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Last updated 12/25/05


See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID


GAMES: logic based math fun

(OK; AE): Senet; Mehen – find the rules - if they have survived

<snip> the most beautiful Senet scene is in Queen Nefertari's Tomb in the Valley of the Queens.


(Chinese): Go

Archaeology Magazine 33/4 (July/August 1980): 55-58


See work by J. Zandee:

“An Egyptian Crossword Puzzle…”


See mankala


See gaming pieces [more likely bullae] from JEMDET NASR; [B_509]


See UHN: P. 51-2 GAMES…logic fun

AE Game of MORRA described on the images in these Theban tombs.

MK, Beni Hassan tomb 9

26th dynasty tomb of Aba, no. 36

Morra played in Arab lands and called Mukharaja.

Romans played Micatio

Greeks played this too!

Still played in southern France, “la mourre

Played in CHINA and MONGOLIA, “hua quan”=“fist quarrel”

This game, MORRA, grew from FINGER COUNTING




[ancient form of chess, known as CHATURANG, a game played originally in India during 7th Century AD] Sataranj is its current name.

[According to historians, chess originates from the military game chaturang that appeared in India during the first century AD]

royal game of Indian Parcheesi (Songyatya or Udat Pagade) and Ludo (Sapshidi, Snakes and Ladders). Peculiar games not seen anywhere else in the world, such as Khabbadi, Kho-Kho, Atya- Patya, Yogasanas


See Cambodia’s variants: first type of Cambodian chess

 known to the Cambodians as Ouk, Chhoeu trang, Chatrang, Chaturang or jointly as Ouk chatrang, The name Chatrang is formal and derived from Sanskrit Chaturanga. In literature, the word "Chaturang" in pronunciation and "Chaturanga" in writing are retained.

Other Cambodia name of similar game: Rek [Kings only!]



The Chinese/Japanese game of GO!

The Chinese game of weiqi, better known to us by its Japanese name go, has been done a great disservice by the chess historian H.J.R. Murray. In Murray 1952:35-36 he concludes his brief discussion of games in ancient China thus: "The oldest and best of the native Chinese games, wei-k'i, is older than AD 1000." This is prefaced by other outrageous remarks: "... Chinese historians have always tended to exaggerate the age of their inventions and in particular the age of their games. Modern scholarship holds that the only Chinese board-games before the Christian era were simple games of the merels type, i.e. games of alinement. The yih mentioned by Confucius (551-479 BC) and Mencius (372-289 BC) was the smaller merels."


Wei Qi (also spelt Wei-Ch'i) as it's known in China, Baduk (Paduk or Pa-dok) as it's known in Korea or Go, as it is known in Japan and generally in the West, is considered by most Oriental game experts to be the worlds greatest strategic skill game, far surpassing Chess in it's complexity and scope.


See [B_390; KESKINTO,v3]



As per NYTIMES 051005; Article by Margaret Wertheim
See Modern geometric puzzles by Dr. Wayne Daniel; nested platonic solids in the spirit of Johannes Keppler.


(As per EEF; 052505: 123)
1. a gaming board carved into the pavement of the second court of Ramesses III's temple of Medinet Habu. [See also Kom Ombo].
2. Neo-Assyrian colossal guardian figure in the British Museum that has a game board scratched into its base…piece in the British Museum which is one of the Colossal statues of a winged human-headed bull from the North-West Palace of Ashurnasirpal at Nimrud.
3. egyptian game called Senet. It's a kind of checkers game. Here are a couple of links to the game in question with some pictures. I don't know if this is the game you're talking about. A board of this game was found in Tut-Ankh-Amun's tomb.
(with pics of tombs drawings with players of Senet)

4. Roof tiles/slates (made of stone) from the temple of Seti I. in Gurneh are said to be bearing scratched drawings [of Senet]


(as per EEF; T. Sagrillo; 110205)
[Mesostics [not acrostics]]
<snip> texts written in a "checkboard" pattern
<snip> You can read the signs both vertically and horizontally.
Clère, Jacques Jean
1938 "Acrostiches et mots croisés des anciens Égyptiens."
Chronique d'Égypte 13:35-58.


