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Last updated 12/25/05



See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID

HALENSIS: (Greek) papyri

See DIKAIOMATA; [O_026] and see SAMMLUNG


HALLE: (Greek) papyri at University of

(as per E. G. Turner) AKA P. HALLE.

P. Hal. = Dikaiomata: Auszuge aus Alexandrinischen Gesetzen und Verordnungen in einem Papyrus des philologischen Seminars der Universitat Halle mit einem Anhang weiterer Papyri derselben Sammlung, ed. By the Graeca Halensis Berlin, 1913.


P.Hal. 1.: (Greek; after 256 bce; from Apollonopolite Magna?)




HAMA: publication


See KESKINTO; see alt interpretation of the Keskinto inscription

VERY different; still no source image.


History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy

By O. Neugebauer

3 volumes; 1975 reprint; springer-verlag

CATNYP# JSE 76-844 (3 volumes) “HAMA”

Copies from v. 1:

698-705: See KESKINTO!

“In 1893 a Greek from Lindos on the Island of Rhodes accidentally discovered in nearby Keskinto [ancient Lartos; ~7 [or 8!] Km west of Lindos; the text does not come from a systematic excavation] a fragmentary astronomical inscription of which he made a squeeze that was sent to Athens and then to Hiller v. Gaertringen in Berlin.  The stone itself was later transported to the museum in Berlin.”

Source images referred to: [fragment roughly 76 x 28 centimeters]

1. Herz [1894], p. 1144 (upside down) [in SBAW or similar]

2. Tannery, Mem. Sci. 15, p. 119

3. Prof. Derek Price [AKA Derek John de Solla Price [1922-1983] of Yale University] obtained a new squeeze after World War II [Item was not destroyed by an act of war].

4. Preliminary notice [indirectly by Hiller von Gaertringen]: Archaeologischer Anzeiger 1894, No. 3, p. 125 =KESKINTO; [B_540]

[See HAMA]

“the last line of the text (preceeding the dedication) contains the statement

…] the circle (contains) 360 degrees (moipwv) 720 “points”

(stigmwv) of the circle [a drawn circle]. One degree contains [2] points.”

My note to readers: see how this differs from the IG analysis!

[9720 points and 27 sub-points!]

Neugebauer [Henceforth O.N.] states the planets are ordered thusly:

[Venus]-Mercury-Mars-Jupiter-Saturn; i.e. the same order found with Archimedes.

[O.N.] For each one of the outer planets are listed four sets of integers, called, respectively,

*kata mnkos lwdiakoi [zodiacal longitutes=L]

*kata platos tropikoi [latitudinal variations=B]

*kata bados peridpomai [rotations in depth=G]

*kata oxnma diesodoi [returns in phase=A]

*Note my approximation of the Greek is only for recognition purposes and is NOT phonetically viable. I wish to avoid inserting a Greek font into this website. Persons requiring scans may contact me:

p. 700:


n                      l0 n

L          [1]74[9]2                       174920

B          [17]436                         174360

G          [ ]                                 491680

A          [ ]                                 136480



n                      l0 n

L          [2157]                           21570

B          [215]6                           21560

G          24260                           242600

A          26690                           26[6900]


n                      l0 n

L          [ ]                                 [ ]

B          [ ]                                 9810

G          [2]7176                         [27]1760

A          [2]8148                         2[8]1480


[O.N.] 1. In any planetary theory the revolutions of the planet in longitude (L) and the number of corresponding phases (A) should satisfy the following identity

number of sidereal rotations + number of synodic periods =

number of sidereal years

Consequently we should expect L + A = N0

With probably the same value N0 for all planets. This assumption is easily tested. We know, e.g., from the Babylonian “Goal-year texts” how many synodic periods S correspond to N years:

Mars: N=79   Jupiter: N=71  Saturn: N=59

          S=37                S=65               S=57

Hence we should expect that in our text


This is indeed nearly the case

Pages 715-725 discuss the “Anaphorikos” [”On Rising Times] by Hypsicles!

Note HAMA references to Hibeh parapegmata and Hypsicles; “Anaphorikos”

O.N. v. 3 includes these plates:

1. Marc. Gr. 325, fol 105v

2. [p. 1448] Cuneiform astronomy sketch

2. [p. 1449] Cuneiform astronomy sketch

3. [p. 1450] Cuneiform astronomy sketch

4. Cuneiform astronomy fragments; ACT 122

5. Cuneiform astronomy fragments

6. Cuneiform astronomy fragments; BM 34629+

7. Greek papyrus zodiac

8. [p. 1454] Vat. Gr. 204, fol 61 verso

8. [p. 1455] Vat. Gr. 204, fol 62 recto

9. Vat. Gr. 211, fol 116 recto

Volume three includes this reference to the source image text.

See squeeze source: Herz, Norbert

See [B_537]; KESKINTO


HAMBURGER: (Greek) papyri at University of

See also IBSCHER.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Hamb. = Greichische Papyrusurkunden der Hamburger Staats- und Universitatsbibliothek, i, (in 2 parts), ed. P. M. Meyer, Liepzig-Berlin, 1911-24.


A new series begins with Greichische Papyrusurkunden der Hamburger Staats- und Universitatsbibliothek, mit einingen Stucken aus der Sammlung Hugo Ibscher, ed. B. Snell et al. Hamburg, 1954.


P.Hamb. 1.1. Unselbständige Girobankbescheinigung aus Alexandria:

(Greek; AD 59)



HAMMURABI: (OK; Babylonian) historical ruler, Law code of

Follow these links to a tr. of the Code of Hammurabi=Hammurapi.


(as per Y. Muffs) See [W_012], ELEPHANTINE.

See G. Dossin, “L’article 142/143 du code de Hammurabi, “ RA, 42 (1948), pp. 113-24.


See Sennacherib, [B_290].


See the archive of MARI.


See LAW.



In the code of Hammurabi the salary for a farm laborer is set at 6 “she” [SHEH] of silver per day.



HAPI-ANKH: (AE)papyrus of

See hieroglyphic Berlin P. 13603



HAPSHETSUT: (MK; AE) Female Pharaoh ~1500 BCE. A tireless Educator.

[W_051,rvw] WATSON# 532K15 L52. "L'aile nord do pylone d'Amenophis III a Karnak / par MM. Georges Legrain et Edouard Naville" Paris, 1902.




(as per EEF; Egypt Online)

Hatshepsut's renovated temple reopens October , 2001.



HARAGEH: (MK; AE; literary) papyrus

Middle Kingdom: Papyrus Harageh 1 (UC 32773). At Petrie Museum.


(as per LEX) See P. Harageh 3 in JEA 27, 1941, see Smither?


See also SINUHE; SANEHAT; Wadi Khargeh?

"A tax assessors journal of Middle Kingdom" in JEA 27, 74sq.



HAREM: (AE) the conspiracy

Study the Ramses III Harem Conspiracy.

Those caught were forced to commit suicide.


This may be related to Sethnakhte.




Viewed at the MET, 4/24/02.

A ration list.

Found at THEBES.

11th-12th Dynasty; ~2009-1900 BCE.

Hieratic math content.




HARKNESS: (demotic) papyrus





CATNYP# *OAC (Studies in ancient oriental civilization, no. 39),

"Studies in honor of George R. Hughes : January 12, 1977. Chicago 1976.


WATSONLINE Yields nothing.



HARRASSOWITZ VERLAG WEISBADEN: publisher of near east studies

[B_332; 2002 catalog on file with]



HARRIS: (Author; Collector; AE; Greek); papyri

James Rendel Harris 1852-1941.

(funerary; magical; *135 feet long; a Harper’s song).


[B_050,IGNR,HPB] CATNYP# OBR (Blok, H. P. Beide volksverhalen van Papyrus Harris 500 verso), "De beide volksverhalen van Papyrus Harris 500 verso / door Henri Peter Blok", Leiden 1925.

As per the above text:

Seek (Author) Theophore Personennamen Hoffman?

Seek also:

P. Bremner 22

P. Insinger

Codex Hammurabi

Patrick. Boylan (Author)

P. Golenischeff (G:3)=

No copies made.

(as per EEF; S. ElSabaie; 011004)
Text above has details on "The Taking of Joppa" and "The Doomed Prince"


(as per LEX) P. Harris I=P. Hier, Work by Budge, 2, Series.


(as per Y. Koenig) refers to Harris magical Papyrus (501) and lists:

"Der Magische P. Harris", 49, 4 (m); 44, 9; Moeller, pa1.II, p. 34 note 4?


(as per Y. Koenig) see Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca V, 3, 3.


(as per EEF) Relates to ELEPHANTINE Stele and mentions family of Sethnakhte.


(as per EEF) KV14 was begun by Tawosret and completed by Setnakht.




(as per T.E. Peet,[B_041b], ABBOTT)

The Harris P. was commisioned by Ramses IV to record his father's benefactions to the Priesthood of Amun. Father = Ramses III.

Harris P. 500=BM 10060 contains:

The Capture of Joppa

The Foredoomed Prince

Love Songs.


Harris P. 501=B.M. 10042= Magical.

H.P. 499=B.M. 10052=(as per LEX)=P. Harris C.

Harris A.=B.M. 10053

Harris= B.M. 10054, the distribution of grain. Math.


(as per AEB 84.1130) Bibe, Celia, Numerologia Egipcia I, Aegyptus Antiqua, Buenos Aires 5 (1984), 5-12.

Specifies alternate to glyph for 1 million. Math.

See also:

(AEB 87.1008) Bibe, Celia, Nouveaux recherches sur la mathematique pharaonique, partie II..., GM 100 (1987), 19-22. See MATH prior to 1601.


(as per AEB) Bommas, Martin, Hie Heidelberger fragmente des Magischen P. Harris, Heidelberg, Universitatsverlag C. Winter, 1998.


(as per F. Chabas) P. Mag. Harris mentions the Monster, Makou,

the Son of Set.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Harris = The Rendel Harris Papyri of Woodbrooke College, Birmingham, ed. J. E. Powell. Cambridge, 1936.


(as per S. Katary, [B_100]) P. Harris I mentions herds of cattle as gifts from Ramses III.


(as per L. Bailey; excerpted from Hornung) See P. Harris:

“If the one on the water (the crocodile) opens his mouth,

If he shakes with his two arms,

I shall cause the earth to go down into the primal water.

And the south will be the north

And the earth will turn around.”


P.Harr.: The Rendel Harris Papyri of Woodbrooke College, Birmingham

P.Harr. 1.57.: (Greek)




CATNYP# *OBR + (Chabas, F. J. Papyrus Magique Harris)

BOBST# PJ1681 .H35 C4 Oversize

“Le Papyrus Magique Harris. Traduction analytique et commentee d’un manuscrit egyptien; comprenant le text hieratique publie pour la premiere fois, un tableau phonetique et un glossaire. Par F. Chabas (Vice-President de la Societe d’Histoire et d’Archeologie de Chalon-sur-Saone / Associe-Correspondant de la Societe imperiale des Antiquaires de France, etc.) Chalon-sur-Saone,1860.”

