; P.Strass.dem.; P.Heid.; BGU.

For a complete list of texts, click:


PETERHOUSE: (Latin?) manuscript

[B_545,SIBL] CATNYP# OMW (Equatorie of the planetis)

“Equatorie of the planetis; edited from Peterhouse Ms. 75.I by Derek J. Solla Price. With a linguistic analysis

by R. M. Wilson.”

Cambridge, 1955.

The medieval manuscripts of Peterhouse were described by M. R. James in A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of Peterhouse, Cambridge, 1899. They are on deposit in the University Library and may be consulted here in accordance with the usual procedures for the reading of manuscripts. Photography of any kind is restricted.

See KESKINTO; PALMISTRY; CLOCKS (work by Derek Price)



PETESI or PETESE or PETEESI: petition of

See this link to a ~450 BCE inscription?

([Certainly predates] Reign of Darius II?)

Discovered at TEUZOI.



In the words of the editor F. Ll. Griffith "by far the most important of the papyri from El Hibeh is the great roll of the Petition or memorial of Peteesi, nearly 4 1/4 metres or 14 feet in length, and closely written over the whole of the recto and five-sixths of the verso." There are four principal divisions of this lengthy document. Three are of interest.

The first five columns describe the harsh treatment afforded a certain priest Petesi in the years immediately following the 9th year of Darius [II?]. Griffith summarizes their content as:

Events of the 9th and following years of Darius, viz. Peteesi's unwilling evidence on the causes of the ruin of Teuzoi, his sufferings and imprisonment, followed by a murderous attack on him by the priests: his petition to the "Governor" or satrap (?) for protection, the revengeful burning of his house, the end being his return to Teuzoi, after more than a year's absence, under a guarantee of safety and protection, but without compensation for the injuries done to him or any attention to the rights which he claimed through his ancestors in the temple of Teuzoi.

See Petition 30.





PETRA: (Christian; Greek and other) papyri; from Jordan settlement


A number of [carbonized] texts of potentially major significance have been uncovered [by ACOR] at Petra following two months of excavations in areas immediately adjacent to the Byzantine church.


In December 1993 a great number of carbonized papyrus rolls were found during the excavations of a Byzantine church in Petra, Jordan. The find contained dozens of legal and financial documents of a local family, written in Greek during the sixth century AD. The rolls were opened and conserved by a Finnish team directed by Professor Jaakko Frösén. The papyri are being edited by a group of over a dozen scholars from the Universities of Helsinki and Michigan. The first volume (Petra Papyri Volume I, edited by J. Frösén and A. Arjava) will be published in 2001/2.

P.Petra I = The Petra Papyri, ed. J. Frösén, A. Arjava and M. Lehtinen with contributions by Z.T. Fiema, C.A. Kuehn, T. Purola, T. Rankinen, M. Vesterinen and M. Vierros. Amman 2002.


PETRIE: [London college museum] (Author) Greek papyri and ostraca

Sir William Flinders Petrie. [1853-1942].

See RMP.

See also:

Abu Sir; Abydos; Cubit; Kahun; Giza; Sinai and Thebes.


(as per D. Fowler) Seek P. Petrie ii, 39c.9. Math content. 300 BCE. Greek?

Follow this link for Petrie Museum [Curator: S. Quirke] information.


Follow this link for Petrie biographical information.



(as per A. E. Berriman) Pursue cubit info in Petrie’s works:

1. “Inductive Metrology”, 1877. [B_184]

2. “Ancient Weights and Measures”, 1926 [B_187].

3. “Wisdom of the Egyptians”, 1940. [B_397].


[B_184,8.5,SIBL] CATNYP# *ZV-32, “Inductive Metrology; or, The recovery of ancient measures from the monuments”, [microform], by Flinders Petrie, London, 1877.

The most accurately worked chamber for induction from the Giza Pyramids is the King’s chamber. Revealing a cubit of 20.627 inches.

See p. 58-62 for more cubit data. See tables.

See Edfou nilometer for varied fingers in cubit.

See [B_299]


[B_185,8.5,SIBL] CATNYP# VBDB (Petrie, W.M.F. Measures and Weights), “Measures and Weights by Flinders Petrie.”,London 1934.

Brief cubit info.


[B_187,8.5,frag, IMG, wedge] CATNYP# *OBM+(British School of Archaeology in Egypt and Egyptian Research Account. [Publications] no. 39), “Ancient Weights and Measures”, London, 1926. [Petrie]

Mention of a wood Roman Cubit with bronze ends.

Mention of rods and fragments from Gurob.

See Plates/sketches.



(as per E. G. Turner) (Greek) P. Petrie = The Flinders Petrie Papyri, ed. J. P. Mahaffy and J. G. Smyly, Dublin, 1891-1905.

Vol i, 1891 (Royal Irish Academy, Cunningham Memoirs, No. viii) + pt. II, Plates.


Vol ii, 1893 (Cunningham Memoirs, No. ix) + Plates.


Vol iii, 1905 (Cunningham Memoirs, No. xi) + Plates.


[B_180b,8.5,IMG, v. 2] CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t. 82, “Hommages Serge Sauneron, Cairo, 1979.

See volume two, mention of P. Petrie II, IV, 9,

dated to (250 BCE.).


[B_198,8.5,IMG] CATNYP# *OBM (British School of Archaeology in Egypt and Egyptian Research Account. [Publications] no. 15)

“Memphis I”, London, 1909. by William Matthew Flinders Petrie.

Included on Plate X is the image from the Temple fragment housed in Scotland. See Khaemwese.


As per [B_267] See Petrie’s

“Egypt and Israel”, 1911, London.


Pronounce: Pee-Tree!


[B_397,IGNR,no copy]

CATNYP# *OBM+ (British School of Archaeology in Egypt and Egyptian Research Account. [Publications] [no. 63])

“Wisdom of the Egyptians. With 128 figures. By Flinders Petrie, kt, …” London, 1940.

Visited on 1/5/02 Somewhat useful in seeking further info of water clocks and measures.

Mostly info repeated elsewhere in Petrie’s works.

See CONSTRUCTION: metal, wood and stonework described.


O. Petr. 76: (Greek; from THEBES)


P.Petr. 1.intro,pg43.: (Greek)


P.Petr.2: The Petrie Papyri, Second Edition

(Greek; 238 bce; from Krokodilon)

By permission of the museum manager, Sally MacDonald, and the

curator, Dr. Stephen Quirke, we announce the plan for an edition of

several volumes of ostraca housed in the Petrie Museum of University

College London. The volumes will provide editions of all the Greek

ostraca (later on also including the Demotic and Coptic ones), and

will be published in the series "Papyrologica Florentina", ed. R.

Pintaudi, Firenze, Edizione Gonnelli.

The first volume is to contain the Greek texts, both published and


Demotic papyrus bearing 21 columns of a Ptolemaic census-return. Math.

See also NESPTAH.


(as per T.E. Peet) see Pap. Petrograd 1116A recto.




Petrograd is now called Leningrad.



PHAISTOS: (undeciphered, pre-Greek, raised stamp!) disk from the Minoan palace at Island of Crete


See possible decipherments:


See this image:


See numerous possible decipherment works by: Faucounau, Jean


The Phaistos series contains 47 unique characters [! I only found 45 - see below] based on the cryptic hieroglyphic symbols depicted on the infamous Phaistos Disk. Measuring approximately 16cm in diameter, the Phaistos Disk was excavated in 1908 at the Minoan palace at Hagia Triada in Crete. The glyphs have not been conclusively deciphered to this day. Both sides of the clay disk are imprinted with signs which have been stamped in a spiral fashion, grouped in sets of two to seven symbols divided by vertical lines. There are a total of 241 symbols depicted on the disk, of which 45 [why 47 above?] are unique, depicting familiar objects like people, body parts, animals, weapons and plants.