Fischer, Henry George
1986 L'Écriture et l'art de l'Égypte ancienne: Quatre leçons sur
la paléographie et l'épigraphie pharaoniques. Essais et conférences du
Collège de France. Paris: Presses universitaires de France. (p. 127)

(as per EEF; E. Butler; 110205)
See also:
H. M. Stewart, 'A crossword hymn to Mut', Journal of Egyptian
Archaeology, 57 (1971), pp. 87-104, on the stela of Paser.

(as per EEF; R. Nyord; 110205)
<SNIP> stela of Paser in British Museum (EA 194)
containing a hymn to Mut that can be read both horizontally and
vertically -- as well as allegedly a third way. It is published in H.M.
Stewart, "A crossword hymn to Mut", JEA 57 (1971), pp. 87-104, 4 pl.
See this link for a photo:


(as per EEF; G. Modonesi; 110305)
There are two hymns that one can read vertically and horizontally in:
- The Tomb of Kheruef: Theban Tomb 192, OIP 102, Chicago 1980,
Plates 14-15 and pages 35-36.
Also the stela E. 6823 in the Museum of Bruxelles:
- Luc Limme, Stèles Egyptiennes, Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire
Bruxelles, 1979, pages 36-37.

(as per EEF; M. Marcolin; 110305)
ZANDEE, J., An Ancient Egyptian Crossword Puzzle, Leiden, Ex Oriente
Lux, 1966 (19.6 x 26.6 cm; [VI + ] 80 p., 3 fig., frontispiece)
Mededelingen en Verhandelingen van het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch
Genootschap "Ex Oriente Lux" / Mémoires de la Société d'Études
Orientales "Ex Oriente Lux" 15.




GEBEL-BARKAL: (MK; AE) monuments

(as per ZAS, index# 1278) Seek ZAS 69, 1933.

Monuments of Sety I and granite stela of Thutmosis III.


(as per PM) See Pyramid field in JEA IX, plates 12 and 13.

See Temple of Atlanersa in JEA V, pp. 101-112.

See M.B. Reisner, “Inscribed Monuments from Gebel-Barkal”.

In ZAS 70, plates 4-8.

See Lepsius, fragment of stela, an account of a military expedition.

In Berlin Museum (#1068). In work by Erman in ZAS 29, pp. 126-7.


(as per EEF, M. Tilgner), index# 1278)

The stela on the "mountain of Naharin" of Thutmose III is mentioned on his stela of Gebel Barkal (Urk. IV, 1232, 11 ff).


(as per EEF, D. Harnan) what Thutmose claims was said

on his stela at Naharin, as is hinted at in the Year 47 passage:

“He is a king to be boasted of because of his 2 arms in times of battle, who crossed the Euphrates in pursuit of the ones who attacked him with the chiefs of his army upon searching that vile enemy of the foreign land of Mittani. Lo, he was fleeing before his majesty to another distant land in fear.Then my majesty established my stela upon that mountain of Naharin by carving out in mountain stone on the western side of the Euphrates:  My opponents do not exist in the southern lands, the northerners come bowing to my might.  It is Ra who commanded it for me.  As I enclosed that which his eye has encircled, so he has given me the land in its length and width since I bound together nine bows, the islands in the middle of the sea, the Aegean islands and the rebellious lands.”


(as per EEF; 070703; P. J. Cowie)

Gebel Barkal and the Sites of the Napatan Region, Sudan

The property includes several archaeological sites, over more than 60 

km in the Nile valley, of the Napatan (900 to 270 BC) and Meroitic (270 

BC to 350 AD) cultures, of the second kingdom of Kush. Tombs, with and 

without pyramids, temples, living complexes and palaces are to be found 

on the site.

(as per EEF; J. Conman; 082803)
The Gebel Barka stela of Thutmosis III says that during one of the [MK]
Syrian wars, "a star appeared from the south and did some harm to the enemy,
so that nobody was able to stand on his foot," according to László Kákosy.
("Decans in Late Egyptian Religion," _Oikumene_ 3, 1982, 190-1) Kákosy
speculates that this star might have been a meteor that fell or perhaps
a bolide that shot across the sky, "throwing the enemy into a panic." He
also notes that the word for star is written with the sign for god as



GEBELEIN: (AE; demotic) extinct city, papyri and ostraca and graffitti at

Gebelein = "Place of two mountains" (Arabic).