See BOBST Archive: O 1

Minor math content and SETHNAKHTE reference?

Volume includes plates.


(as per E. G. Turner) See (GREEK) [B_478=O_048,rvw]


CATNYP# *OBKQ (Selly Oak colleges, Birmingham, Eng. Woodbrooke college. Rendel Harris papyri of Woodbrooke college, Birmingham)

BOBST# PA3304 .W6

“The Rendel Harris Papyri of Woodbrooke College, Birmingham, edited with translation and notes by J. Enoch Powell, with a portrait and five plates.”

Cambridge, 1936.

Studies include Greek Papyri. See plates.

James Rendel Harris, [1852-1941].


[B_338,rvw,LB] CATNYP# Sc 913.32-H

John Richard Harris, editor.

“The legacy of Egypt; edited by J. R. Harris. Second edition.”

Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1971.

See “The Calendars and Chronology.”

See also [B_338b,rvw]


[B_338b,rvw] CATNYP# Sc 913.32-H

See “Mathematics and Astronomy.” By G. J. Toomer.

(as per D. Meeks) seek Smither's "A tax assessors journal of Middle Kingdom" in JEA 27, 74sq.

See also HARAGEH.

(as per T. Sagrillo; EEF; 011003)

The standard hieroglyphic transcription (no translation) remains:

Erichsen, W. 1933. _Papyrus Harris I: hieroglyphische Transkription_.

BiAeg 5. Brussel: Fondation égyptologique reine Élisabeth.

The most recent study and translation (with photos of the entire

papyrus) is:

Grandet, P. 1994. _La papyrus Harris I (BM 9999)_. 2 vols. BiEtud

109/1-2. Cairo: IFAO.

Grandet has also produced a 3rd volume of glossary for the papyrus:

1999. _La papyrus Harris I: Glossaire_. BiEtud 129. Cairo: IFAO.

From The Papyri, vol. 2, London, 1895, pp. 1-12
-- English translation: William Kelly Simpson (ed.), The Literature of
Ancient Egypt, 3rd ed., New Haven and London, 2003, pp. 72-74
-- French translation: Gaston Maspero, Les contes populaires de
l'Egypte ancienne, 4th ed., Paris, [1911], pp. 115-122

HATNOUB: (AE) Stele of

See work by G. Posener:

“Un Stele de Hatnoub.”

See JEA 54 (1968), 67-70.



HAUNIENSIS: (Greek) papyri


(as per Duke Univ.)

I, Literarische Texte und ptolemäische Urkunden, ed. T. Larsen. Copenhagen 1942. Nos. 1-12. [Rp. CG] Documentary texts reprinted as SB VI 9422-9245. Five additional texts were published in Cahiers de l'Institut du Moyen-Age Grec et Latin, Copenhagen 1971, by A. Bülow-Jacobsen and S. Ebbesen. [o.e. CIU] Reprinted as SB XIV 11355-11358 and 11714.


II, ed. A. Bülow-Jacobsen. Bonn 1981. (Pap.Texte Abh. XXIX). Nos. 13-44. [o.e. RH]


III, ed. T. Larsen and A. Bülow-Jacobsen. Bonn 1985. (Pap.Texte Abh. XXXVI). Nos. 45-69. [o.e. RH]


(as per ZPE, D. Fowler) Seek (Greek) P. Haun iii 49, 200 BCE.

Tables of squares, math content.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Haun. = Papyri Graecae Hauniensis, fasc. i,

ed T. Larsen, Copenhagen, 1942.


[B_180b, 8.5, IMG, v. 2] CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t. 82, “Hommages Serge Sauneron, Cairo, 1979. See volume two (of two).

Image of P. Haun. (inv. 318), 500 CE. Plate One.


P.Haun. 1.9. Letter concerning violent assault:

(Greek; ~240 bce?; Arsinoite?)



HAUSWALDT: (demotic) papyrus

(as per CATNYP) Hauswaldt P. ~250 CE.


[B_153,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKQ 98-7647, “The Hauswaldt papyri: a third century B.C. family dossier from Edfu / transcription, translation and commentary by Joseph Gilbert Manning.” Sommerhausen : G. Zauzich, 1997.


[B_154,rvw] CATNYP# *OBS+++ (Spiegelberg, Wilhelm. Demotischen papyri Hauswaldt), “Die Demotischen papyri Hauswaldt, vertrage der ersten halfte der Ptolemaerzeit (Ptolemaios II-IV) aus Apollinopolis (Edfu) hrsg. Und ubers. Von Wilhelm Spiegelberg, mit einem rechtsgeschichtlichen beitrag von Josef Partsch; dazu 26 lichtdrucktafeln in besonderem grossfolio-umschlag.”

Liepzig, 1913.


(as per D. Meeks) seek Dem. P. Hauswaldt. Seek Hauswaldt XVI re Edfu.


(as per Duke Univ.)

The Hauswaldt Papyri, ed. J. Manning. [B_153] Sommerhausen 1997. [o.e. Gisela Zauzich Verlag] Nos. 1-25. There are Greek dockets to nos. 2a and b, 8a and b, and 9a and b. This edition replaces a quasi-edition of the same texts, [B_154] Die Hauswaldt-Papyri, ed. W. Spiegelberg with a "Rechtsgeschichtliche Beiträge" by J. Partsch. Leipzig 1913 with a separate elephant-folio volume of plates. While the Spiegelberg edition does not transcribe or translate many of the texts, the plate volume is essential. Manning only provides plates of nos. 10, 16, and 17 and nos. 4 and 6 are no longer extant. The numeration of the texts is the same in both volumes.



HAWARA: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) Seek “Hawara, Biahmu and Arsinoe, p. 24-36,

by W. M. Flinders Petrie, London 1899.

See also: J.G. Milne, Archiv, v, 1913, p.378-397.


See P. Arsinoe

See Lugduno-Batava; [B_447=O_012,NO IMG,8.5]


HAWASS: modern Egyptian

[2003] Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, Zahi Hawass
Director of the Giza Pyramids Excavation



HEARST: (AE; medicinal) papyrus

(as per AEMT) The tr. states AE used cloth strips, soaked in plaster, to produce casts for fractured bones.

See a 5th Dynasty mummy with such a cast (Smith & Dawson, 1924).

See also work by Wreszinski, Liepzig, 1912.


See also Ebers.


(as per LEX) Walter Wreszinski, Der Londoner Medizenische P. und der Pap. Hearst, Leipzig, 1912.


[B_155,rvw] CATNYP# QBM+(California. University. Publications.

Egyptian Archaeology. V. 1)

“The Hearst medical papyrus; hieratic text in 17 fascimile plates in collotype, with introduction and vocabulary, by George A. Reisner.” Leipzig, 1905.



HEBREW CALENDAR: obscure functions; Venus considerations?


The names of the months in the Hebrew calendar are of Babylonian origin, the returnees from the Babylonian exile brought them to the Land of Israel. Only four of the original Hebrew names survived: the month of Aviv - Spring (Nissan), the month of Ziv (Iyar), the month of Bul (Marcheshvan) and the month of Eitanim (Tishrei). In the excavations at Gezer an ancient clay tablet was found on which names of months are engraved in ancient Hebrew script. These months have direct agricultural links: Assif-the harvest month, Zera-the month of planting, Lekesh-the month of Spring grain, Ktzir Pishtan - the flax harvest month, Ktzir Seorim- the barley harvest month, Ktzir Col- the month of general harvest, Zamir-pruning month and Kayitz-the month of Summer.


In Biblical times and in the time of the Second Temple it was customary to call the months by their numerical order - the First Month (Nissan), the Third Month (Sivan), the Seventh Month (Tishrei) and so forth.


See these citations!

the Hebrew months have been designated in the course of Jewish history by two sets of names. Of the former set--going back probably to Chanaanite times--only four names have survived in the Hebrew Bible. These are: 'Abhîbh (A.V. Ex. 13:4, 23:15; Deut. 16:1), subsequently the first month; Zíw (III K. 6:1), subsequently the second month; 'Ethanîm (III K. 8:2), subsequently the seventh month; and Bûl (III K. 6:38), subsequently the eighth month. The latter set of names, certainly of Babylonian origin, began to be used after the Exile. Of its twelve names now found in the Jewish calendar only seven occur in the Hebrew text, but the whole twelve appear as the main divisions of the Megillath Ta'anith (Scroll of Fasting), which in its original form is referred to a date before the Christian Era. These twelve names are as follows:

Nîsan (Nehem. 2:1; Esth. 3:7)

'Iyyar (not named in Scripture)

Sîwan (Esth. 8:9; Baruch 1:8)

Támmûz (Cf. A.V. Ezek. 8:14)

'Abh (not named in Scripture)

'Elûl (Nehem. 6:15; I Mach. 14:27)

Tíshrî (not named in Scripture)

Márhéshwan, or simply Héshwan (not named in Scripture)

Kíslew (Zach. 7:1; Nehem. 1:1)

Tebeth (Esth. 2:16)

Shebhat (Zach. 1:7, I Mach. 16:14)

'Adar (I Esdras 6:15; Esth. 3:7, 8:12, etc.)


Israel adopted all twelve months of the Babylonian calendar as their civil calendar, but not all of the twelve months are listed in the Bible. The seven that occur are: Nisan, the first month; Sivan, the third month; Elul, the sixth month; Kislev, the ninth month; Tevet, the tenth month; Shevat, the eleventh month; and Adar, the twelfth month.


Holidays that occur in the month of Adar (such as Purim) are celebrated in Adar 2 in a leap year. The same rule is applied to birthdays, anniversaries and other personal events.


Years are counted since the creation of the world, which is assumed to have taken place in 3761 BC[E]. In that year, AM 1 started (AM = Anno Mundi = year of the world).

In the year AD 2001 we have witnessed the start of Hebrew year AM 5762.

Note these references from the preface:

1. See Canonical Celestial Omens by Francesca Rothberg in JAOS 108 (1987), pages 51-62. [See also ABCD]

2. See Otto Neugebauer in JAOS 63 (1943), p. 116-126.

RLIN notes from NYPL ANNEX request made on 5/14/02 on file in index.

See UHN: p. 217: According to Hebrew calendar analysis, the act of Creation began: Monday, 7 October 3761 BCE.