PHAISTOS: (imprinted and enigmatic linear A) disk

See PSEIRA; [B_515,rvw]

My notes on file with [B_515] for no reason. Visit the image grid!

See excellent image of this item. See the image grid for analysis.
[I believe] one "word" found is likely to be numerical.

PHILADELPHIA: University; papyri; See FAYUM


PHILADELPHIE: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) P. Phil. + Papyrus de Philadelphie (Publ. de la Societe Fouad I de Papyrologie, vii), ed. Jean Scherer, Cairo, 1947.


Philadelphia AKA Darb-el-Gerza.


P.Phil.: Papyrus de Philadelphie

P.Phil. 1. Dossier concerning liturgical obligations and exemptions of weavers: (Greek; 103 AD)



PHILIPS or PHILLIPPS: (AE; Latin) manuscripts; papyri

Recovered from mummy cartonnage.

(as per J. Janssen) see LEIDEN.




[B_018,OS,PRCHS] CATNYP# *OBR+96-4441 "Late Ramesside Letters and Communications" by Janssen, Jac, J., 1991.

Includes images, see also LEIDEN and TURIN.


The Bodleian has extensive resources for the study of Sir Thomas Phillipps (1792-1872) and his unparalleled collection of manuscripts. These include, on the open shelves in Duke Humfrey's Library:

One of the few complete copies of his Catalogus librorum manuscriptorum in Bibliotheca Phillippica (2 vols., Middle Hill, 1837-[71])…


Purchase (formerly Sir Thomas Phillipps): P.Duk.inv. 739



PHILO: (Greek) codex of

See Barcelona


(as per E. G. Turner) Greek.


To quote C. H. Roberts,

"There can in my opinion be no doubt that all these fragments [ of (P.Barc. inv. 1)] come from the same codex which was reused as packing for the binding of the late third century codex of Philo." [Manuscript, Society and Belief in Early Christian Egypt, Oxford University Press, 1979, p. 13.]


Philo, from the Greek colony of Byzantium, was active in Alexandria and Rhodos about 200 B.C. He is famous as one of the earliest teachers of military engineering, and is known to have written technical and scientific works, including one on fluid mechanics.”



PHILOSOPHY: not so disimilar



[B_326,HOUSE] CATNYP# JFC 72-1338

[Machiavelli, Niccolo, 1469-1527]

“The Discourses. Edited with an introduction by Bernard Crick, using the translation of Leslie J. Walker with revisions by Brian Richardson.”

England, 1970.


[B_327,HOUSE] CATNYP# *O-*OGDK 86-1732



“The Koran” [Quran]

Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Penguin Books, 1974.


[B_328,HOUSE] CATNYP# *OLWF 96-634

“Heartwood of the Bodhi Tree : the Buddha’s teaching on voidness / Buddhad asa Bhikku ; edited by Santikaro Bhikku ; original translation from the Thai by Dhammavicayo.”

Boston, Wisdom Publications, c1994.


[B_329,HOUSE] CATNYP# *OVS (Lao-Tzu. Tao te ching)

“Tao te ching.”

London, Published for the Buddhist Society by Allen & Unwin [1959].

Note alternate house version.


[B_330,HOUSE] CATNYP# *OLWL 93-199

“The Tibetan book of living and dying / Sogyal Rinpoche ; edited by

Patrick Gaffney and Andrew Harvey.”

San Francisco, California, Harper San Francisco, c1992.


[B_333,rvw] CATNYP# *OBZ 97-2793

French title: “Dieux Egyptiens.”

“Daily life of the Egyptian Gods / Dimitri Meeks, Christine Favard-Meeks ; translated from the French by G. M. Goshgarian.”

Ithica : Cornell University Press, 1996.

See paper by L. Bailey; “Weltende.” [B_333b,8.5]


[B_,HOUSE;lent to B. Lorber] CATNYP

“Tuesdays with Morrie / an old man, a young man, and life’s greatest lesson.” By Mitch Albom, Doubleday, 1997.

This touching gift was given to me by M. St. John.

The lesson is not lost on me.



“Aristotle’s Poetics, Etc. And Demetrius on Style, Edited by Reverend

T. A. Moxon. M. A.” AKA

“Aristotle’s Poetics, Demetrius on Style, And Selections from

Aristotle’s Rhetoric together with Hobbes” Digest and Horace’s Ars

Poetica” Pub.: London & Toronto; J.M. Dent & Sons LTD.; NY: E.P.

Dutton & Co. Inc.

[Number 901 of the “Everyman’s Library series of ? 1934.]



PHOEBAMMON: inscriptions and ostraca and graffiti from Coptic

Monastery of

(as per ZPE, D. Fowler) Seek tables of squared numbers. (math).

In [B_109] below, see mural 97.


(as per CATNYP) [B_109,8.5,NO IMG] CATNYP# *OCF 75-2125

“Le Monastere de Phoebammon dans la Thebaide”,

Bachatly, Charles, Cairo, 1981.

See Tome 2 for (math)

multiplication tables from Murals 10 and 186.

This text refers to “Die Koptischen Ostraka der Papyrussammlung der Osterreichischen Nationalbibliothek”, 1960.


(as per CATNYP) [B_110,MICRO,HOLD] CATNYP# *XMM-563

“Note sur la decouverte du Monastere de Phoebammon dans la montagne

thebaine [microform] / par Mirrit Boutros Ghali Bey.” Cairo 1948.


PHOENICIANS: (Ancient) Sea Peoples

(as per personal correspondence; LB; 100802)

Roaf, Michael.  _Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East._ Facts of File, New York, 1998. pp. 176-7.



The archaic Phoenician alphabet, that is in the origin of all actual alphabets, appeared for the first time in Biblos. The [unspecified!] ancient document inscription was discovered in Akhiram and it is dated of the 13 Th [?!] century BC. [See next link]

The oldest known Phoenician inscription was found in the Ahiram epitaph at Byblos,
Lebanon, dating from about the 11th century BC [from the sarcophagus of King Hiram at the National Museum of Beirut ] Scholars think the alphabet

Inscriptions found on the sarcophagus of Eshmounazar (discovered in 1858 and now in the Louvre Museum) relate that he and his mother Amashtarte (servant of Astarte) built temples to the god of Sidon.


CATNYP# *OBD+ (Institut de France. Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres. Corpus inscriptionum semiticarum ab Academia inscription)

“Corpus inscriptionum Semiticarum ab academia inscriptionum et litterarum humaniorum conditum atque digestum.”

Paris, 1881. See plate; CIS i 5.

PHOENICIAN means “purple people”




PI: the quest for

RMP=~3.1605=256/81; Area of circle=[(8/9)*D]^2.

Torah=3 (and others)

Babylon= (3 + 1/7) or (3 + 1/8)

Chinese=sqrt 10


See the KESKINTO Inscription.

See AE papyrus; Berlin 6619.


PIANKHY: (AE) victory stele

(as per EEF; J. Baker) See 23rd Dynasty Ruler, King Luput I.


AKA Piye; Piay; Piankhi


Now at the CAIRO Museum.