Gebelein is 29 Km south of Thebes (Karnak).


See cave tombs, the center of the Cult of Hathor.


See demotic ostracon; register of 67 members or contributors to a festival.


See tomb of Iti and Ini.


See also coffin lid graffito


(as per J. Legon) The end of the 4th Dynasty. see P. Posener-Krieger,

NO CATNYP "Les mesures des etoffes a l'ancient empire",

in RdE_29 (1977), p90-1.


[B_077,8.5,IMG] CATNYP# *OBL 95-2397, "Gebelein : il villaggio e la necropoli / Anna Maria Donadoni Roveri, Elvira D'Amicone, Enrichetta Leospo."

Torino 1994.

Measurements (math) of the areas of cloth.


WATSONLINE yields nothing.


(as per H. Papazian) Seek accounts of economic (math) activity.


(as per ANE-L)  The "Digitalisierung der Heidelberger Papyrus-

sammlung" project has begun with putting up demotic papyri, starting

with the 'Urkunden aus Gebelen (Pathyris)' (P.Gebelen Heid.) :




See ADLER; [B_385=O_016,8.5,IMG]



See UHN: p. 254: See GEMATRIA see cabbalistic manuscript at Bodleian/Oxford (Ms. Hebr. 1822) which lists more than 70 different systems of Gematria!

p. 252: re gematria see Arabic practice called “khisab al jumal” calculating the total.

p. 251 see Jewish tombstone from Toledo Spain dated to 1322-3 CE.

Year is coded “one drop of dew on five thousand”

Value via GEMATRIA of “drop of dew” is 83, hence year 5083.

p. 71: JEWS

Sephardic (Eastern) Jews Talit has 26 knots on each of the 4 fringes signifying the numerical value of the Tetragrammon [YHWH]

Ashkenazi (Western) Jews have 39 knots for YHWH EHD, “G-d is One”

39 also is the value of “tal”=“morning dew” [perhaps alchemical reference]

See notes from p. 251


[My thoughts; “dew” and especially morning dew was a significant ingredient in alchemical efforts. Old [post-exilic?] Hebrew prayers for the morning dew are extant. Identify sources?]



GENEVA: (Greek and Latin) papyrus

[B_049,PIX,r06.2,r07] CATNYP# *OBKQ++(Papyrus de Geneve), v. 1. “Le Papyrus de Geneve”, H. Kundig, 1896.

Mostly Greek with some Latin.

This text translates the P. de Geneve to French.

Little or no math. Ptolemaic.


(as per WATSONLINE) Seek Jules Nicole text on P. Latin VII de Geneve [Roman].


(as per Y. Koenig) seek Geneva Papyrus MAH 15724 [Clarify MAH].


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Gen. Lat. = Archives militaires du 1er siecle (Texte inedits du Papyrus Latin de Geneve No. 1) ed. J. Nicole and C. Morel. Geneva 1900.


[B_180b,8.5,IMG, v. 2] CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t. 82, “Hommages Serge Sauneron, Cairo, 1979.

See volume two, mention of P. Gen. 73, 1.11, dated to ~250 CE.


(as per S. Katary, [B_100])  

P. Geneva D 191 (No. 37 LRL)

Mentions “measurer”

Mentions details of Viziers role in collecting grain revenue


P.Gen. 1.1.: (Greek; AD 213; Arsinoite)



GENIZEH or GENIZAH: (AE; Jewish and Greek) fragments; astrological


K. C. Hanson’s pages


The Israel Museum, Jerusalem




over 140,000 fragments of documents and texts, principally in Hebrew

and Judaeo-Arabic from the Taylor-Schechter Genizah Collection



“A Jewish Archive from Old Cairo/ A history of Cambridge

University’s Genizah Collection.” Curzon Press, 2000. Stefan C. Reif

Solomon Schecter “discovered” Cairo Genizah.

Over 210,000 fragments recovered.

S. Reif directed me to the works of B. R. Goldstein for more on Genizah arithmetic and astronomy [from the Crusade periods].