HEBREW CUBITS: pursuing the obvious


Study these Old Testament and New Testament portions until they are familiar!:

1. Genesis 6:15

2. Genesis 6:16

3. Genesis 7:20

4. Exodus 25:10

5. Exodus 25:17

6. Exodus 25:23

7. Exodus 26:2

8. Exodus 26:8

9. Exodus 26:13

10. Exodus 26:16

11. Exodus 27:1

12. Exodus 27:9

13. Exodus 27:11

14. Exodus 27:12

15. Exodus 27:13

16. Exodus 27:14

17. Exodus 27:15

18. Exodus 27:16

19. Exodus 27:18

20. Exodus 30:2

21. Exodus 36:9

22. Exodus 36:15

23. Exodus 36:21

24. Exodus 37:1

25. Exodus 37:6

26. Exodus 37:10

27. Exodus 37:25

28. Exodus 38:1

29. Exodus 38:9

30. Exodus 38:11

31. Exodus 38:12

32. Exodus 38:13

33. Exodus 38:14

34. Exodus 38:15

35. Exodus 38:18

36. Numbers 11:31

37. Numbers 35:4

38. Numbers 35:5

39. Deuteronomy 3:11

40. Joshua 3:4

41. Judges 3:16

42. I Kings 6:2

43. I Kings 6:3

44. I Kings 6:6

45. I Kings 6:10

46. I Kings 6:16

47. I Kings 6:17

48. I Kings 6:20

49. I Kings 6:23

50. I Kings 6:24

51. I Kings 6:25

52. I Kings 6:26

53. I Kings 7:2

54. I Kings 7:6

55. I Kings 7:10

56. I Kings 7:15

57. I Kings 7:16

58. I Kings 7:19

59. I Kings 7:23

60. I Kings 7:24

61. I Kings 7:27

62. I Kings 7:31

63. I Kings 7:32

64. I Kings 7:35

65. I Kings 7:38

66. II Kings 14:13

67. II Kings 25:17

68. 1 Chronicles 11:23

69. 2 Chronicles 3:3

70. 2 Chronicles 3:4

71. 2 Chronicles 3:8

72. 2 Chronicles 3:11

73. 2 Chronicles 3:12

74. 2 Chronicles 3:13

75. 2 Chronicles 3:15

76. 2 Chronicles 4:1

77. 2 Chronicles 4:2

78. 2 Chronicles 4:3

79. 2 Chronicles 6:13

80. 2 Chronicles 25:23

81. Ezra 6:3

82. Nehemiah 3:13

83. Esther 5:14

84. Esther 7:9

85. Jeremiah 52:22 (See also #139 at lists’ end)

86. Ezekiel 40:5

87. Ezekiel 40:7

88. Ezekiel 40:9

89. Ezekiel 40:11

90. Ezekiel 40:12

91. Ezekiel 40:13

92. Ezekiel 40:14

93. Ezekiel 40:15

94. Ezekiel 40:19

95. Ezekiel 40:21

96. Ezekiel 40:23

97. Ezekiel 40:25

98. Ezekiel 40:27

99. Ezekiel 40:29

100. Ezekiel 40:30

101. Ezekiel 40:33

102. Ezekiel 40:36

103. Ezekiel 40:42

104. Ezekiel 40:47

105. Ezekiel 40:48

106. Ezekiel 40:49

107. Ezekiel 41:1

108. Ezekiel 41:2

109. Ezekiel 41:3

110. Ezekiel 41:4

111. Ezekiel 41:5

112. Ezekiel 41:8

113. Ezekiel 41:9

114. Ezekiel 41:11

115. Ezekiel 41:12

116. Ezekiel 41:14

117. Ezekiel 41:15

118. Ezekiel 41:22

119. Ezekiel 42:2

120. Ezekiel 42:3

121. Ezekiel 42:4

122. Ezekiel 42:7

123. Ezekiel 42:8

124. Ezekiel 43:13

125. Ezekiel 43:14

126. Ezekiel 43:15

127. Ezekiel 43:16

128. Ezekiel 43:17

129. Ezekiel 45:2

130. Ezekiel 46:22

131. Ezekiel 47:3

132. Daniel 3:1

133. Zechariah 5:2

134. John 21:8

135. I Samuel 17:4

136. Matthew 6:27

137. Luke 12:25

138. Revelation 21:17

139. Jeremiah 52:21 See CHESTER BEATTY; work by F. G. Kenyon, 1937. See Plates 1958.


Citations for all [139 entries] found here:


(as per M. St. John)

According to Professor Asher S. Kaufman [B_283, below] at the Racah Institute of Physics there were three ‘standards’ pertaining to the medium 6 palm cubit. These were:

1. The Cubit of Moses at 428 mm.

2. The small Cubit (used in the construction of the second Temple) 437 mm.

3. The large or normal Cubit in use at the time of Solomon at 446 mm.

See AE CUBIT (Nizzoli).

[N_001=R_007,RLIN notes and copies to file with B_149;CUBIT IMG]


See Mishnah Kelim 17, 9.(from the Talmud). Commentaries on the ritual purification of vessels and much Metrology. Apparently there were also 5 palm and 7 palm Cubits in existence.

[Did any survive?]

[B_578;JH, HOUSE alt]

“Shishah sidre Mishnah = The Mishnah : a new translation / with a commentary

by Pinhas Kehati."

Jerusalem, 1995.

See CATNYP# *PHN 91-416

Volume XVII = Seder Tohorot Vol. 1

Containing on pages 239-241 the Kelim Chapter 17, Mishnah 9 and 10.

Referring to the 3 cubits known:

1. The ancient cubit of Moses [Mosheh] of 6 tefachim [palms or groups of 4 thumbs!]

2. The modern hebrew cubit at the time the Persians permitted the Temples reconstruction which exceeded the cubit of Moses by one half an etzba [one half a thumb width]

3. The modern Persian cubit which exceeded Moses' by an entire etzba.


Apparently the last two cubits were divided into 5 tefachim and not six which obscures further the interpretation of the size of an etzba and the cubit itself.


As per Dr. Greenfield at Bar-Ilan [University] the Hebrew name for Cubit is Ama.

Egyptian = Meh.

Dr. Greenfield derives (from the Talmudic sources)

an interpreted Cubit length of 460 mm.


(Also as per M. St. John)

Investigate a more modern Talmudic Cubit of 556 mm.

Also the Sacred Cubit of 632 mm.


Find any good scholastic authorities for information.


(Also as per M. St. John) Re Mishna Kelim.

Scholastically respectable. The Mishna is the oldest authoritative post biblical collection and codification of Jewish oral laws, systematically compiled by numerous scholars over the period from  100 to 300 AD.  The Mishna supplements the written laws found in the Pentateuch, presenting various interpretations of selective legal traditions that had been preserved orally since at least the time of Ezra (approx 450 BC).  Mishna and Gemara (subsequent intensive study of the Mishna) together make up the Talmud - suggesting that the Talmudic cubit, if and when we track its literature down is possibly not as old as the Kelim cubit.


The Mishna is in six sections, the last of which is Tohorot (Purifications)

which is itself divided into 12 parts.  The first part is the Kelim, which

considers laws regarding the ritual purity of vessels.


If you can track down this part in NYC L[ibraries] we are looking for Mishna > Tohorot>  Kelim > Chapter 17 verse 9. I found 5 Entries under title heading mishna tohorot but nothing when I added Kelim.  They seem to be written in Hebrew and/or Yiddish.

I did track down Author Eliyahu Touger entry 28 'Mishna Torah' in English and Hebrew - wonder if it relates?


Obadiah ben Abraham Yare of Bertinoro, born 1450 but dead before 1516, was an Italian Rabbi wrote a commentary on the Mishna incorporating explanation from Rashi and citing rulings from Moses Maimonides.  This is a standard work of Jewish Literature first printed in 1548 (after Obadiah was dead), and now published in almost every edition of the Misna. Find this in CATNYP under Bertinoro.

[CATNYP *PHN 91-1198 Library has: Vol. 4. does not appear helpful.


(as per A. Gluck) Other sources


Text [English]:

Art Scroll: Mishnaim Kalim.


(as per A. Gluck):

See the Purim Story about Esther and Mordecai and Evil Persian King Achesveros. Jews after fleeing Jerusalem (Diaspora) settle in quantity in Persia (Shushan/Sushan is capital). 50 CUBIT gallows.


“Book of Esther.” [Megillah]

Pub. 1973 by Zeigelheim, NY.


[B_402,rvw,JH] CATNYP# *PDW (Esther) 90-563

“127 Insights into Megillas Esther / compiled by Mendel Weinbach.”

Southfield Michigan, Targum Press, 1990


(as per A. Gluck):

See Gemarah data on Sukkot 5:2:

The Sukkot must be at least 10 tefachim tall and may not exceed 20 Cubits in height [exterior dimensions].


(as per M. St. John)

The cubits on the wall of the Palace of Shushan differ from each other by half a finger.  The smaller was half a finger longer than that of Moses, and the larger was one finger longer than that of Moses.  It is assumed that the First Temple was built with the cubit of Moses, see II Chronicles C3v3 which specifies 'the first standard'. Once we know how long the cubit of Moses was, and how many fingers it consisted of, we can fill in the information for the Palace of Sushan!


(As per M. Friedman)

The capital of Persia is/was Shushan. This is our goal.

Solomon built the (first construction of the) Temple in Jerusalem about 7-800 years prior to our era.

The surviving wall is an outer wall of the area and is not a wall from the Temple itself.

When it was destroyed (by the Assyrian Greeks) and rebuilt (later-about 76 C.E.) it only lasted another~176 years until destroyed again (by the Romans).

The Dome of the rock was built upon its foundations.

The “Wall” [Hakotel] in Jerusalem is not of the Temple but of the surrounding enclosure.


II Chronicles C3V1-6

From Kettuvim: "commentaries" or "writings". Cubit stuff mostly with dimensions divisible by 5. Suggesting perhaps a Cubit of 5 palms.


[B_280,8.5,JH] CATNYP# *PNC-74-371, Volume [part] two.

Jacob Neusner, “Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity VI”; "A History of the Mishnaic Law of Purities part two", Leiden E.J. Brill, 1977.

*See Chapter 17, verse 9.


1. Note that this work by Jacob Neusner consists of 26 [or 40 or more?] volumes [parts] and although the Kelim appears in the Mishnah Tohorot in most Talmudic texts as part of the tail end of the work, in this series Kelim is found purposely resituated in volume [part] two.


2. Also note that in his opening description of this part of the Kelim, Neusner describes this [cubit info] thusly:

"As we shall see, pericopae [entries] either repeat laws already given or contradict them. Furthermore the pericopae on measurements (17:4-12) themselves evidently derive from different sources and combine, even cite, antecedent materials. Before us, therefore, is the first (and only) badly constructed chapter of the entire tractate."


Self contradictory entries from Kelim 17,9:


A. "The cubit of which they have spoken---with (B) a middle sized cubit."


B."And two cubits were in the palace of Shushan, one at the northeastern corner, and one at the southeastern [PB: southwestern] corner. [That one] which was on the northeastern corner was longer (YTRH) [YTRH=Possibly the Talmud Yerushalmi?] than that of Moses by a half-fingerbreadth, and that one which was at the southeastern corner was longer than it by a half-fingerbreadth. It comes out that it was longer than that of Moses by a fingerbreadth."