“the stela, being the report about a military intervention, contains rich information on military matters, unique for the 8th century B.C. This concerns the military organization, its social status, and questions of ethnic background.”


'The Negatives n and nn in the Piye (Piankhy) Stela', in RdE 31, pp 66-80, 1979.


PIERPONT MORGAN: collections; papyri; Library

See LEUVEN papyrus collections

\7/ For the most updated public list of the papyri at the Pierpont Morgan Library, see the Leuven Homepage of Papyrus Collections Worldwide by Willy Clarisse et al., in the “collections” folder under New York --

 -- and for general information on papyri collections --



PITAGORAS: (Greek) Murderer of truth

The earliest surviving reference to Pythagoras' studies in Egypt appears in the work Busiris, written ca. 390 B.C. by the Greek philosopher Isocrates. See Isocrates, Vol. lll, p. 119. Harvard University Press, 1961.



See [B_390; KESKINTO]

PITHOM: ancient city, stele

(as per D. Meeks) seek Tell el-Maskhoutah and Stele de Pithom.


See this related link.


Jewish Passover Ceremony includes prayer book (Hagaddah) with reference to the AE store-cities of Pithom and Rameses.



(as per AEB 85.1358) See work by Weimar, Peter, on probable proximity of Pithom and Ramses to Wadi - Tumilat.


Mwqd= The Red Sea? The Sea of Reeds?


Possibly Pithom=Per-Atum

Possibly Rameses=Pi-Rameses


(as per M. St. John)

Pi-Rameses is the possible source of the Hyksos period RMP.



THIERS, Christophe, La Stèle de Pithom et les douanes de Philadelphe (Pithom, l. 10), GM 157
(1997), 95-101.


PITHOM: Store city for Pharaoh built by Jewish slaves.


(as per J. Holladay; personal correspondence; 051002)

Most of what is circulated <snip> on Pithom, etc., is second-hand, and distinctly dated.  I.e., it's mostly

dead wrong.<snip>

For a preliminary report on the University of Toronto's 1978-79 excavations at Tell el-Maskhuta, see John S. Holladay, Jr, et. al., Cities of the Delta, Part III.  Tell el-Maskhuta:  Prelilminary Report on the Wadi Tumilat Project 1978-1979.  American Research Center in Egypt, [ARCE] Reports, vol. 6.  Undena Publications, Malibu 1962.


PLATO: (Greek) Philosopher/Mathematician

Who should have saved SOCRATES!



See also the ODYSSEY by HOMER.



[B_399,alt HOUSE]

CATNYP# *R-NRDY P697 .W892

“Plato / with an English translation by Harold North Fowler ; introduction by W. R. M. Lamb.”

Cambridge, 1921-1990 (1984-1996 printing)

See P. 225 of PHAEDO: (Socrates discourse)

“For the body when shrunk and embalmed, as the manner is in Egypt, may remain almost entire through infinite ages; and even in decay, there are still some portions, such as the bones and ligaments, which are practically indestructible: -Do you agree?”


See P. 248-9 of PHAEDO:

“Well; but let me tell you something more. There was a time when I thought that I understood the meaning of greater and less pretty well; and I saw a great man standing by a little one, I fancied that one was taller than the other by a head; or one horse would appear to be greater than another horse: and still more clearly did I seem to perceive that ten is two more than eight, and that two cubits are more than one, because two is the double of one.”


See P. 254 of PHAEDO:

“In like manner you would be afraid to say that ten exceeded eight by, and by reason of, two; but would say by, and by reason of, number; or you would say that two cubits exceed one cubit not by a half, but by magnitude?-for there is the same liability to error in all these cases.”


See P. 340 of REPUBLIC II:

“Then, I said, let us begin and create in idea a State; and yet the true creator is necessity, who is the mother of our invention.”


See P. 347 of REPUBLIC II:

“Then a slice of our neighbors’ land will be wanted by us for pasture and tillage, and they will want a slice of ours, if, like ourselves, they exceed the limit of necessity, and give themselves up to the unlimited accumulation of wealth?

That, Socrates, will be inevitable.

And so we shall go to war, Glaucon. Shall we not?

Most certainly he replied.”


See P. 351 of REPUBLIC II:

“Why, a dog, whenever he sees a stranger, is angry; when an acquaintance, he welcomes him, although the one has never done him any harm nor the other any good. Did this never strike you as curious?

The matter never struck me before; but I quite recognise the truth of your remark.

And surely this instinct of the dog is very charming;

-your dog is a true philosopher.”


See P. 362 of REPUBLIC II:

“But no mad or senseless person can be a friend of God.

Then no motive can be imagined why God should lie?”


See P. 369 of REPUBLIC III:

“If, then, the ruler catches anybody beside himself lying in the State, he will punish him for introducing a practice which is equally subversive and destructive of ship or State.”


See P. 423 of REPUBLIC IV:

“What do you mean? I said; you should have more feeling for them. When a man cannot measure, and a great many others who cannot measure declare that he is four cubits high, can he help believing what they say?”


See P. 441 of REPUBLIC IV:

“…I mean, for example, that the science of house-building is a kind of knowledge which is defined and distinguished from other kinds…”


See P. 444 of REPUBLIC IV:

“…anger at times goes to war with desire…”


See P. 687 of REPUBLIC X:

“…He [Er the son of Armenius] said that when his soul left the body he went on a journey with a great company.


See P. 691 of REPUBLIC X:

“Virtue is free, and as a man honours or dishonours her he will have more or less of her; the responsibility is with the chooser – “


See [B_390; KESKINTO]

PLB: Published Texts



PLB=Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava


Re: P. dem. Zen. 19

(republished by Pestman in P.L.B. 20, Leiden,1980, 25-30)

a bilingual text where the Greek Harmais = Hr-m-Hb in the demotic.


PLIMPTON: (Babylonian cuneiform) tablet

The Plimpton 322 tablet (from Babylon)

written upon a clay tablet with a stylus.

Cuneiform. Math. Pythagorus’ triples.


(as per M. Gardner) See “The Book of Numbers.”

By John Conway.




See this work by F. Gnaedinger:


(as per HM; P. Ross; Santa Clara University)

Neither Sherlock Holmes nor Babylon: A Reassessment of Plimpton 322,

Eleanor Robson.  Historia Mathematica 28:3 (August 2001) 167-206.


Plimpton 322 is a catalogue name of a famous clay cuneiform tablet that was excavated illegally in the 1920's and whose contents were published in 1945.  It is extremely old-18th century BC-and represents Old Babylonian mathematics, "the oldest known body of 'pure' mathematics in the world".  According to the author, a distinguished Orientologist at Oxford University, the generally-accepted interpretation of Plimpton 322 as a primitive trigonometry table has been based on a Sherlock Holmesian approach that rests only on internal mathematical inferences.  She presents an alternate interpretation that draws also on cultural, linguistic, and archaeological evidence, and that places Plimpton 322 in its proper "mathematico-historical setting".  She admits that part of her article is "deliberately provocative and polemical", and she uses Plimpton 322 as a case study for criticizing some of the common methodology of the history of ancient mathematics.  Noting that simple mathematics does not necessarily have a simple history, she observes that the general histories of mathematics (she names familiar names) are seriously out of date on Mesopotamian mathematics…


The exhaustive analysis in the article is more historical than mathematical and is not for the faint-hearted.  Interested CMJ readers should look first at the author's abbreviated and simplified version.:

"Words and Pictures: New Light on Plimpton 322", American Mathematical Monthly, to appear.