GENOVA: (Greek) papyri

P.Genova: Papiri dell'Universita di Genova

P.Genova 1.10. Letter from Nero to the Alexandrians: (Greek, AD 55)



GESHER BENOT YA’AKOV: (Neolithic community site, Ancient Israel)

(near Dead Sea)


“The Acheulian Site of Gesher Benot Ya'akov, Israel: 1, The Wood Assemblage.”

By Naama Goren-Inbar, Ella Werker and Craig S. Feibel, Oxbow, 2002.

Available from OXBOW catalog [B_332 alt]


GEZER: (Ancient Hebrew) calendar


Before the discovery of the Izbet Sartah [Biblical Aphek] sherd [~1100 BCE; proto canaanite?/abecedary ostracon/It contains around eighty letters.]

[see these independent links for an image of the ostracon]

[See: Biblical Archaeology Review', May/June 2002, p. 44]

The Gezer Calendar was the oldest Hebrew inscription found. In 1908, the Irish archaeologist R.A.S. Macalister found the large slab of soft limestone on which is inscribed the text of the Gezer Calendar. Dating back to the 10th century B.C.E., it is a little poem which lists the months of the year by their agricultural tasks.

The text of the Gezer Calendar [now at the Istanbul Archaeology Museum], translated by W.F. Albright, is as follows:

"His two months are (olive) harvest,
His two months are planting (grain),
His two months are late planting,
His month is hoeing up of flax,
His month is harvest of barley,
His month is harvest and feasting,
His two months are vine tending,
His month is summer fruit."

The nature and purpose of the calendar are not clear, although there are theories.



GIESSEN: papyri

See IANDANAE; [O_027]; See GISS.

GILGAMESH or GILGAMISH: (cuneiform) tablets; ancient epics of

Gilgamesh, Tablet XI, lines 1-257, in R. C. Thompson, ed., “The Epic of Gilgamish” (1930), pls. 44-50. In cuneiform.

The Original Great Flood.


As per [B_261,Torah] see:

“The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic”, Pennsylvania, 1982.

By J. H. Tigay.


“The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels”, Chicago, 1946.

By A. Heidel.

See ANZU; [B_514]

[B_514,rvw] CATNYP# *OCY 99-4737

“The Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh : cuneiform text, transliteration, glossary, indices and sign list / by Simo Parpola ; with the assistance of Mikko Luukko and Kalle Fabritius.

[Helsinki], The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 1997.


From the STACT series, volume 1.

See questions from L. Bailey on file with [B_514]

Available from OXBOW catalog [B_332 alt]


CATNYP# *OCY 84-4767

“Gilgamesh : translated from the Sin-leqi-unninn i version /  John Gardner, John Maier ; with the assistance

of Richard A. Henshaw.” NY, 1984



“The Epic of Gilgamesh / Translated and Edited by Benjamin R. Foster.”

NY, 2001.

Text appears to directly relate as a precursor to the Flood noted in the TORAH; GENESIS.

Irony in the artful form of this text.

Obvious similarities include reference to:

Flood; release of doves; Ark construction; quantities of mathematical descriptions of the Ark and its construction and contents and the duration of the flood.

See numerical content in the “Gilgamesh Letter,” p. 167.



GISR EL-MUDIR: (evidence of AE stone CONSTRUCTION)

Older than SAQQARA’s steppe pyramid?



GISS.: (Greek) papyri

AKA papyri Gissenses.

See also Iandanae.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Giss. = Greichische Papyri im Museum des oberhessichen Gechichtsvereins zu Giessen, ed. O. Eger, E. Kornemann, and P. M. Meyer. Liepzig-Berlin, 1910-12. Part i, Nos. 1-35; Part ii, Nos. 36-57; Part iii, Nos. 58-126.


P. Giss. Univ.-Bibl. = Mitteilungen aus der Papyrussammlung der Giessener Universitatsbibliothek, ed. H. Kling et al, Giessen, 1924-39. 6 Parts.



Die Giessener literarischen Papyri und die Caracalla-Erlasse, ed. P.A. Kuhlmann. Giessen 1994. (Berichte und Arbeiten aus der Universitätsbibliothek und dem Universitätsarchiv Giessen, 46). [o.e. Universitätsbibliothek Giessen]


P.Giss. 2. Marriage contract: (Greek; 173 bce; from Krokodilon)


P.Giss.Univ. 1.1. Petition concerning repayment of a loan:

(Greek; 181 bce)




CATNYP# NRD p.v.13,no.10

“Papyrus-studien und andere beiträge dem Innsbrucker philologenklub zur feier seines vierzigjährigen

bestandes gewidmet von den verfassern.”