[B_282,8.5, HEB only,JH] CATNYP# *PHN 98-15

“Mishnayot bava kama mi-Masekhet Kelim : ‘im perush Siya ‘ta di-shemaya …/ hubar ‘al yede Shema’y Grinboim.”

Brooklyn, 1997.

MISHNAH KELIM: See sketches of Solomon’s Temple and of ritual purifications and hairsplitting of same.


[B_283,8.5, HEB only,IMG,JH] CATNYP# *PET+ 92-2737 Library has: Vol. 1 only.

“ha-Mikdash bi-Yerushalem / Asher Zelig Ka’ufman.”

Jerusalem, 1991-

MISHNAH KELIM: See sketches of Solomon’s Temple and Ancient Talmud fascimiles.

*See bibliography of related extant fragments.


[B_285a,prsu,JH] CATNYP# *PHN (Greiniman, C. Hidushim u-ve’urim. 1970)

“Sefer Hidushim u-ve’urim : Kelim, Oholot, Mikva’ot / me-iti”


[B_285b,prsu,JH] CATNYP# *PHN 99-462

Pub: 1997?

“Sefer Netiv binah : ‘al masekhet Kelim / me-et Yisra’el Bune”

[B_285c,prsu,JH] CATNYP# *PHN 00-52 Library has vols. 1-2

Pub: 1994-?

“Sefer Heshev ha-efod : “Zikhron Yisra’el David” : ‘al Masekh”


[B_285d,prsu,JH] CATNYP# *PHN 95-2602

Pub: 1995

“Sefer Torat ha-rishonim : ‘al masekhet Kelim : kolel likut g”

[B_286,prsu,JH] CATNYP# *PHN 98-15

Pub: 1997

“Mishnayot bava kama mi-Masekhet Kelim : ‘im perush Siya’ta d”

link 01 (Gates of Solomon’s Temple; Shushan):


link 02 (Leen Ritmeyer Responds to [Asher S.] Kaufman;

see [B_283, above]):


link 03 (ask a good question here):


link 04 (the Shushan ha’birah sculpture, Moshe’s Cubit):


link 05 (RABEINU CHANANEL, Shushan; Gemara in Menachos 98a):


link 06 (The Shushan gate was said to have been lower…):


*link 07 (Purim; Haman builds 50 Cubit high gallows for Mordechai):


link 08 (…table on the Arch of Titus seems only one cubit high…):


link 09 (Search site for Perek I; ten handbreadths high [double-remen?]):


**link 10 (Search site for links to many Old Testament "cubit" entries!):

[Compilation of 139 entries above]


link 11 (Search site for Exodus 26; previously recommended; 7 palms):


link 12 (Purim; Megilla):


link 13 (Inhabitants of Shushan=Sushancites; Ezra 4:9):


link 14 (King James version concordance for cubit):


link 15 (Ishwar)



link 16 (Dvar)


link 17 (Ammah)


link 18 (reference to cubit square)


link 19 (reference to Pirkei Avot) [Pirkey Avoth]

See text gifted by M. Numark: “Ethics of the Talmud.” No CATNYP.


link 20 (reference to Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld)'alotcha58.htm


(as per Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld)




      brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim

             Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld





Re: The archaelological length of the [Sacred Hebrew] cubit


Bruce Friedman (Baruch Chaim) <> asked:


Could you please provide a citation for any JEWISH archaeological items (more than 1500 years old) that describe cubits mentioned in Mishnaim Kelim Chapter 17, verse 9?

Thank you.



Bruce Friedman (Baruch Chaim), New York City, NY


The Kollel replies:




Next time you visit the Kotel, stop by the Ofel archeological excavations, on its southern flank. Among the many fascinating things you will see (such as stones lying exactly as they fell one Tisha b'Av some 1930 years ago) are the ancient pavement outside of the Har ha'Bayis, upon which the feet of the Olei Regalim once tread. In that sidewalk you will notice a square tile with a ring on it which does not fit into the rest of the tiling pattern. It was put there to access the sewers under the street, I believe  (i.e. an ancient manhole).


The Mishnah describes just such tiles (under which objects were placed for safekeeping) in Midos 1:9, and describes them as being "an Amah on either side". Your tour guide will no doubt point out that if this was the accepted measure for ringed tiles, the tile of the Ofel excavations may be a reliable measure of the Amah.


But more to the point, the Mishnah teaches that all of the entranceways to the Har ha'Bayis were 10 Amos wide and 20 tall. Archeaologists doubted the Mishnah's accuracy for many years. Barclay's gate (one of the ancient gates that led through the western wall of the Har ha'Bayis -- the left portion of its lintel can be discerned protruding from above the room that the women enter when it rains) measures 5.55 meters across, yet it was only 8.8 meters  from the ancient walkway below!


It turned out, though, that those archeaologists only reached the early Moslem threshold; the Second Temple threshold was much lower; 11 meters down, to be exact, or exactly twice the width of the gate! That would make the Amah .55 meters. (From "In the Shadow of the Temple," [B_287] Meir Ben-Dov, Harper and Row 1985, p. 141; "Midos u'Mishkalos Shel Torah," [B_288] Y. Weiss,

Wagshall Publishing, 1984, p.298; the latter goes on to bring many

interesting archaelological proofs for the length of the Amah).


I hope you find this helpful,

-Mordecai Kornfeld


R. Mordecai Kornfeld  ||Tel.(IL):02 652-2633

P.O.B. 43087, Har Nof |  |Off.(IL):02 651-5004

Jerusalem,  ISRAEL    ||Fax(US):253 550-4578


[B_287,8.5’s,JH] CATNYP# *PXLL (Jerusalem) 85-4308

“In the Shadow of the Temple : the Discovery of Ancient Jerusalem / Meir Ben Dov ; translated from the Hebrew by Ina Friedman.”

NY : Harper & Row, c1985.

See page 89.

Note that some of the stones of the Southern wall [Hakotel] exceed 50 tons!

and see page 141 [as per M. Kornfeld].

Cubits and the gates of the Temple.

Note the testimony of Josephus Flavius on the Acra (Citadel).

Barclay’s Gate = Caponius’ Gate? Interpreted 560 mm cubit.

From historical reference and archaeological finds we interpret the Hebrew Cubit of these Gates as 560 mm.

The Mishna describes the steps going up to the Temple Mount as a half cubit high and a half cubit in depth. No consistent stairs have yet been unearthed.


[B_288,8.5’s,JH] CATNYP# *PEF 89-9801

“Midot u-mishkalot shel Torah : ‘al ma’arekhet ha-midot veha-mishkalot, ha-matbe’ot vi-yehidot ha-merhak ha-‘Ivriyim, ve-khen ha-yehidot ha-nakhriyot ha-keshkurot la-hem ha-muzkarim ba-Torah uve-divre hazal ve-rabotenu ha-rishonim veha-aharonim, ve-yahasam la-yehidot ha-metriyot ha-nehugot be-yamenu / me-et Ya’akov Gershon Vais.” [Y.G. Weiss]

Jerusalem [and Brooklyn], 1984

On Torah Metrology.

Coinage and Cubits.

See page 298, All in Hebrew.

An interpretation of the old city as measured in Ammah [cubits].


Page numeration:

Aleph [1], Bet [2], Gimel [3], Daled [4], Hay [5], Vov [6], Zayin [7], Chet [8], Tet [9], Yod [10], Yod+Aleph [11]…Chuf [20]…


(as per A. Gluck) Seek the Talmud parshah(s) Eruvim or Aruvin



CATNYP# *PBL (Juedisch-Theologisches Seminar, Breslau)

Jahresbericht 1856-1864.

References to Boekh’s “Metrologische Untersuchungen..” See [B_219]

With metrological Talmudic references and analysis.

See page 40; 41 [pull-out] table: Vergleichungs-Tabelle.


[B_293,8.5’s,prchs,JH] CATNYP# *PHV 91-3494 Volume 3

“Talmud Bavli = Talmud Bavli : the Gemara : the classic Vilna edition, with an annotated, interpretive elucidation, as an aid to Talmud study / under the general editorship of Hersh Goldwurm.” Brooklyn, 1990-

See excellent Glossary; with Hebrew and English side by side.

Cubit=Amah; Amos

Palm?=Tefachim.  A cubit of 5 or 6 Tefachim?

Handwidth= four thumb widths; = Tefachim

Etzba=fingerwidth not a thumbwidth.

Lechi=A sidepost boundary for an alley as  in an Eruv.

Lechi is symbolic boundary marker “at least 10 tefachim in height.

Double Remen=Lechi?

See 76b’ Chalon [Ch. 7] Eruvin; the square root of two is 1.4!


(as per A. Gluck) The Vilna is a standard formatted edition of the Talmud which is not the Talmud Yerushalmi.


[B_294,HOUSE,JH] CATNYP# *PIK 96-2478

”Eruvin in modern metropolitan areas / Yosef Gavriel Bechhofer.”

Maywood Illinois, 1992 or 1993.

Discussions of the length of the Lechi and the width of Tefachim.

Reference to Shulchan Aruch.

Reference to Karpaf: an impass larger than 5000 square Amos.

Reference to Tzuras Hapesach [Hallachic symbolic doorway];

See Nesivos Shabbos 19:16 footnote #36.

See Halachos of the Eruv; Ch. VII A:1-2; “principle of omed”

Bruce!, Return to and study the numerous other references!


(as per A. Gluck) The Shulchan Aruch is a series of books [not the Talmud] which include the daily laws for Jews, including the 613 commandments.

(as per A. Gluck) The Tzuras Hapesach is an aspect/boundary of the Eruv which has the “look” of a door.


[B_295,ALL,8.5,JH] CATNYP# *PHY (Luepschuetz [Lipshits], G. [Gedalyah], Regel yesharah 1776 [or 1777])

“Sefer Regel yesharah : shiyure Rashi ... `al kol seder Nezikin ... ve-gam ... perush ... `al Avot de-Rav Natan ...”

Hebrew text on Metrology. With the aid of E. Yadin at JH.

No vowels! Need help! See torts and damages. Estate law.

Land distribution and inheritance.


[B_307,8.5, no img] CATNYP# *PDI (Bible. O.T. Pentateuch. English. 1949. Pentateuch and Rashi’s Commentary)

“The Pentateuch and Rashi’s Commentary : a linear translation into English / by Abraham ben Isaiah and Benjamin Sharfman ; in collaboration with Harry M. Orlinsky and Morris Charner.”

Brooklyn 1949.

Originally lent to me by A. Klein at BGT and since found at NYPL.