See my Plimpton 322 analysis dated 080603,

prepared at Cape Cod, on file with [B_359];

See IMAGE GRID: grid.htm


See MCT and See also HAMA


J Friberg, Methods and traditions of Babylonian mathematics.
Plimpton 322, Pythagorean triples, and the Babylonian triangle
parameter equations, Historia Mathematica 8 (1981), 277-318.


PLINY: (the elder) surviving works of

Pliny: (1) Pliny the elder, §2(i): Natural History: Introduction

Codex Bodley (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Mex. d.1)




PM: (AE) reference text

PM=Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs and Paintings, B. Porter and R. Moss.

(CATNYP # *O *OBI 86-874).

Bertha Porter, Oxford, 1960. See second edition [B_254, 8.5].

An excellent source for other obscure sources, maps.



POMMERSFELD[EN]: (Greek) papyri

P.Pommersf.: Ein frühbyzantinisches Szenario für die Amtswechslung in der Sitonie

Fr. 3 Verso (Zach. III.b): (Greek)

[A early Byzantine scenario for the office-changing in the Sitonie?]


PPG=P.Pommers.=Ein frühbyzantinisches Szenario für die Amtswechslung in der Sitonie: Die griechischen Papyri aus Pommersfelden (PPG) mit einem Anhang über die Pommersfeldener Digestenfragmente und die Überlieferungsgeschichte der Digesten, ed. A. J. B. Sirks, P. J. Sijpesteijn, K. A. Worp. Munich 1996. (Münch.Beitr. 86). [o.e. Beck]



POSIDIPPUS OF PELLA: (Greek) poems by

Article: poems found on a papyrus scroll inside a mummy:


POTTER: (Greek) prophecy of; papyrus

(as per EEF; M. Tilgner)

"Prophecy of the Potter":

LAe 6, 621-623, s.v. "Toepferorakel"


L. Koenen, Die Prophezeiungen des "Toepfers", in: ZPE, vol. 2,

178-209, 1968

[edition of the Greek papyri]

L. Koenen, Die Prophezeiung des Toepfers, in: ZPE, vol. 3, 137-138,


L. Koenen, Bemerkungen zum Text des Toepferorakels und zu dem

Akaziensymbol, in: ZPE, vol. 13, 313-319, 1974


L. Koenen, A Supplementary Note on the Date of the Oracle of the

Potter, in: ZPE, vol. 54, 9-13, 1984


F. Dunand, L'Oracle du Potier et la formation de l'apocalyptique en

Egypte, in: L'Apocalyptique, Paris 1977 (Etudes d'Histoire des

Religions, vol. 3), pp. 39-67


A. Kerkeslager, The Apology of the Potter: A Translation of the

Potter's Oracle, in: I. Shirun-Grumach (ed.), Jerusalem Studies in

Egyptology, Wiesbaden, 1998 (Aegypten und Altes Testament, vol. 40),

pp. 67-79


"Prophecy of the Potter":

There is a high-resolution scan of the original Greek papyrus on the



See Oxyrhynchus.


(as per L. Bailey; excerpted from J. Griffiths)

“The Nile will flow not having sufficient water, but only a little, so that the earth is scorched…”

POTTERY: a weak timeline indicator

(as per E. Brink; EEF; 060302)

I am looking for a forum to discuss the meaning and function of

pottery-incised marks/signs - for want of better for the time being

simply referred to as potmarks (or potter's marks) systematically

applied, with only few exceptions, nearly always before firing of

the vessel. They are applied to a limited repertoire of rather

standardized vessels mainly of First Dynasty vintage (with close to

4000 potmarked ceramic vessels recorded). Primarily, they are on

tall storage jars, sometimes referred to as 'wine jars'. They are also

found on medium-sized, ovoid vessels, frequently referred to as

'beer jars'. Both types appear in large numbers in the tombs of the

kings and their courtiers/officials interred at Umm el-Ga'ab,

[aka Om El Gaab [or UMM EL QAAB at Abydos]

Abydos (over 2100 potmarked records) and at Saqqara (over 750

potmarked records). They are also found in lesser quantities in

other, contemporary, mainly Lower Egyptian, cemeteries (including

Minshat Abu Omar [322 records], Tarkhan [246 records], Abu Roash

[204 records], Turah [124 records], Abusir [61 records], Helwan

[c. 50 records], Kafr Hassan Daud etc.). By the way, with the obvious

exception of the royal cemetery at Abydos and the large niched

mudbrick tomb in Naqada (cf. Kahl et al. 2001) - almost all of

remaining potmarked 'wine jars' wound up in Lower, rather than Upper

Egyptian cemeteries, something that has surprisingly never caused

much excitement.


The main objective of my pilot study {“Corpus and Numerical

Evaluation of the 'Thinite' Potmarks, published in R. Friedman and B.

Adams (eds.),

“The Followers of Horus. Studies Dedicated to the Memory of Michael

Allen  Hoffman”. Egyptian Studies Association Publication No. 2.

Oxbow Monograph 20: pp. 265-296}, was to do away with some of

the more tedious preparatory work and make the collection of (then)

just over 3600 incised pot/potters' marks more easily accessible to

scholars, in the hope that it would stimulate a debate as to the

meaning and/or function of these potmarks. Although ever so often references are made in literature to my 1992 study - sometimes for totally the wrong reason(s) - the main issue concerning the actual meaning/function of these potmarks remains unaddressed, the appearance of a number of recent articles dealing directly or indirectly with Proto and/or Early Dynastic potmarks (and pottery-incised serekh-signs) notwithstanding (e.g. van den Brink 1996; Engel 1997; Dreyer 1999; Gilroy 2001; Gilroy et al. 2001; Jeminez-Serrano 2001; van den Brink 2001; van den Brink and Braun 2001; Kroeper 2000; Koehler and van den Brink 2002).


Scholarly opinion varies from these potmarks being graphic vestiges of a predynastic, Lower Egyptian so called “Buto-script”, a presumed direct precursor of pan-egyptian Ancient Egyptian writing (Helck 1990: 2) to an independent notation system, not necessarily related to script in sensu strictus ( Kahl 1994: 150).


Those who are interested to join this potmark forum are kindly requested to (re?)read my 1992 publication, since it contains most of the factual ingredients necessary for generating a hopefully stimulating debate.  

In my opinion, key to understanding the function of these incised

potmarks is - in a nut-shell - understanding the system that

generates them; some of the underlying rules/regularities of

this system are:


The potmarks consist of either


a.   single, individual signs (in abstraction here referred to as e.g.

potmark A*, potmark B* etc.); more than 70 different signs are

attested to thus far, that is almost 30% of all potmarks recorded

for this period. Some, coincidentally or not, resemble hieroglyphs,

e.g. k3, ntr and njw.t-like potmarks and marks depicting e.g. a

fish or bird.


b.   more frequent are combinations of two individual signs

(e.g. A*B*, A*C* etc.), that is c. 55% of all potmarks recorded


c.   much less frequent are combinations of three individual

signs (A*B*C*), that is c. 12% of all potmarks recorded


d. combinations of four or more individual signs (A*B*C*D*

or A*B*C*D*E*) are very  rare (c. 3%)


In addition to the various observations made in my 1992 study, I

would like to add a few additional points for discussion: van

den Brink 1992, Fig. 5 clearly indicates that the systematic

application of potmarks is gaining serious momentum in the

reign of King Djer. Is it just a coincidence or is there some causal

relation with the fact that according to Wilkinson (1999:121) the

earliest royal domains and estates are known to have started

with that very same king Djer?  The names of e.g. various domains

(attested to from king Djer through King Qa'a and always written

within a framed enclosure), are preserved on cylinder seal

impressions found in some of the very same tombs as the

potmarked vessels. In this respect, it is of interest to note, with

Helck (1985: 636, n.5) that during the reign of Semerkhet the

vessels themselves are -by exception- incised with the domain

mark of Semerkhet while at the same time it is only during his

reign that the sealed clay cones (with indication of the domain)

are lacking. Any constructive discussion concerning potmarks,

therefore, should eventually also take the data contained on

impressed sealings (frequently mentioning names and titles

of the various kings and their officials; cf. Kaplony 1963) into

consideration!  It is equally of interest to observe that all

pottery-incised Semerkhet domain marks are accompanied

by an additional incised sign or combination of (two) signs,

attested to also on (earlier) wine jars, appearing independently,

viz.  without any domain mark.