Innsbruck, 1914.

Studies include Greek Papyri by Euripides and Hippocrates and Statius.

GIZA: (AE) pyramids and Sphinxplateau



[B_126,rvw] CATNYP# *OBLF (Barnard, F.A.P., Imaginary ..),

“The imaginary metrological system of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh”,

NY, 1884.

Also available on microform.


See Metrology and Pyramid texts.


(as per T. E. Peet) See Borchardt, “Gegen die Zahlenmystik an der grossen Pyramide bei Gise.” Berlin, 1922


(as per Elke Roik [B_188]) See M. G. Daressy, Le nilometre de Kom el Gizeh, ASAE 1, 1900, 91 f.



(as per EEF; J. Vivo; 100103)

1. Mastaba of Tesen (Porter & Moss, III, 1, p. 252 = Itisen)

2. Rock Tomb of Swf (PM III,1, p. 253 = Suf)

3. Rock Tomb of Mes-sa (PM III,1, p. 254 = Mes-sa)

4. Mastaba of Medw-nefer (PM III,1, p. 258 = Medunufer)

5. Rock Tomb of Nefer-Nemtet (PM III,1, p. 276 = Nefernemtut)

6. Mastaba of Niswt pw nether (PM III,1, p. = Nesutpunuter)

7. Mastaba of Der-semat (PM III,1, p. 280, Dersemat)


GNOMON: A Carpenters square.

Also an astronomical device for sighting the sun and for use to collect data to mark time.

Clocks and calendars. A part of a sundial.


(as per AEB 91/2.2035) Isler, Martin, An Ancient Method of Finding and Extending Direction, JARCE 26, (1989), 191-206. See also next.

(as per AEB 91/2.2036) Isler, Martin, The Gnomon in Egyptian Antiquity, JARCE 28 (1991), 155-185.


See also Cubit, Metrology, Calendar and Seked.


GOLDSTEIN: (Author) Bernard Raphael

(as per A. Jones {see [B_088]}: 082503) - Wessely%20[1891
B. R. Goldstein, The Arabic Version of Ptolemy’s Planetary Hypotheses. (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 57.4) Philadelphia, 1967. [Includes translation of the "missing" part of Book 1]

GOODWIN: (Greek) papyrus

(as per Lepsius, [B_149]) from Page 35 footnote:

See Papyrus Goodwin.

Identify this as a British museum item number.


CITATION: Charles Wycliffe Goodwin, "Fragment of a Graeco-Egyptian Work upon Magic from a Papyrus in the British Museum;" Cambridge: Deighton; Macmillan; London: J.W. Parker; Oxford: J.H. Parker, 1852.

See Goodwin’s work on P. Sallier I.



GORTYNIAN: (Greek) Law Codes

(as per ZPE) Seek work by Keyser, P.

(Greek) Numerals, math content.

See Temple G at Selinus.



GOT.: (Greek) papyri




GOTEBORG: (Greek) papyri

See GOT; GOTHEMBOURG [O_059,rvw]



GOTHEMBOURG: (Greek) papyri from University of



BOBST# PA3309 .G5

“Papyrus grecs de la bibliotheque municipale de Gothembourg. (P. Got.)”

Goteborg, 1929.

Translations of Greek papyri by:

Frisk, Hjalmar 1900-?


P.Got.: Papyrus grecs de la Bibliothèque municipale de Gothembourg

P.Got. 1. penthêmeros certificate: (Greek; AD 140; from KARANIS)



GRADENWITZ: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) P. Gradenwitz = Greichische Papyri der Sammlung Gradenwitz, ed. Gerhard Plaumann. Heidelberg, 1914.




P.Grad. 1. Royal decree: announcement of slave tax or sale of prisoners of war: (Greek)



GRAMMAR: please forgive my weak skills with it.

(as per L. Bailey) See work by Leo (LAY-O) Depuytd.


Most of the following contributions come directly from L. Bailey.