Rashi’s notes on Exodus 26: 1-6 introduce many other numerical considerations.

[Rashi’s footnotes are being pursued for clarification.]

Unfortunately, Rashi’s notes introduce so much that is new [to me], and therefore is possibly corrupt (or of more modern influence), that no clarifications occur.

It is also a concern that much of the work attributed to Rashi is said to have been “prepared” by his Grandson.



[B_555,rvw] CATNYP# *OCZ (Schrader, E. Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament)

KAT=Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament. By Eberhard Schrader, Berlin, 1902-3. [B_555]

See also:

Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament, mit Ausdehnung auf die Apokryphen, Pseudepigraphen und das Neue Testament, neu bearbeitet von H. Zimmern und [Prof.] H[ugo]. Winckler [b. 1863-1913]. See B_305; B_556



[B_556,rvw] CATNYP# *ZP-1398

GI=Geschichte Israels in Einzeldarstellungen [microform] / von Hugo Winckler.

Leipzig : E. Pfeiffer, 1895-1900.

See B_305


[The following excerpted from Jewish Volume 34 Number 63]


(as per M. Steiner; 23 May 2001)

<snip> information on Newton's cubit, I got out the book from a collection at HU, and here are some of the points:


1.  The sacred cubit of the Jews is 6 palms (tefochim); the "vulgar" cubit is 5 tefochim.


2.  He quotes the Talmud in Eruvin that the height of the human body is 3 cubits from the feet to the head.  Assuming an average height of 5 1/2(Roman) ft, this gives the cubit between 24 and 28 4/5 Roman inches. The Roman inch is a little more than the present day inch.


3.  Josephus writes that the pillars of the azara could be embraced by three men with their arms joined.  Since these pillars were 8 sacred cubits, he again gets a cubit more than two Roman feet and less than 2 1/3.


4.  The tehum shabbat is 2,000 cubits, but he quotes the shibbolei haleket (!) to the effect that a cubit is equal to a "pace".  Arguing that on Shabbos we don't use a "pesia gasah", Newton gets a pace or cubit once again as in 3.  I have not yet checked his source.


5.  The 15 "maalot" of the Temple, Hazal say, were 1/2 cubit high, with their retractions also 1/2 cubit, meaning the sacred cubit.  Comparing to Vitruvius who says that the height of steps ought not to be more than 10 inches and retractions not less than 18, inches, he concludes that the Jews took a middle proportion (between 10 and 18), and once again arrives at a cubit of between 24 and 27 inches.


6.  He assumes that the Egyptian cubit is equal to the vulgar cubit of 5 tefochim, i.e. that the Jews learned the small cubit from the Gentiles, preserving the sacred cubit by tradition.  He infers the size of the Egyptian cubit by sending somebody to Egypt to measure the Pyramid of Giza.  The cubit is understood to be that length such that an integral multiple of it will give all the various dimensions of the Pyramid. >From this he calculates the sacred cubit as 6/5 the Egyptian one, and again arrives at an even more exact figure of a little less than 26 inches.


7.  This would mean that the Roman cubit of 18 inches (R. Chaim Naeh!!) is 2/3 of the 'amah of the Temple.  And in fact Josephus in describing the Temple (the chayil, etc.) uses just this ratio in giving dimensions,compared to Hazal.


The bottom line is, Newton comes up with an amah a little bigger than that of the Hazon Ish!


   R. Yonah Merzbach z"l, an important Rav from Germany who later taught in Kol Torah writes that the large 'amah was customary in various places in Ashkenaz and notes that the Hatam Sofer agreed with the Noda Beyudah.  In Frankfort, he says, it was even the "mimetic" tradition.  Interestingly, he gives some of Newton's proofs, and also cites Josephus.  See his collected works, entitled Alei Yona.  It should be noted that he explains the various measures, resolving the contradictions without assuming that there was any change in the physical dimensions of olives or eggs over time.


(as per R. Rudman; 23 May 2001)

<snip> FYI:there is a book (reworked dissertation) about

Newton and his Jewish studies.  The following is copied from the site:

Judaism in the Theology of Sir Isaac Newton

Archives Internationales D'Histoire Des Idees, 157.)

By Matt Goldish.


Ammah - a CUBIT, [and] the name of a hill which Joab and Abishai
reached as the sun went down, when they were in pursuit of Abner
(2 Sam. 2:24). It lay to the east of Gibeon [Gideon?].


2. The Height of the Antonia Tower
Josephus describes in the Jewish War [Book V, 238]:
"The tower of Antonia lay at the angle where two porticoes, the western and the northern, of the first court of the temple me [?]; it was built upon a rock fifty cubits high and on all sides precipitous."


[B_581,8.5,JH,cistern cover image]
CATNYP# *PXLL+ 00-922
“Jewish Quarter excavations in the Old City of Jerusalem : conducted by
Nahman Avigad, 1969-1982 / editor, Hillel Geva.”

Volume 1; page 95 shows a cistern on stratum 4 [or 5] with a missing squared cover less than one meter on a side.


[B_582,8.5,JH,via JSTOR internet access]
“The Jewish Quarters of Jerusalem (A.D. 638-1099) According to Cairo
Geniza Documents and other Sources.”
By Moshe Gil.
From JNES Volume 41; No. 4, (Oct 1982) pages 261-278.
Ancient Cave is a reference to one or more Jewish Temples.
Karaites determined to be Persian latecomers to the territory with a distinctly

separate territory in the Old City.
“Cave” remodeling described in cubits of change.
Sadly, none of the referenced cubits can be compared to a surviving structure.


[B_584,no copy,JH,IGNR]
CATNYP# *PXLL (Jerusalem) 82-2704
“The Jewish Quarter Ruins and Restoration.


[B_585,no copy,JH,IGNR]
CATNYP# *PXLL (Nablus) 02-4297
“Shechem III : the stratigraphy and architecture of Shechem/Tell Balâtah / Edward F. Campbell ; illustrated by Lee C. Ellenberger, photographer and G.R.H. Wright, architect.
Notes from volume 2: Schechem is Tell Balatah is Nablus in the West Bank near Joseph’s Tomb.
Magnetic true north determined to be 1 degree 39 minutes east of true north in the year 1942. This variance stated to be growing at a rate of 3 minutes per annum.


[B_587,return copy,JH]
CATNYP# *OAL 97-6125
Urbanism in antiquity : from Mesopotamia to Crete / edited by Walter E.
Aufrecht, Neil A. Mirau & Steven W. Gauley.
[JSOT 244]
Sheffield, 1997
Return to copy abbreviations and pages 35-49 and 116-129.



HEIDELBERG[ER]: (Greek) papyri and codices and museum




AKA Gebelen P.?


(as per D. Meeks, H.P. Blok) seek Dem. P. Heidelberg, 778a, 7.


[W_024,all,IMG,file w/B_024] WATSON# 972 N39. "A new Greek astronomical table (P. Heid. inv. 4144+P. Mich. 151)" Kobenhavn, 1960. By Otto Neugebauer.

Notable use of ZERO!

(P. Heid. inv. 4144+P. Mich. 151 are part of one original roll)

“It would seem that we have here an unknown type of astronomical tables…”

Arithmetical progressions; math.


(as per AEB) Bommas, Martin, Die Heidelberger fragmente des magischen P. Harris, Heidelberg, Universitatsverlag C. Winter, 1998.

(as per ZAS, index# 1684) Seek ZAS 53, 1917, P. Heidelberg 736.


Search for books here!:


Search for books in HEIDI:


Search for digitized books here!:


(as per E. G. Turner) A Greek ~700 CE. codex includes work of the minor prophets.


(as per E. G. Turner)

P. Heidelberg:

1. Veroffentlichungen aus der Heidelberger Papyrussammlung I: Die Septuagina-Ppayri, ed. A. Deissman. Heidelberg, 1905.

2. Veroffentlichungen aus der Heidelberger Papyrussammlung III: Papyri Schott-Rheinhardt I, ed. C. H. Becker, Heidelberg, 1906.

3. Veroffentlichungen aus der Heidelberger Papyrussammlung IV: Greichische literarische Papyri I, Ptolemaische Homerfragmente, ed. G. A. Gerhard, Heidelberg, 1911. See HOMER.

4. N. S. I: Zum Drogenhandel in Islamischen Agypten, ed. A. Dietrich, Heidelberg, 1954

5. N. S. II: Literarische greichische Texte der Heidelberger Papyrussammlung, ed. E. Siegmann, Heidelberg, 1956.

6. N. S. III: Greichische Papyrusurkunden und Ostraka der Heidelberger Papyrussammlung, ed. P. Sattler, Heidelberg, 1963.




P.Heid.: Veröffentlichungen aus der Heidelberger Papyrussammlung

P.Heid. 2.210.: (Greek)


Heidelberg [codices], Universitätsbibliothek, MS. Pal. germ. 848

(Manasse Codex [love poetry]) Gothic (Swiss), 14th Century Die Minnesinger in Bildern der Manessischen Handschrift Commentary: Hans Naumann Leipzig: Insel-Verlag, 193-?

RBC:  ND3399 .H4 M56 1930z (Zotter 188)

Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek, Cod. Pal. germ. 848 (Manasse Codex [love poetry]) Gothic (Swiss), 14th Century Die Minnesinger in Bildern der Manessischen Handschrift Commentary: Hans Naumann
Insel-Verlag, 1933 ART:  ND3399 .H4 N3 (Zotter 188)

Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek, Cod. Pal. germ. 848 (Manasse Codex [love poetry]) Gothic (Swiss), 14th Century Minnesänger: Achtzehn farbige Wiedergaben aus der Manessischen Liederhandschrift Commentary: Kurt Martin Baden-Baden; Aachen: Woldemar Klein Verlag, 1953 and 1972

ART OVERSIZE and RBC FOLIO-2: ND3399 .H4 M3 (2 vols)
(Zotter 188)

Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek, Cod. Pal. germ. 848
(Manasse Codex [love poetry])
Gothic (Swiss), 14th Century
Das Leben der Minnesänger, mit zwölf Farbtafeln nach Minaituren der Manessischen Liederhandschrift
Commentary: Heinz Gaulke, 1958
Baden-Baden: W. Klein, 1958
DAVIS:  PT217 .G38

From here:

Digitized book collections


HEKA-YEB: (AE) Stele of

See work by H. J. Polotsky:

“The Stela of HEKA-YEB



HEKANAKHTE: (MK; AE; Hieratic) papers



(as per L. Bailey) On display at the Met.

I viewed this on 4/24/02.


(as per D. Meeks) seek T.G.H. James's work on Hekanakhte Papers.


[B_201,8.5,IMG,LBnts] CATNYP# *OBM+(Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, Egyptian Expedition. Publications of the MMAEE. [v.] 19)

“The Hekanakhte Papers and other early Middle Kingdom Documents”

New York, 1962. By Thomas Garnet Henry James.