Many potmarks have a rather broad time span, encompassing

one or more successive reigns from kings Djer-Dewen (frequently

recorded) and beyond, through the reigns of Anedjib, Semerkhet

and Qa'a (less frequently recorded). For a quick overview of the

'lifetime/timespan per potmark, cf. Helck 1990.


Any suggestion as how to get closer to a better understanding

of the meaning and or function of the Early Dynastic potmarks

would be very much appreciated. My own suggestions - but

nothing more than that - concerning possible function of these

very systematically incised potmarks can be found

in my 1992 paper, p. 275, left column, last paragraph).


Edwin C.M. van den Brink




Dreyer, G. 1999

Ein Gefaess mit Ritzmarke des Narmer. Mitteilungen des Deutschen

Archaeologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo 55: 1-6.


Engel, E-M. 1997

Zu den Ritzmarken der 1. Dynastie. Lingua Aegyptia 5: 13-27.


Gilroy, T. 2001

'Forgotten' Serekhs in the Royal Ontario Museum. Goettinger




Gilroy, T.D., Adams, B., Hendrickx, S. and van den Brink, E.C.M. 2001

A Checklist of Sherds from Petrie's Excavations in the Royal Necropolis at Umm el-Ga'ab, Abydos. Goettinger Miszellen 182: 31-58. [aka Om El Gaab at Abydos]


Helck, W. 1985

Topfmarke. LdAe.


Helck, W. 1990

Thinitische Topfmarken. Aegyptologische Abhandlungen, Band 50.


Otto Harrassowitz.


Jimenes-Serrano, A. 2001

The Origin of the Palace-Facade as Representation of Lower Egyptian


Goettinger Miszellen 183.


Kahl, J. 1994

Das System der aegyptischen Hieroglyphenschrift in der 0.-3. Dynastie.

Goettinger Orientforschungen. IV. Reihe Aegypten. Band 29. Wiesbaden.


Kahl, J., Bagh, T., Engel, E-M., Petschel, S. 2001

Die Funde aus dem 'Menesgrab' in Naqada: ein Zwischenbericht. MDAIK 57: 171-185.


Kaplony, P. 1963

Die Inschriften der aegyptischen Fruehzeit. Band 8, I-III. Aegyptologische

Abhandlungen, Baender 8, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.


Koehler, E. C. and J. Smythe, in press.

Early Dynastic Pottery from Helwan - Establishing a Ceramic

Corpus of the Naqada III Period. Cahiers de la Ceramique Egyptienne 7.


Kroeper, K. 2000

Corpus of Potmarks from The Pre/Early Dynastic Cemetery at Minshat

Abu Omar

(Northeastern Delta, Egypt). Pp. 187-218 in L. Krzyzaniak, K. Kroeper and M. Kobusiewicz (eds.), Recent Research into The Stone Age of Northeastern Africa. Poznan: Poznan Archaeological Museum.


van den Brink, E.C.M. 1992.

- The Incised Serekh-Signs of Dynasties 0-1. Part I: Complete

Vessels. In J.

Spencer (ed.), Aspects of Early Egypt. London: 140-158.


-2001. Some Comments in the Margins of “The Origin of the Palace-Facade as

Representation of Lower Egyptian Elites”. Goettinger Miszellen 183.


-in press. The Pottery-Incised Serekh-Signs of Dynasties 0-1. Part II:

Fragments and Additional Complete Vessels. Archeo-Nil 11.


van den Brink, E.C.M. and Braun, E.  2002.

Wine Jars with Serekhs from Early Bronze Lod: Appellation Valee du Nil Controlee, but for whom? Pp. in E.C.M. van den Brink and E. Yannai, (eds.), In Quest of Ancient Landscapes and Settlements. Archaeological Studies in Honour of Ram Gophna. Tel Aviv: Ramot Publishing House, Tel Aviv University.

Distributed by the Israel Exploration Society, Jerusalem.


Wilkinson, T.A.H. 1999. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge: London and New York.

PRAGENSES: (Greek) papyri

Prag.: Papyri Graecae Wessely Pragenses

P.Prag. 1.9. Imperial rescript (?): (Greek; 298 AD)


P.Prag.Varcl: Papyri Wessely Pragenses

P.Prag.Varcl 1.1.: (Greek; AD 254; from Theadelphia)



See PRAGENSIS below.



PRAGENSIS: (Latin) Codex{232}uhbyzantinisches+Szenario



PRAXIS: (German) alchemical work and/or (Hebrew) arithmetic work.



Praxis means practice!

Praxis Spagyrica Philosophica & From One To Ten - Frater Albertus”

$37.95 Hardcover 144 Pp.

A special, limited edition classic reprint for collectors of alchemical writings, which combines two works. "Praxis Spagyrica Philosophica: Plain and Honest Directions on How to Make the [Philosophers] Stone, is an anonymous work translated from the German 1711 edition, and includes Albertus' commentary, while "From One to Ten: A Treatise on the Origin and Extension of the Prime Manifestation on the Physical Plane is Albertus' original work. Includes 11 color plates.

[051505_as per anonymous personal correspondence; Thank You]
Frater ALBERTUS IS THE PSEUDONYM of Dr Albert Richard Reidel

See [B_421] below:


[B_421,rvw,SIBL] CATNYP# PKD (Praxis spagyrica philosophica)

"Praxis Spagyrica Philosophica; or, Plain and Honest Directions on how to make the [Philosophers] Stone. Translated into English from the original German first published in Leipzig anno 1711. With a commentary by Frater Albertus.”

Utah, Paracelcus Research Society, 1966.


[B_422,HOUSE,SIBL] CATNYP# JSE 75-1345

"The Alchemist’s Handbook : manual for practical laboratory alchemy / by Frater Albertus. Revised Edition.”

NY, 1974

Paracelsus College Site
Note Dr. Albert Richard Reidel [b. 1911 – d. 1984]
'Confirmation is always available, if that is what you are looking for.' - Frater Albertus Spagyricus


Lange, G. \bk Sefer Maasei Choscheb. Die Praxis der Rechners, ein hebraisch-arithmetisches Werk des Levi ben Gerschom aus dem Jahre 1321. 1909.


Harriot, Thomas. \bk Artis analyticae PRAXIS ad aequationes algebraicas resolvendas. Edited by Warner, W.. 1631





See these links:




PRIMI: (Greek) papyrus

(as per E. G. Turner) See P. Mil. R. Univ.?