[B_206,8.5] CATNYP# *OBP 94-8968

“Letters from Ancient Egypt / translated by Edward F. Wente ; edited by Edmund S. Meltzer.”

Atlanta, 1990.

See references to:

The book of Kemit?

P. Anastasi I

Hekanakhte P. 1, and others

P. Meketre


[B_207,8.5] CATNYP# *OBOD 95-7938

“A late Egyptian Grammar / Jaroslav Cerny and Sarah Israelit Groll, assisted by Christopher Eyre.”

Roma, 1993.

See references to:

Numerical Grammar


[B_208,8.5] CATNYP# *OBOD 97-6386

“Middle Egyptian grammar / James E. Hoch.”

Mississauga, Ontario, 1997.

See references to:

Cardinal Numbers (Sounds like Waheh and Itnane to me)

Ordinal Numbers (First, Second…)




[B_209,8.5,HOUSE] CATNYP# *OBOD+ 87-1168

“Egyptian Grammar : being an introduction to the study of hieroglyphs / by Sir Alan Gardiner.”

Oxford, 1957 [1982 printing]

The best damned cross referencing known to mankind.

See his corrections.


See also the works of James P. Allen.

1. [B_209.b,8.5] Middle Egyptian Grammar

2. [B_209.c,8.5] Middle Egyptian An introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs,



(as per L. Bailey) See work by David Shennum:

“E-EG[?] index of Faulkner’s concise dictionary of Middle Egyptian.


See also the General Index of References provided by M. Gauthier-Laurent.

Via L. Bailey; [B_209.d,HOUSE].

and Leslie’s personally adjusted pages [B_209.e,HOUSE].

And personally generated math pages [B_209.f,HOUSE].




“A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed. (University of Chicago,1933).

This filed with archive [B_209]

[B_572,rvw] CATNYP# *O-*OBOG 99-7510

“Grosses Handworterbuch Deutsch-Agyptisch : (2800-950 v. Chr.) : die Sprache der Pharaonen / von Rainer Hannig.” Mainz, 2000.


GRAUX: (Greek) papyri

P.Graux: Papyrus Graux

P.Graux 2.9. Petition to the prefect Au[r]illios Phlakkos:

(Greek; AD 33; from PHILADELPHIA)


P.Graux III = Papyrus Graux III (P.Graux 30), ed. S. Kambitsis. Genève 1997. No. 30.

(Hautes Études du Monde Gréco-Romain 23). [o.e. Droz]


GREEK: artifacts


See link below for ancient Greek items from the Schoyen collection:


GREEK: culture



GREEK: mathematics sprinkled throughout

4.1. Aaboe, Asger. Episodes from the Early History of Mathematics. New York: Random House, 1964.

4.2. Artmann, Benno. Euclid: the Creation of Mathematics. NewYork: Springer-Verlag, 1999.

4.3-4. Heath, T. L. A History of Greek Mathematics. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1921. 2 vols. Reprinted New York: Dover, 1981.

4.5. Herz-Fischler, R. A Mathematical History of division in Extreme and Mean Ratio. Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 1987.

4.6. Klein, Jacob. Greek Mathematical Thought and the Origin of Algebra. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1968. Reprinted New York: Dover, 1992.

4.7. Knorr, W. R. The Ancient Tradition of Geometric Problems. Boston: Birkhauser, 1986. Reprinted New York: Dover, 1993.

4.8. Knorr, W. R. Textual Studies in Ancient and Medieval Geometry. Boston: Birkhauser, 1989.

4.9. Netz, Reviel. The Shaping of deduction in Greek Mathematics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

4.10. Neugebauer, Otto. A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1975.

4.11. Same as 1.1.

4.12. Szabo, Arpad. The Beginnings of Greek Mathematics. Dordrech , Boston: D. Reidel, 1978.

4.13. Van der Waerden, B.L. Science Awakening, I. 2nd ed. Leyden: Noordhoff Interna ional Publishers and New York: Oxford University Press, 1961. [Chapters 4-8; worth 1 book]

4.14. Knorr, W. R. “New Readings in Greek Mathematics: Sources, Problems, Publications”. Impact of Science on Society 159 (1990).

4.15. Mahoney, Michael S. “Another Look at Greek Geometrical Analysis”. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 5 (1968), 318– 348.