Return to copy all the hieratic images.



CATNYP# *OBKQ 86-4137=WATSON# 533.6 G553.

"Studies in Hekanakhte papers / Hans Goedicke",

Baltimore MD., HALGO, 1984.

Math content. See Letter to Merisu (analysis and tr. on pages 38-76; plates 4, 5, 6, and 7). Land rent.

*Letter to Merisu on display at the Met, 4/24/02

Nothing concrete about the ratio/proportions is offerred [naturally].

As per above Hekanakhte was a Ka Priest.

Math; accounts

See also P. PURCHES.


(As per L. Bailey) the two above authors are not as accurate as Klaus Baer. See the JAOS, volume 83, p 1-19.

“An 11th dynasty farmer’s letters to his family”.

(possible) Mention of ratios/proportions of land area to size of crops (yield)! (possible) Math content:

65 shar [h3r; 4th H, aleph, r!] is to 13 aroura as 5 shar is to 1 aroura!

20 arouras of land yields 100 shar of northern barley,

Five to one ratio!

Jim Allen, Curator at the Met. will soon release a new tr.

My opinion of this is that it merits further study.

I am not convinced that I see what I had hoped to.

Hekanakhte and related material...............MSS.IVC.1, 3


(as per M. Silver; EEF; 032703)

In H<snip> Letter III mention is made of barley and emmer that is owed

To Hekanakht.


(as per F. Yurco; EEF; 033103)

The H letter III does mention loans that Hekanakht had made in the local town that he lived near. He had a business agent, Nakht, who helped make these loans. In letter one, Hekanakht writes that they are to rent more land with the sale of a length of linen cloth, but he demurs on this later in the letter. However, although he doesn't mention the loans in letter III earlier, we can surmise that being a canny operator, H had loans of grain, both barley and emmer made to people in his town. A fine way to increase his wealth. So, he instructs his people to check on these loans, and verify them. Being out of town, he depended on his business agent and the family to manage these loans. That is the reason for the letter III being sent.



HELIOPOLIS: (Ptolemaic) City

See Annu, On.


(Greek),  Egyptian IUNU, or ONU (“Pillar City”), biblical ON, one of the most ancient Egyptian cities, and the seat of

worship of the sun god,  Re. It was the capital of the 15th nome of Lower Egypt, but Heliopolis was important as a

religious rather than a political centre [Home of the origin of the ENNEAD]. Its great temple of Re was second in size only to that of Amon at Thebes, and its

priesthood wielded great influence, particularly during the 5th dynasty, when the worship of Re became the state cult. In the

New Kingdom, the temple of Re-Horakhte became the repository of royal records.

Little remains today of this great city. The sole surviving monument is the  obelisk of Sesostris I, the oldest obelisk in

existence. Of the pair of obelisks erected by Thutmose III, now known as Cleopatra's Needles, one stands on the Thames

embankment in London and the other in Central Park, New York City.



HELSINGIENSES: (Greek) papyri

P.Hels.: Papyri Helsingienses I, Ptolemäische Urkunden

P.Hels. 1.1. Dispute concerning a tax contract:

(Greek; 194-160 bce?; Arsinoite)





See OK tomb discoveries by Dr Christiana Kohler of Macquarie University's Australian Centre for Egyptology:


HEPRES: [BOTD; 18th Dynasty] papyrus fragment

See link to PETRIE museum item#: UC7100

See also SATIAH.


HERACLEOPOLIS: (Ptolemaic) ancient city

(as per E. G. Turner) AKA Ihnasya.




HERCULANEUM: (Greek; geometrical) papyrus

(as per D. Fowler) Herc. 1061; A Greek (Geometrical) math treatise papyrus.

Seek: “Quelques papyrus traitant de mathematiques”, Oversigt over det Kgl.Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger 2 (1900), 164-5.


(as per E. G. Turner) 800 rolls of Greek papyri were found carbonized in the ash of Vesuvius at Herculaneum in 1752. These papyri are said to be a library of the Epicurian school of philosophy.


(as per E. G. Turner) See the following:

1. Herculanensium voluminum quae supersunt, Collectio Prima. 11 vols. Naples, 1793-1855.

2. Herculanensium voluminum, Partes I, II, Oxford, 1824-5.

3. Herculanensium voluminum quae supersunt, Collectio Altera. 11 vols. Naples, 1826-76.

4. W. Scott, Fragmenta Herculanensia, Oxford, 1885.

5. General bibliography to 1897: C. Haeberlin in Centralblatt fur Bibliothekswesen, xiv, Sept. 1897, pp. 389-97. Cf. W. Cronert, Memoria graeca Herculanensis, Leipzig, 1903.

6. D. Bassi, Papiri Ercolanesi, i, 1914.


Last October [2000?] the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation named Oxford University papyrologist Dirk Obbink one of 23 recipients of its "genius" awards.

HERCULANEUM: (latin and greek) fragments


Latin and Greek papyrus fragment image on plates made from egravings on copper.CATNYP# NRD+ (Hayter, J. Thirty-six engravings of texts and alphabets).“Thirty-six engravings of texts and alphabets from the Herculanean fragments; taken from the original copper plates executed under the direction of the Rev. John Hayter, and now in the Bodleian library; with an introductory note by Bodley’s librarian.”

Oxford 1891. See BODLIEAN

See HERCULANEUM fragments in newsday article from 6/4/02; Filed with [B_444].



HERMES: (Greek) A myth and a legend and probably more…

Hermetic tradition; Hermetically sealed; Hermes Trismegistus; Thoth; Hermes the Great and Thrice Great...Paracelcus...Alchemy...Zoroaster.

Study the alchemical works of Isaac Newton.

See [B_317; B_299]


Study simulation of urea [and his pet Golem?] in the laboratory of:

Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim (Paracelcus).


[B_311,LENT HOUSE to M. Cherepuhin,no copies!] Read the "KYBALION".

“The Kybalion; a study of the Hermetic Philosophy of Ancient Egypt and Greece, by three initiates.”

Chicago, Ill., the yogi publication society, 1908.

Interesting, but not of sufficient substance.


(as per AEB 93.0933) Dolzani, Claudia, I testi medici egiziani tra scomparsa e riscoperta. Possibli vie di un iter sotterraneo, in: Atti VI Congresso. II, 107-113.


(as per AEB) Baigent, Michael and Richard Leigh, The Elixir and the Stone. A History of Magic and Alchemy, London, Viking, 1997. ISBN 0-670-86218-5


[B_106,IGNR] CATNYP# JFE 79-1491, Index du Corpus Hermeticum / [a cura di] L. Delatte, S. Govaerts, J. Denooz, Roma, 1977.


(As per E.A. Budge) See the sacred books of the Egyptians; Clement of Alexandria and Iamblichus.


See this link to alchemical manuscripts.


(as per E. G. Turner) See the archive of Theophanes ~400 CE.



[B_164,8.5,NO IMG] CATNYP# *OBZ (Boylan, P. Thoth, the Hermes of Egypt)

Thoth, the Hermes of Egypt; a study of some aspects of theological thought in ancient Egypt, by Patrick Boylan”. London, NY, 1922

“Thoth” notes:

AKA Protector or God of the Moon.

AKA “He who hath given words (or script)”

AKA Lord of writing

AKA The dweller in the Library (Ptolemaic)

AKA “Dragoman of the two Lands”

(as per S. Katary, [B_100])  See “The Egyptian Word for Dragoman,” PSBA 37 (1915), pp. 117-25.

AKA “He that knows the two Lands”

AKA “The heart of Re”

AKA “Excellent in speech”

AKA “Soother of the Gods”

“He gives success to the learned and to the physicians in his train, to diagnose.”

Seen as an Ibis and a Monkey.


Likened, or affiliated in origin, to:

Babylonian moon Gods; HIKE, HU, SIN, SIA

Sumerian Gods; ENZU

Thoth the very great; 3,8 and 9 times great.

Thoth was excluded from the first Ennead.

Amduat = 7th hour?


This text provides many papyrological citations for the name of Thoth.


(as per EEF; J.Dieleman)

"The Egyptian Hermes. A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind" (Cambridge 1986) for a general overview of the relation of the Corpus Hermeticum with Egyptian culture and texts. You might also be interested in the Nag Hammadi library as it contains several Hermetic treatises of which some [are written] in Coptic. The best book to start with is: James M. Robinson, "The Nag Hammadi Library in English" (several editions).


(as per EEF; C. Chimko)

I did some work on the hermetic texts in college, and to my knowledge there are no Egyptian sources extant. Presumably the Greek manuscripts were copied from documents that are now lost.


(as per EEF; A. Eyma)

Andre Malahov-Dombasle  wrote:

1) So called "Opera Hermetica" (from Latin - "Works of

(or inspired by) Hermes/Thoth" or Hermetic Texts), written

in Greek in the first centuries A.D.


** 'Hermetic writings' is a genre that pretended to contain (often

mystical) wisdom from Egypt, supposedly written by Thoth.

The Corpus Hermeticum apparantly originally consisted partly of

[A] Egyptian thought translated in Greek (according to classical writers

42 books, dealing with  religious law and cult practice,  temple organisation and temple economy, astrology, and medicine, and partly  of

[B] Greek apocryphical works (apparantly 17 books of a theosophical and mystical nature; among which a book called Poimandres), added to these.

[C] Besides this main Corpus there were 7 related books, among which an 'Ad Asclepium' (likely your dialogue between Hermes and Aesculapius?;

I've seen it quoted as 'Asclep.Herm. ') and your 'Kore kosmou'

(4 fragments extant); most of these are to be found in the

work of a Classical [?] writer called Stabaeus.

[The above is a summary based on an entry in Bonnet's RAeR]


For some nice websites, see;


They contain the text of  among others "Ad Asclepium"

I get the impression the extant Corpus H. deals with notably [C] and perhaps partly [B], and that none of the 42 'Egyptian' books [A] [are] extant?


See also this fancy site, even though many links are broken:

which holds some Nag Hamadi material as well)


Some intro pages at:,5716,41022+1+40163,00.html


(as per EEF; Dr. J. Quack)

the Hermetic texts

(including Kore Kosmou, which is also a hermetic fragment, and Asclepis) can best be found in the four-volume edition by Nock and Festugiere (Greek and Latin texts with French translation), there should be a new English translation by Copenhaver, but I have not seen it. However, these are generally supposed to have been originaly written in Greek - though they include some Egyptian concepts.

The 42 hermetic books are especially mentioned by Clemens of

Alexandria. However, he indicates them as being hieroglyphic, hieratic or demotic - not translated into Greek. There is some possibility of matching his description of the contents with actual papyrus fragments from late period temple libraries like e.g. Tebtunis.