PRINCETON: (University; Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) P. Papyrus Roll = A Papyrus roll in the Princeton University Colllection, ed. E. H. Kase, Princeton, 1933.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Princ. = Papyri in the Princeton University Collections, by A. C. Johnson, H. B. van Hoesen, E. H. Kase, jr., and S. P. Goodrich, Baltimore and Princeton, 1931-42, 3 volumes as of 1965.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Princeton Scheide = The John H. Scheide Biblical Papyri: Ezekiel, ed. A. C. Johnson, H. S. Gehman, E. H. Kase, jr., Princeton, 1938.


P.Princ. 1.1. Journal of arrears: (Greek; AD 24; from Philadelphia)



P.Princ.Roll 2nded: (Greek; AD 210; from Philadelphia)

Math; fractions; calendrical data; drachma.


PRISONER: with Patrick McGoohan of SECRET AGENT man




PRISSE: (AE; Hieratic) papyri

Hieratic B.M.# 10371-10435; 10509


(as per S. Lorber) Virey, P. "Etudes sur le papyrus PRISSE", Paris 1887.



[B_021,IGNR] CATNYP# *OBQ 86-1798 (translation without images) "Maxims. English, The instruction of Ptah-hotep & the Instruction of Ke'gemni) 1909. Appendix by Battiscombe G. Gunn. No copies made.


[B_022,PIX,r01-03] CATNYP# OBKQ+(Papyrus Prisse. Papyrus Prisse et ses variantes), 1911.

“Le Papyrus et ses variantes, Papyrus de la Bibliotheque Nationale (Nos 183 a 194), papyrus 10371 et 10435 du British Museum, Tablette Carnarvon au Musee du Caire, publies en fac-simle (16 planches en phototypie) avec introduction par G. Jequier.”

The NYPL allowed me to photograph the oversized pages, (NO FLASH), for personal use only. NO COPIES ALLOWED.


[B_023,IGNR] CATNYP# *OBH+(Ptah-hetep. Maximes de Ptahhotep d'apres le Papyrus Prisse)

"Les Maximes de Ptahhotep d’apres le Papyrus Prisse, les papyrus 10371-10435 et 10459 du British Museum et la tablette Carnarvon; par Eugene Devaud.”

Fribourg, Suisse, 1916.

Has Glyphs and Greek but no Hieratic.


[B_024,PIX,r03] CATNYP# *OBR+++(Prisse d'Avennes (A.C.T.E.) Fac-simile d'un Papyrs Egyptien)

"Fac-simile d’un papyrus Egyptien en caracteres hieratiques, trouve a Thebes donne a la Bibliotheque Royale de Paris et Publie par E. Prisse d’Avennes.”

Paris, Lemercier, 1847.

The NYPL allowed me to photograph the oversized pages, (NO FLASH), for personal use only. NO COPIES ALLOWED.


[B_025,8.5,PRCHS] CATNYP# *OBQ 00-1355

"The teaching of Ptahhotep : with a hieroglyphic transcription of the original hieratic text of Papyrus Prisse / translated, edited, and adapted by Raymond A. McCoy.”

Ft. Lauderdale, Enchiridion Publications, 1998.

Has excellent poetic translations (of the Maxims),

but no images except transcriptions.


[B_025b,HOUSE,(Xmas 2001 LP alt)]

“Teachings of Ptahhotep / The oldest book in the world”

By Hillard, Williams, Damali

(Pamphlet) [$ 6.95]. A weak substitute; NO CATNYP.

References work of Cheikh Anta Diop.


(as per S. Fryer) See Grimal, “A History of AE”, p. 187, Papyrus Prisse contains the Teachings of Ptah-Hotep in the early 17th Dynasty. See Tomb of Inyotef V.

S. Fryer notes that Moeller referred to Prisse P. as 12th Dynasty.


P. Prisse: <From about 1000 years before Moses, God declared himself as follows: “I am the unseen One who created the heavens and all things. I am the Supreme God, made manifest by Myself, and without equal. I am yesterday, and I know the morrow. To every creature and being that exists I am the Law.”>


Jequier, Gustave. Le Papyrus Prisse et ses Variants
(Paris: Librairie Paul Geuthner, 1911)


(as per EEF; M. Tilgner; 090304)
* The Instruction of Ptahhotep
-- Photograph of the Hieratic text (one plate of pPrisse only):
-- Photograph of the Hieratic text of BM 10371 and BM 10435:
-- Hieroglyphic text in: Zbynek Zaba, Les maximes de Ptahhotep, Praha,
pp. 15-65
URL (p. 15):
URL (p. 16):
URL (p. 65):
-- English translation:
-- Hieroglyphic text (typeset) based on: Kurt Sethe, Ägyptische
Leipzig, 1924, pp. 36-42, partial transliteration and English
(by Matt Whealton):
-- Transliteration and English translation (pPrisse)
-- English translation: Lichtheim I, 61-80
-- English translation by: Charles F. Horne, The Sacred Books and Early
Literature of the East, vol. II: Egypt, New York, 1917, pp. 62-78
-- French translation:
-- Hieroglyphic text, transliteration and German translation:
-- German translation by Erik Hornung, Altägyptische Dichtung,
1996, pp. 59-72 (partial)
-- recently: Friedrich Junge, Die Lehre Ptahhoteps und die Tugenden der
ägyptischen Welt, 2003 (OBO 193)


(as per EEF; M. Tilgner; 111104)

[Submitted by Michael Tilgner (]
* The Instruction of Kagemni (pPrisse 1,1 - 2,9)
-- Hieroglyphic text and English translation
-- Hieroglyphic text, transliteration and German translation
-- Bibliography, transliteration and German translation
-- Transliteration and Spanish translation
-- English translations by Joseph Kaster, The Wisdom of Ancient Egypt:
Writings from the Time of the Pharaohs, New York, 1968 and by Alan H.
Gardiner, The instruction addressed to Kagemni and his brethren, in:
JEA, vol. 32, pp. 71-74 (1946)

P.R.U.M.: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) See P. Mil. R. Univ.


PRUM=Papiri della R. Universita di Milano


PSEIRA: (Cretan/Minoan) Bronze Age island settlement of


[B_515,rvw] CATNYP# JFF 02-1837

“Pseira V: The Architecture of Pseira / John C. McEnroe; with contributions from Costis Davaras and Philip P. Betancourt ; edited by Philip P. Betancourt and Costis Davaras.”

Pennsylvania, 2001.

Note the Plateia Building.

Available from OXBOW catalog [B_332 alt]

PSI or P.S.I.: (Greek; Latin) papyri; publication

(as per E. G. Turner) P.S.I.=[PSI] Papiri greci e latini (Pubblicazioni della Societa Italiana per la ricerca dei Papiri grece e latini in Egitto), ed. G. Vitelli, M. Norsa, and others, Florence, 1912 ff.


See also Dai papiri della societa itiliana: omaggio al xi. Congresso int. di Pap., 1965.


PSI Congr.XI: Dai papiri della Societa Italiana: Omaggio all'XI Congresso Internazionale di Papirologia


PSI Congr.XVII: Trenta testi greci da papiri letterari e documentari editi in occasione del XVII Congresso Internazionale di Papirologia

Math; fractions.