4.16. Behboud, A. “Greek Geometrical Analysis”. Centaurus 7 (1994), 52–86.

4.17. Knorr, W. R. “Construction as Existence Proof in Ancient Geometry”. Ancient Philosophy (1983), 125–148.

4.18. Fowler, D. H. “The Story of the Discovery of Incommensurability, Revisited”. In Trends in the Historiography of Science. Edited by Kostas Gravroglu, Jean Christianidis, and Efthymios Nicolaidis. Dordrech: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994, 221–235.

4.19. Dicks, D. R. “Thales”. Classical Quarterly (New Series) 9 (1959), 294–309.

4.20. Burker , Walter. Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972.

4.21. Huffman, Carl A. Philolaus of Croton, Pythagorean and Persocratic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

4.22. Knorr, Wilbur R. The Evolution of the Euclidean Elements: A Study of the Theory of Incommensurable Magnitudes and Its Significance for Early Greek Geometry. Dordrech : Reidel, 1975.

4.23. Fowler, D. H. The Mathematics of Plato’s Academy: A NewReconstruction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. Paperback edition with corrections, 1990. Expanded second edition, 1999.

4.24. Mueller, I. Philosophy and eductive Structure in Euclid’s Elements. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1981.

4.25. Mueller, I. “On the Notion of a Mathema ical Starting Point in Plato, Aristotle, and Euclid”. In Science and Philosophy in Classical Greece. Edited by A. C. Bowen, New York: Garland, 1991.

4.26. Saito, K. “Compounded Ratio in Euclid and Apollonius”. Historia Scientiarum No. 31 (1986), 25–59.

4.27. Grattan-Guinness, I. “Numbers, Magnitudes, Ratios, and Proportions in Euclid’s Elements: How Did He Handle Them?” Historia Mathematica 23 (1996), 355–375.

4.28. Taisbak, Ch. M. Division and logos: A Theory of Equivalent Couples and Sets of Integers Propounded by Euclid in the Arithmetical Books of the Elements. Odense: Odense University Press, 1971.

4.29. Knorr, Wilbur R. “Archimedes and The Elements: Proposal for a Revised Chronological Ordering of he Archimedean Corpus”. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 19 (1978), 211–290.

4.30. Knorr, Wilbur R. “Archimedes and the Measurement of the Circle: A New Interpretation”. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 15 (2) (1976), 115–140.

4.31. Berggren, J. L. “Spurious Theorems in Archimedes’ Equilibrium of Planes: Book I”. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 16 (1976), 87–103.

4.32. Cuomo, S. Pappus of Alexandria and the Mathematics of Late Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

4.33. O’Meara, D. Pythagoras Revived: Mathematics and Philosophy in Late Antiquity. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.

4.34. Jones, A. “The adaptation of Babylonian Methods in Greek Numerical Astronomy”. Isis 82 (1991), 441-453.

4.35. Newton, R. R. The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1977.

4.36. van Dalen, B. “On Ptolemy’s Table for the Equation of Time”. Centaurus 37 (1994), 97–153.

4.37. Pedersen, Olaf. “Logistics and the Theory of Functions: An Essay in the History of Greek Mathematics”. Archives Internationales d’Histoire des Sciences 24 No. 94 (1974), 29–50.

4.38. Bowen, A. C. “Euclid’s Sectio canonis and the History of Pythagoreanism”. In Science and Philosophy in Classical Greece. Edited by A. C. Bowen. New York: Garland, 1991, 164–187.


All the above and more via this link:



See [B_390; KESKINTO, v3]



(as per EEF; 091803)
(* In issue (266) the TOC of 'Antiquity' vol. 77 no. 297 (Sept 2003)
was already mentioned; there is now a press report on one of
the listed articles (Stephen Chrisomalis, "The Egyptian origin of the
Greek alphabetic numerals"):
[The first part of the article seems to me a bit blurry; not having
seen Chrisomalis' article, I presume that the hypothesis is that the
Greeks are supposed to have adopted and adapted the _idea_
to represent numbers by single symbols ("encipherment"), like
the hieratic and demotic numerals (non-alphabetic and of very
different shape than the Greek ones) did (vs the repetition of
a few symbols in hieroglyphic).]