Concerning the Amduat, I don't know why and how it has come up here. There is really not the slightest evidence of it ever having been translated into Greek. The title quoted during the discussion, by the way, sounds suspiciously like a mistake for the true title mDA.t n.t imi-dwA.t, with the book-sign misread as Sa.t instead of mDA.t and the "genitive" n.t poorly rendered as "ant". Disclosing the actual source for that form might help.

Finally, it would perhaps be more profitable to concentrate on those cases where we really have fragments of an Egytian text and its Greek translation extant. Good cases (except the well-known bi/trilingual Ptolemaic decrees) are fragments of a law-book ("Codex Hermopolis") in demotic and Greek, the Myth of the eye of the sun (demotic and greek) and the book of the temple (hieratic, demotic and greek).


(as per L. Bailey; excerpted from Fowden; “The Egyptian Hermes”)

“the earth no longer stands unshaken, and the sea will no longer be navigable; heaven will not support the stars in their orbits, nor will the stars pursue their constant courses in heaven; the voice of the gods will of necessity be silenced and dumb; the fruits of the earth will rot; the soil will turn barren, and the very air will sicken in sullen stagnation.”


(as per QBLH) Study Magick; Qabalah; English Qabalah; Pranayama; the works of Aleister Crowley.



HERMOPOLIS or HERMOUPOLIS: (Byzantine; Greek) papyri; ancient city of

(as per E. G. Turner) AKA Eshmunein.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Herm. Rees = Papyri from Hermopolis and other documents of the Byzantine Period, ed. B. R. Rees, London, 1964.

AKA el-Ashmunein.


P.Herm. 1. Letter of Introduction: (Greek)


P.Herm.Landl.: Zwei Landlisten aus dem Hermupolites (P.Giss. 117 und P.Flor. 71)

P.Herm.Landl. I.: (Greek; from Hermoupolis Magna)

Territory sizes with accounts; fractions (of aurourae)




CATNYP# *OBKQ (Rees, B. R. Papyri from Hermopolis)

BOBST# HF366 .R4

“Papyri from Hermopolis, and other documents of the Byzantine period, edited with translations and notes by B. R. Rees.”

London, 1964.

On Greek Manuscripts; see plates.

Brinley Roderick Rees, [1919-?]



HERMOUPOLIS MAGNA: (Greek) Extinct City

[O_062,rvw] NO CATNYP

BOBST# not shown!; ISBN: 3598775415

“Griechische Papyrusurkunden spatromischer und byzantinischer Zeit aus Hermupolis Magna / herausgegeben von Gunter Poethke.”

Munchen, 2001.

Greek papyri with German translations.


HERO: (Greek) Mathematician; Astronomer


See [B_390; KESKINTO]


HERODOTUS: (Greek) Historian of Halicarnassus ~450 bce

See STRABO and search this site for HERODOTUS and Herodotus.


[B_417,rvw] CATNYP#  C-12 9597

“The histories of HERODOTUS. Translated by George Rawlinson. Edited by E. H. Blakeney. Introd. By John Warrington.”

London, 1964

[B_417alt] See alternate HOUSE version / Penguin Books, 1954.

“HERODOTUS THE HISTORIES / New Edition / Translated by Aubrey de Selincourt. Revised with introductory matter and notes by John Marincola.”

[p. 70] Delphic oracle:

“Do not fence off the isthmus; do not dig.

Zeus would have made an island, had he willed it.”




Born 490 bce in Halicarnassus

Died 425-420 bce

Notes from my house copy:

See glossary:

Archon: one of a board of 9 magistrates at Athens

See ships: Penteconter and Trireme

See map of Near East and North Africa.

Note location of Besitun! Gaza! Memphis! Rhodes! Susa!

[p.66; H. I, 165]; “they also dropped a lump of iron into the sea and swore never to return to Phocaea until it floated up again” i.e. When hell freezes.

[p.69; H. I, 173]; “The Lycians came originally from Crete, which in ancient times was occupied entirely by non-Greek peoples.”


[p.71; H. I, 178]; “a wall 50 royal cubits wide and 200 high (the royal cubit is 3 inches longer than the ordinary cubit).”


[p.75; H. I, 190]; “Then having punished the Gyndes by splitting it into 360 channels…”


[p.87; H. II, 4]; CALENDAR


[p.88-9; H. II, 6-12]; METROLOGY; stade; schoeni; parasangs

parasang=30 stades

schoenus=60 stades


[p.99; H. II, 37]; CIRCUMCISION! See JEWS.


[p.100; H. II, 38]; APIS ritual see SERAPION / SERAPEUM; MASPERO and VINDOB.

See also JEWS; offering rituals.


[p.104; H. II, 47]; PIGS are unclean! See JEWS.


[p.138-9; H. II, 141-145]; 341 generations of AE kings.11340 years of AE history.


[p.225; H. IV, 27]; The Scythian word for 1 = arima! See NUMBERS.


[p.269; H. IV, 166]; Darius’s purest coinage; METROLOGY


[p.270; H. IV, 172]; The Nasamones who eat locusts. See Jews; locusts are kosher! And, add: crickets and giraffe is kosher!


[p.417; H. VII, 143]; Hateful Salamis! Divine Salamis!


[p.454; H. VIII, 11]; Capture of Philoan, brother of Chersis, brother of Gorgus the king of Salamis.


[p.462; H. VIII, 41]; Athenian fleet at port in Salamis.


[p.479; H. VIII, 96]; Greeks tow damaged ships to Salamis; anticipate Xerxes next attack.


[p.595; notes on book VIII]; Greek inscription discovered 1960 at Troezen; The Decree of Themistocles; see AC 20 (1977) p. 85-103.

HERUTATAF: (AE Myth?) Historical person

(as per E.A. Budge) See P. Harris 500 and Westcar P. which mention him.



HEVER: (Aramaic; Greek and Hebrew) papyri



HIBEH: (Greek and Demotic) papyri

Now in Dublin?

From an Egyptian quarry town. See CALENDAR


(as per M. St. John) About 27km south-southwest of Herakaleopolis.

South of the Fayum [Oasis]. On the East bank.

See works by H. Ranke and R.J. Wenke.


H. Ranke: “Koptische freidhofe bei Karara und der Amontempel

Scheschonks I bei el-Hibe”, Berlin 1926.


R.J. Wenke: “Archaeological Investigation at el-Hibeh 1980”,

Preliminary report, Malibu, 1984.


[B_051=O_009,8.5’s,IMG,TR] CATNYP# *OBKQ+ (Hibeh Papyrus), "The Hibeh Papyri. Edited with translations and notes by Bernard P. Grenfell and Arthur S. Hunt". London, 1906


See BOBST Archive: O 1 for list of plates; preface; introduction and ALL PLATES

BOBST# PA 3315.H62

Arthur Surridge Hunt 1871-1934.

This volume contains many Greek/Ptolemaic papyri.

Mostly from mummy cartonnage (stuffing/wrapping/mache).

Mostly literary/legal/receipts.

With an interesting review of the ~300 BCE. Calendar.

I found much sporadic math content in volume one.

Calendar possibly influenced by Eudoxus.

See page 146, Hibeh P. i 27, Calendar/Parapegma in volume one. See volume one, plate VIII for an image of part of the Calendar. Note: Parapegma=Parapegmata.


2/3 is shown on the Parapegma as beta’.

31/45 is shown as: beta’mu’epsilon’

(2/3) [+] (1 / (40 [+] 5) = 31/45


Months of the Parapegma:

Thoth (damaged/ missing)

Phaophi (damaged/ missing)

Hathyr (damaged/ missing)

Choiak (present, as are the rest)

Choiak=Khoiak; last month of the inundation.









And 5 Intercalary/epagomenal days.

Total of 12 months of 30 days each +5 feast days = 365 days.

Milesian accounts.


(as per Bernard Pyne Grenfell) Hibeh; a quarry town; AKA TEUZOI.

Seek P. Paris I. 525 sqq for (later but similar) equinox data.

P. Paris also includes 365 day annus vagus and 354 day lunar year.


(as per D. Fowler) This may be solely an AE effort and not Greek in origin.

See this (D. Fowler post) link.[]


(as per D. Fowler) See work (by Smyly) on P. Hibeh i 27;

a Calendar ~270 BCE, EES, Dublin.


(as per D. Fowler) See two articles by J.G. Smyly:

The employment of the Alphabet in Greek Logistic, pp. 325-330 of Melonges Nicole, Recueil des Memoires de Phililodie, Geneva, Kundig, 1905.




Notes on Theon of Smyrna, Hermathena 14 (1907), pp. 261-279.


[B_121,hold,rvw] CATNYP# *ZAN-4614 Hermathena, microform, Dublin.


[B_107a,(b_1999),NO NEW IMG,other IMGS,8.5,SIBL] CATNYP# JSE 91-1073, “The Mathematics of Plato’s Academy: a new reconstruction / D.H. Fowler.” Oxford University Press, 1987 and 1999.

Pursue text: “Greek Papyri” by E.G. Turner. Below.


[B_142,IMG,BIB,MAPS] CATNYP# D-18 4858, “Greek Papyri; an introduction

[by] E.G. Turner”, Princeton, 1968.

(as per E. G. Turner) 800 rolls of Greek papyri were found carbonized in the ash of Vesuvius at Herculaneum in 1752. See Herculaneum.

This text has provided many useful citations and an excellent description of Greek papyrological research.


See image of Homer’s “Iliad” from the “Bankes” Homer?

See a sample from Oxyrhynchus.

See partial image of Aeschines, “Against Ctesiphon”

See helpful maps of AE.


See this (M. Gardner post) link.


See this (M. Gardner post) other link.

Study Roman named fractions;

Semuncia (1/2);

Duella (1/3);

Sicilicus (1/4)…


(as per M. Gardner) Hibeh [Calendar] includes n(1-44/45), post 600 BCE.


See my analysis and extensive notes filed with [B_051].


WATSONLINE Yields nothing.


(as per S. Whittet) Consider Gematria (Mystical Mathematics)

Go to this link:


Also review the Perseus link below:




and this link to info about many ancient scripts:



See Cabalistic reduction.


(as per M. St. John) Hibeh AKA:






(as per E. G. Turner) ANCYRONON POLIS AKA El-Hiba.


P.Hib. 1.28.: (Greek; 265 bce; from Hibeh)


Fowler, D.H. and E.G. Turner. 1983. Hibeh Papyrus i 27: an early example of Greek arithmetical notation. Historia Mathematica 10: 344-359.


HIERAKONPOLIS: (Greek named) AE town.


See work by ARCE in bulletin no 182 [spring-summer 2002]

Barbara Adams’ work at predynastic AE cemetery [~3600 BCE]

Adams who died 2001 published “Excavations in the Locality 6 Cemetery at Hierakonpolis 1979 [the work of Archaeologist Michael Hoffman; died 1990].