PSI Congr.XX: Dai papiri della Società Italiana: Omaggio al XX Congresso Internazionale di Papirologia


PSI Congr.XXI: Dai papiri della Società Italiana: Omaggio al XXI Congresso Internazionale di Papirologia


PSI Corr.: Correzioni e riedizioni di papiri della Società Italiana


PSI: Papiri greci e latini

PSI 1.30. Lease of land: (Greek; AD 82; Hermopolite)


See Lugduno-Batava; [B_447=O_012,NO IMG,8.5]


PTAH-HETEP or Ptahhotep: (OK; AE) tomb of

(as per LEX) See Griffith, F. L. The Tomb of Ptah-hetep, ERA 2, 1898.

Fifth Dynasty mastaba.



P.U.G.: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) P. U. G. = Papyri Universita Genova.

Reprinted in SB 9615 and elsewhere.



PUNT: (African) people of

An extinct [absorbed] African? People from the time of the Old and Middle Kingdoms.


(as per AEMT) The AE [Hatshepsuth and others?] sponsored a voyage

(African circumnavigation?) performed by the Punites.


(as per S. Lorber) It is likely the Punites territory included Ebony wood.


See this French article.


The Egyptians undertook major journeys from very early times. The oldest record of a journey to Punt is on the Palermo stone, dated to the 5th dynasty. During the 11th Dynasty, Henenu with three thousand men transported the materials for building ships through Wadi Hammamat to the coast of the Red Sea.

With: Translation after P.Montet’s: 'La vie quotidienne en Egypte'

Find source and clarify dimensions (if known) of the stele which describes Henunu’s voyage. Clarify CUBIT references.

[B_552,copy via LB]

CATNYP# Sc E 96-301

“The Archaeology of Africa : food, metals, and towns”

Edited by Thurstan Shaw; Paul Sinclair; Bassey Andah; Alex Okpoko.

London, 1993

P-w-n-t [possibly pronounced Pewanet or Epwonat]

Referenced in 5th dynasty entries on the Palermo Stone see reign of

Sahure [~2450 BCE].

Chief of Punt [(Hamitic) Parahu [See PERUAH] ; wife Atiya]

Import/exporters of Myrhh [Commiphore/Balsamodendron]; ebony

[Dalbergia melanoxylon]; ivory; gold in Debens [rings]; Frankincense [Boswellia].

ee illustration on page 598 from the tomb of Puyemre [reign of Thutmosis III; ~1447 BCE; 18th Dynasty. See accounts of quantites of items “imported.”]


Wadi Hammamat on the land route from Red Sea to Punt from Egypt.

See Hammamat texts; dynasty 11.

See reference to Myrhh in Papyrus Harris I.


See reference to Mersa Gasus and Mersa Gawasis


PURCHES: AE papyrus; purchaser

See also related HEKANAKHTE papers.

See also WATSON library.

Viewed on display at the MET. 4/24/02.

12th Dynasty during reign of SENWOSRET I ~1954 BCE.

Content relates the production of flax and includes:

“I praise every God for you every day.”

Hieratic math content.



PUSHKIN: museum papyri

Seek P.Pushkin 127


[W_039,rvw] WATSON# 533.6 C143. "A tale of woe : from a hieratic papyrus in the A. S. Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow / by Ricardo A. Caminos.", Oxford 1977.




PYRAMID: GPS readings

(as per C. Rigano; EEF; 071903)

I had a few requests for the coordinates, so here they are. I took
them a few years ago when the accuracy wasn't quite as good as it is today. Each reading is the result of 100 readings averaged by the GPS. Except where noted, all were at the pyramid corners - the number immediately following the corner is the accuracy the GPS offerred. Read them as degrees-minutes-seconds.

Since the pyramid sides were built to the cardinal points, both east
corners and both west corners should have the same longitude and both north corners and both south corners should have the same latitude. There are a couple cases where they don't match and the readings are wrong.

Of possible interest, in 1874 the center of the Great Pyramid was
determined as 29-58-44.38, 31-7-2. I calculated it as 29-58-46, 31-08-03. As I recall, longitude was harder to determine, resulting in a miss by a


The coordinates follow:


Latitude North
Longitude East

1 second = 101 feet
1 minute = 6,076 feet (1NM)
Cannot determine length of a second, it is variable.



Great Pyramid

SE 34'

NE 42.3'

NW 35.2'

SW 52.9'



NE 41.1'

NW 40.7'

SE 45.2'

SW 38.4'


Khafre [Khufu]

SE 32.7'

NE 34.2'

NW 49.9'

SW 40.4'




NE 42.7'



SE 37.7'



100' N of entrance 36.8'

Pyramid center 32.7'



NE 34.9'

SE 31.4'



NW 42.9'



Amenemhet I

SE 46.8'




NE 36.9'

NW 45.9'



NE 43.8'




SW 37.8'


PYRAMID(S): funerary structures appearing from space!

Feb. 20 [2003] — British archaeologists have discovered the "Egyptian Lourdes," a town dating back to 2,500 B.C. that was probably home to priests, builders working on the pyramids and people who would have earned a living by selling religious objects.

Buried in the desert sand near the necropolis of Saqqara, 15 miles from Cairo, the town has been pinpointed through geophysical imaging. It is lying 20 feet down in the sand, and measures approximately one mile by three-quarters of a mile, an area probably inhabited by 4,000 people.


<snip> Mr Mathieson added: "What we’ve found indicates the town evolved from the Old Kingdom - around 2,500BC - through the reign of Cleopatra, the last of the Ptolemies, and beyond the birth of Christ to about 54AD.


(as per EEF; E, Moyer; August 2002?)

The Bent pyramid at Daschur has the same dimensions as the Flat, except the

base is cut short to make a frustum with a bottom slope of 7/5.


Lehner in The Complete Pyramids gives 105 meters (345 ft) height for both of



He gives the slope of the Flat at 43 deg 22 min.


V. Maragioglio and C. Rinaldi, L'Architettura delle Piramidi Menfite, in

seven volumes, Rapallo, 1964, twice reported Perring for the Flat but

differently in the two reports.


Perring (#1)

Base 219.42 m (418.74 cubits)

Height 104.49 m (199.41 cubits)

Slope 43 deg 36' 11”


Perring (#2)

Base Length 219.28 m (418.47 cubits)

Height 104.42 m (199.27 cubits)

Slope 43 deg 36' 11'


Maragioglio reporting Reisner

Base 218.5 m (416.98 cubits)

Height 104.4 m (199.23 cubits)

Slope 43 deg 31' 11”


>From these reports it would appear that Lehner's slope and heights are off



The slope of a 20-21-29 integral Pythagorean triangle is 43 deg 36' 10”.


For the Bent:


Maragioglio reporting Petrie

Base 188.6 m (359.92 cubits)

Bottom slope 54 deg 31' 13”

Upper slope 43 deg 21'

Height from base to bend 49.07 m (93.64 cubits)

Height from bend to top 56.00 m (106.87 cubits)

Total height (200.51 cubits)


Unfortunately, we do not have comparison measurements from other



You can see that the upper slope of the Bent reported by Maragioglio is the

same as Lehner. Since the heights of the two pyramids are the same, this

slope would extend to the same distance on the base as the Flat.


The slope of 7/5 is 54 deg 27' 44”


This shortens the base by 9/63 parts.


The 63 parts come from the base dimension of the 20-21-29 (multiplied by

three) Pythagorean triangle. This shows how the designers arrived at their





“The supposed Egyptian earthquakes of 184 and 95 B.C. Critical review and some lines of research in historical seismology using Greek papyri from Egypt” - Roberta Mazza, SGA, Storia Geofisica Ambiente, Bologna, Italy



PYRAMIDS: (Sneferu at Daschur?)