Unguru, Sabetai, 1975. On the need to rewrite the history of Greek mathematics. Arch. Hist. Exact Sci. 15, 67--114. MR0504604 (58 #21009)



(as per Y. Koenig) Magical, Crimes of Thoth.


[B_078,rvw,BOTD] CATNYP# OBKQ++ (British Museum. Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities, Dept. of Greenfield papyrus in the British Museum), "The Greenfield papyrus in the British Museum. The funerary papyris of Princess Nesitanebtashru, daughter of Painetchem II and Nesi-Khensu, and priestess of Amen-Ra at Thebes, about B.C.[E] 970. Reproduced in collotype fascimile, with introduction and description by E. A. Wallis Budge..." London 1912.

My hunch: this is related to the Princess Nesikhonsu link.

Search and read this article! pharaohs/pharaohs-7.html


[B_180a,8.5,IMG, v. 1] CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t. 82, “Hommages Serge Sauneron, Cairo, 1979.

See volume one, mentions Temple of Khonsou at Karnak. P. 168.

Images of (Libyan epoch) graffiti from this temple on p. 169.

Analysis by Helen Jacquet-Gordon.



GRENFELL: (Author); (Greek) papyri

Bernard Pyne Grenfell, see Hibeh. See ADLER; [B_385=O_016,8.5,IMG]




(as per E. G. Turner) P. Grenf. i = An Alexandrian Erotic Fragment and other Greek Papyri chiefly Ptolemaic, ed. B.P. Grenfell. Oxford 1896.


P. Grenf. ii = New Classical Fragments and other Greek and Latin Papyri, ed. B.P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt. Oxford 1897.


P.Grenf. 1.9.: (Greek; ~240 bce?; Arsinoite)



GRIFFITH: (Ptolemaic) framents

(as per S. Katary, [B_100]) 

The Griffith Fragments

End of XX Dynasty

Mentions “Domain of the house of Khons”



GROLIER: (Mayan) codex


(13th century CE MAYAN Codex with VENUS tables)

*LOCATION UNKNOWN (private collection)!


See 260 and 365 day periods in sync at ~52 vague years.

52*365=73*260= 18,980 days


Their lunar knowledge was impressive for they also made eclipse predictions, an almanac for predicting them is contained in the Dresden Codex.


GRONINGANAE: (Greek) papyri at University

(as per E. G. Turner) AKA P. Amst.

P. Gron. = Papyri Groninganae; Greichische Papyri der Universitatsbibliothek zu Groningen nebst zwei Papyri der Universitatsbibliothek zu Amsterdam, ed. A. G. Roos, Amsterdam, 1933.


[O_008,8.5,IMG] NO CATNYP

BOBST# PA 3309.R7

“Papyri Groninganae : greichische Papyri der Universitatsbibliothek zu Groningen, nebst zwei Papyri der Universitatsbibliothek zu Amsterdam / herausgegeben von A. G. Roos.”

Amsterdam, 1933.

Translations of Greek papyri by: Roos, Anton Gerard, 1877-?


Includes papyri Amstelodamenses; See:

P. Bouriant

P. Corn

P. Med=P. Milanesi

P. Mon= P. Munchen

P. Soc.


CATNYP# *GRS (Groningen)(Groningen. Rijksuniversiteit. Bibliothek. Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum

Universitatis GRONINGANAE biblioghecae)

“Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum Universitatis GRONINGANAE bibliothecae. Auctore H. [Hajo]


Groninganae, 1898.

On Netherlands / Manuscripts / Catalogs.

Hajo Brugmans, 1868-1939.

P.Gron. 1. Edict of the prefect (?): (Greek; 193 AD?)



GUROB: (Greek) papyri

AKA Ghurab.



(as per E. G. Turner) P. Gurob = Greek Papyri from Gurob, ed. J.G. Smyly. Dublin, 1921 (Royal Irish Academy: Cunningham Memoirs, No. 12).

AKA Kom Medinet Ghurab.


(as per S. Katary, [B_100], WILBOUR)  

The Gurob Fragments

Fragment L is the largest

Mentions “measurer”

Fragment M

Mentions harvest grain


P.Gur. 2dupl. The Court of Ten: (Greek; 225 bce; from Gurob)




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