See ARCE; [B_551,8.5]

HIERATIC and HIEROGLYPHIC: other goodies



CATNYP# *OBK++ (British Museum. Inscriptions in the Hieratic and Demotic Character)

“Inscriptions in the Hieratic and Demotic Character, from the collections of the British Museum. Printed by order of the Trustees.”

London, Longman & Company, 1886.



CATNYP# *OBT 83-1587

“Aspects of the Military Documents of the Ancient Egyptians / Anthony John Spalinger.”

New Haven, Yale University Press, 1983.



CATNYP# Sc 893.1-G

“Papyrus and Tablet.  Edited by A. Kirk Grayson [and] Donald B. Redford.” Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1973

Translations of AE literary efforts and notes on Iraq’s civilization.


(as per S. Gosline; April 2002) Visit the link below to access his two recent publications on the AE language.


See also FONTS
(As per S. Rosmorduc; EEF; 110603)
Download :
window auto-install executable :
source code for the program :


(As per C. Ketring; EEF; 042304)

I read in The Universal History of Numbers (Georges Ifrah, English ed.
(c) 1998) that Late Period scribes utilized puns and scholarly
word-games (especially in the hieroglyphic inscriptions at Edfu and
Dendara). Some of these inscriptions include number names. Ifrah
provides a small sample of these number ciphers. A further example I
seem to remember, but one that is not provided by Ifrah, is that an
donkey's head hieroglyph could be used for the number 30. (Does
this sound familiar to anyone?)

Ifrah references the following works:

Barguet, P., "Les Dimensions du temple d'Edfou et leurs

Bulletin de la Societe francaise d'Egyptologie 72. Paris, March
Fairman, H. W., "An Introduction to the Study of Ptolemaic Signs
and Their Values". Bulletin de l'Institut francais d'antiquites
orientales 43. Cairo (no date).
de Wit, C., "A propos des noms de nombre dans les textes d'Edfou".
Chronique d'Egypte, in Bulletin periodique de la Fondation
Egyptienne de la reine Elisabeth 37, pp. 272-90. Brussels, 1962.
Goyon, J. C. (no bibliographic information).

Unfortunately, I do not have easy access to any of these works.

Can anyone suggest where I might find information on Late Period
cryptographic numbers, and does anyone recognize the donkey-head
hieroglyph = 30 example? Any insights would be appreciated.


HINDU ASTRONOMY: fascinating

-7500: Excavations at Neveli Cori in Turkey reveal advanced civilization with meticulous architecture and planning. Dr. Sri B.G. Siddharth believes this was a Vedic culture.


-3200: Hindu astronomers called nakshatra darshas record in Vedic texts their observations of full moon and new moon at the winter and summer solstices and spring and fall equinoxes with reference to 27 fixed stars (nakshatras) spaced nearly equally on the moon's ecliptic or apparent path across the sky. The precession of the equinoxes (caused by the wobbling of the Earth's axis of rotation) causes the nakshatras to appear to drift at a constant rate along a predictable course over a 25,000-year cycle. From these observations historians are able to calculate backwards and determine the date when the indicated position of moon, sun and nakshatra occurred.

See and compare; Keskinto! 27 is a factor of the heavens here!

27x360 units relates to the divisions of the degree and as this is sexagesimal perhaps a correlation exists.

See INDUS script.



HIPPOCRATUS: (Greek) mathematician, astronomer

See [B_390; KESKINTO]



HIPSYCLES: [ancient Greek] Scientist and Astronomer

Hypsikles, Hypsikles, Die Aufgangszeiten Gestirne. Ed. trans. V. De Falco and M. Krause with an intro. by O. Neugebauer. (= Abhandlungen d. Akad. d. Wissensch. in Göttingen, Philol.—hist. Kl., 3. Folge, Nr. 62 (1966).

See also ANAPHORIKOS; in the style of a Babylonian


HITTITE: language studies




HM: historia mathematica (threads)



HOBBIES: almost completely unrelated

Spicy [Walkerswood] Jerk sauce; a masochistic hobby.


Old radio shows from

Digger O’Dell is my favorite!

See Life of Riley; William Bendix.


Old dirty Roadhouse Lyrics:




Shopping for intelligent children:


STAMPS: [old ones USA]


HOFSTADTER: (Author) and genius

[B_320,HOUSE] CATNYP# JFE 95-3999

“Fluid Concepts & Creative Analogies : Computer Models Of The Fundamental Mechanisms Of Thought / by Douglas Hofstadter And The Fluid Analogies Research Group.”



[B_321,HOUSE,lent to L. Schips] CATNYP# JFE 84-2898

“Godel, Escher, Bach : An Eternal Golden Braid / Douglas R. Hofstadter.”

Joy! An autographed copy!

So maybe it took 3 years to fully comprehend it all.


[B_322,LOST in HOUSE] CATNYP# JFE 85-1582

“Metamagical Themas : Questing For The Essence Of Mind And Pattern / Douglas R. Hofstadter.”


[B_323,HOUSE] CATNYP# JFE 84-2898

“The Minds I : Fantasies and Reflections On Self And Soul / Composed And Arranged By Douglas R. Hofstadter And Daniel C. Dennett.”


[B_324,rvw] CATNYP# JFE 97-8070

“Le Ton Beau De Marot : In Praise Of The Music Of Language / Douglas R. Hofstadter.”

c. 1997



HOLMIENSIS: (Greek) papyrus

(as per CATNYP) Seek Codex Ex-Holmensis A 41.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Leiden X and P. Holmiensis include chemical and alchemical prescriptions. Both from the collection of Consul Anastasi.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Holm.[B_446=O_011,IMG,8.5] = Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis, Recepte fur Silber, Steine und Purpur, ed. Otto Lagercrantz, Uppsala, 1913.

Cf. The Stockholm Papyrus, an English translation with brief notes by E. R. Caley. Reprinted from Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 4, No. 8, August 1927.

CATNYP# *IC (Lagercrantz, O. Papyrus Holmiensis)

BOBST# PA 3309 .U7

Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis (P. Holm.) Recepte fur Silber, Steine und Purpur, bearbeitet von Otto Lagercrantz [1868-?], mit zwei lichtdrucktafeln. Herausgegeben mit unterstutzung des Vilh. Ekman’schen Universitatsfonds.”Uppsala, 1913.

Math content; accounts; accounting.

HOMBERT: (Greek) papyri

P.Hombert: La Collection Marcel Hombert

P.Hombert 27. Account: (Greek)

math content (drachmas)



HOMER: (Author; Greek) works; fragments

Search this site for “HOMER”. See also PLATO; TEBTUNIS.



CATNYP# NRMF (Pease) (Homer. Toils & travels of Odysseus. 1926)

“Odysseus” / “The toils and travels of Odysseus”, translated by C. A. Pease; edited by Stella Stewart Center. Boston, 1926.

From the original Greek; Dactylic hexameter

CUBIT references:

p. 75: “Standing by it, I cut off a Cubit’s length…”

p. 91: “And having plaited a rope, a cubit in length, …”

p. 107: “… sword from my thigh and dug a trench a cubit each way,”


Old Testament similarities:

p. 168: “..I had better have died and met my fate there in Egypt..”

p. 168: “I abode for seven years…gathered great wealth among the Egyptians”


Astronomical consideration:

p. 176: “But when the third part of the night was come, and the stars had passed the South…”



p. 228: “But the doom of Black Death overtook Argos…”


See FAYUM; [B_075=O_002]


HOOD: (AE) papyrus

(as per LEX) See P. Hood, Gaston Maspero, JA 1888; P. HOOD=BM 10202.


(as per LEX) See also BM 10379, Stephen R.K. Glanville, A new duplicate of the Hood Papyrus, in: JEA 12, 1926, 171-75.

10202 (Hood)...........................................39

P. HOOD can be found at the British Museum.



HOR: (AE 18th Dyn; BOTD) archive of

(as per L. Bailey; excerpted from J. Griffiths)

Hor dreams of a great destruction.

“No province shall remain among them in any way on earth.”

Hor was asked to select a town that would survive the holocaust.

Hor saves his hometown of Pi-Thoth. See Pithom.


Compare to the TORAH story of Sodom and Gomorrah and Lot’s saving of his family.


Text now at NYPL

“The Papyrus of HOR: Catalog of Books of the Dead in the British Museum Volume II.”

By M. Moscher, British Museum Press, 2001.

See NU, [B_507]; BOTD.

Available from OXBOW catalog [B_332 alt]



HOR-NEST-ATEF-EF: papyrus of

See Amherst.



HORUS: (AE) God; papyrus fragments

See L'Oeil d'Horus=the Eye of Horus, Wedjat, utchat=u’tat,

unit fraction measures. Duplation. Math.


(as per AEB 95.1139) Belluccio, Adriana,

Le Nombre cache dans l'Oeil d'Horus, DE 32 (1995), 7-8.


See the Legend of Osiris, BOTD.


(as per S. Whittet) The Shemsu Horu or the Sons of Horus, were AE Metalworkers.


HOT SAUCE: you'll be sorry

And the best and meanest JERK SAUCE!


HOUSTON: Museum of Natural Science

One Hermann Circle Drive, Houston, TX 77030

tel.: +1 713 639 4629



HULTSCH: (Author; Scholar); See Metrology

Hultsch, Heronis Alexandrini Geometricorum et Stereometricorum


Title: Heronis Alexandrini Geometricorum et Stereometricorum reliquiae : [bacc]edunt Didymi Alexandrini Mensurae marmorum et anonymi variae collectiones ex Herone, Euclide, Gemino, Proclo, Anatolio aliisque / ce libris manuscriptis edidit Fridericus Hultsch.


Note: "reliquiae" best translated as "remainder."


Author: (editor/translator) Fridericus Hultsch

Pub.: Berolini, Weidmannos, 1864.


{Hero of Alexandria - Geometric and Stereometric Relationships}.

Berlin, 1864, page 241, c. 20.



See [B_390; KESKINTO]

HUMOR: beats misery


SUMMIT# NC1509 .S49 1882s

“Schlau, schlauer, am schlausten : aegyptische Humoreske / niedergeschrieben...”

Dusseldorf, 1882.

By Carl Maria Seyppel, born 1847.



SUMMIT# NC1509 .S49 1884p

“Die Plagen : 3te aegyptische Humoreske aufgeschrieben und abgemalt bei dem…”

Dusseldorf, 1884.

By Carl Maria Seyppel, born 1847.



HUNEFER: (AE; BOTD) papyrus

(as per LEX) similar to P. Anhai.


(as per E.A. Budge) 19th Dynasty; B.M. 9601; 9901; 18 feet long.



HYPERIDES: (Greek) papyrus rolls

(as per E. G. Turner) See the (Greek) rolls of Hyperides.


(as per E. G. Turner) See the Harris-Arden and Stobart rolls of Hyperides. All said to come from a wooden coffin at Gournou. From the Roman occupation.




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