(as per F. Yurco; EEF; 080802)

The lower part of Sneferu's masonry still is in situ on the pyramid so only the upper part came down.


(as per J. Legon; EEF; 080802)

The major problem with Mendelssohn's theory is that the masonry missing

from the upper part of the pyramid simply does not exist at the site.

The debris at the base consists mainly of chips of limestone and sand,

with a few larger fragments and dislodged casing-stones thrown in.

My photographs taken during the partial clearance in 1984 show this

composition quite clearly.   There's a more recent photograph in Lehner,

_The Complete Pyramids_ p.99.


Now, if the upper part of the pyramid had collapsed, then literally

thousands of fallen casing-stones would have been found at the base,

mixed up with the rougher masonry of the core.  According to Petrie's

measurements, the fine casing-stones of the stepped core were typically

about a ton in weight.  The blocks of the final outer casing were even

heavier.  It isn't possible to imagine that so many large blocks just

disintegrated when they hit the ground.  The alternation between the

fine white limestone and coarse local limestone used in the successive

coatings of the core, would also have left a pattern in the debris.


As regards Mendelssohn's calculations, these were disputed many years

ago by a soil engineer, in an article published in JEA.  IIRC , Lauer,

Stadelmann, Edwards and Lehner have all rejected Mendelssohn's theory.

Needless to say, an astute observer such as Petrie could hardly have

failed to recognise the evidence for a collapsed pyramid, when he cut

through the debris and located the temple on the east side.



See also SNEFERU

I believe it was the noted scholar Nabil Swelim who was

excavating the Seila Pyramid for the Brigham Young expedition (still headed by

C. Wilfred Griggs) when he found the stela and other evidence that associates

the Seila pyramid with Snefru. I believe that Leonard Lesko had already left

the excavation at the time of the discoveries. Based on personal

communications from Nabil Swelim the evidence removes any doubt that Sneferu

had a cult to himself established there. I do not have Nabil Swelim's letter

in front of me but, If I remember it correctly, the Horus name of Sneferu, Nb-

mAat, was found on the stela and the name snfrw on an offering table.



PYRAMID TEXTS: (AE, BOTD, funerary) inscriptions in pyramids

See Amamu and Ani. See BOOK OF THE DEAD, GIZA.


PYRAMID AKA “mr” as per AE.


On dating them:


(as per E.A. Budge)

Seek work by Maspero on inscriptions within pyramids of:

Unas (last king of 5th Dynasty),

Teta (5th Dynasty),

Pepi I (king of 5th Dynasty),


Mer-en-Ra (4th king of 4th Dynasty),

and Pepi II (5th king of 6th Dynasty).           


See this link to a survey at Abu Rawash.


See Lepsius [B_081].


(as per EEF; D. Kinney)

Try Pyramid Text utterance 263

"This Unas will cross a crossing to the eastern side of the sky.

His sister is Sothis, his birthplace is the twilight."


(as per EEF; E. Cochrane)

Author of Martian Metamorphoses:

The Planet Mars in Ancient Myth and Religion

The Many Faces of Venus:

The Planet Venus in Ancient Myth and Religion


(as per EEF; J. Styles) The best information on Pyramid texts is:


1. The place to start is T[homas] George Allen's Occurrences of Pyramid Texts with Cross Indexes of These and other Egyptian Mortuary Texts, Chicago, 1950, in the dozen or so pages toward the middle of this work which give the location and sequences of then-known texts in Unas, Teti, Pepi I, Merenre, Pepi II, Neit, Apouit, Oudjebten and Ibi.  This source is preferable to [Kurt] Sethe's edition because it incorporates the results of Jequier's excavations in and around the tomb of Pepi II and the numerous texts Jequier published from this source in the 1930's. It both augments Sethe's edition and corrects some of the errors Sethe made in reconstructing the texts on the walls of Pepi II's burial chamber.


2. James P. Allen's Inflection of the Verb in the Pyramid Texts (Malibu,1984) contains in its appendices very useful supplementary information on the reconstructed locations of texts; however, it is not complete: few spruche not known to Sethe are included; and, of course, the most recent  work of the French team in reconstructing the original locations of the texts is not up to date.


3. Some of this additional work is available in the 1997 Lauer Festschrift, in which the French team reconstructing the original sequence of texts in Teti published its findings to that date.  (See the article by Jean Leclant and Catherine Berger in Etudes sur l'ancient empire et la necropole de Saqqara, tome 2, edited by Catherine Berger and Bernard Mathieu, Montpelier,1997.)  Although the reconstruction in this article clearly supersedes the listing of Teti texts in T.G. Allen, it is in small part incomplete because: (a) the authors fail to identify the text in the extreme western three lines of the south wall of the antechamber (it is CT 517); and (b) the authors do not even attempt to reconstruct the texts from the very southern part of the corridor leading to the antechamber from the outside.(Evidently, the original blocks recovered by Sainte Fare Garnot are either lost or unlocated in the Saqqara storerooms).


4.  Finally, James P. Allen has a partial reconstruction of the texts of Apouit and Oudjebten in "The Pyramid Texts of Queens Jpwt and Wd²bt-n.(j)," JARCE 23 (1986) 23, pp 1-26.


5. [Note] To date, no full publication of the texts of Pepi I or Merenre has been issued.  And, of course, the most recently discovered texts--those in the pyramid of Ankh-ns-pepi, Pepi II's mother--have not yet appeared in print.


(as per EEF; T. Sagrillo) Also see:

Labrousse, Audran. 1996. L'Architecture des Pyramides à textes.

Volume 1: Saqqara nord. 2 vols. Bibliothèque d'Étude 114/1­2

(Mission archéologie de Saqqara 3). Cairo: Imprimerie de l'Institut

français d'archéologie orientale du Caire.


(as per EEF; R. Lorenz) Also see:

Kurt Sethe: Die altaegyptischen Pyramidentexte nach den Photographien des Berliner Museums. Vol 3.; Kritischer Apparat. J.C. Hinrichsche Buchhandlung, Leipzig 1922 / Georg Olms, Verlag, Hildesheim-Zuerich-New York 1987 (Nachdruck).


Important discussions concerning the distribution:


Osing, Juergen: Zur Disposition der Pyramidentexte des Unas. in: MDAIK 42, 1986, pp. 131-144. See work by Osing under Tebtunis.


Allen, James P.: Reading a Pyramid. in: Hommages a Jean Leclant. BdE 106, I, 1994, pp. 5-28.


Mathieu, Bernard: La signification du serdab dans la pyramide d'Ounas. [Unas] L'architecture des appartements funeraires royaux a la lumiere des textes des pyramides. in: Berger, Catherine & Bernard Mathieu (Eds.): Etudes sur l'Ancien Empire et la necropole de Saqqara - dediees a Jean-Philippe Lauer.

2 Vols. Orientalia Monspeliensia IX. Montpellier III, 1997, pp. 289-304.



(as per EEF, 2002) New Saqqara tomb:


PYRAMIDIOTS: and other unlikely sources

Edgar Cayce; S. Beswick, Schwaller de Lubicz and his granddaughter Lucy.


orion theory and curved air shafts - all lovely illusions




Note ABU RAWASH pyramid is part of the orion bit

Alignment “dated” to 10.5k BCE see again edgar cayce

Clarify if GIZAH is at the “center of gravity of the earth’s land mass”?

(based on whose confused efforts - by what means)

pyramidiocy reigns.


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See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID