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Last updated 12/25/05


See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID



EARTHQUAKES: in general:

Guidoboni E, Comastri A. and. Traina G., 1994, Catalogue of ancient

earthquakes in the Mediterranean area up to the 10th century,

 ING-SGA Bologna, 504 pp.

Ambraseys, N. N., Melville, C. P. & Adams, R. D., 1994. The Seismicity of Egypt, Arabia and the Red Sea, a historical review. Cambridge Press.


EBAY: world’s auctionhouse

See also BOOKS;

EBERS: (AE; medical) papyri

Georg Moritz Ebers 1837-1898.

German Egyptologist, born in Berlin.


[B_070,rvw] CATNYP# *OAC+ p.v.92, no.8, "Der Doppelkalendar des Papyrus-Ebers,..." Liepzig, F.A. Brockhaus, 1876. By Carl Riel

Including: Astronomy and the AE Calendar.


[B_071,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKQ+ (Wreszinski, W. Medizin der alten Aegypter), "Die Medizin der alten Agypter / [herausgegeben von] W. Wreszinski." Liepzig 1909-1913.

This text also refers to Berlin 3038; BM10059; and Hearst P.


[B_072,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKQ (Papyrus Ebers. Alteste Buch uber Heilkunde), "Papyrus Ebers. Das alteste Buch uber Heilkunde, aus dem Aegyptischen zum erstenmal vollstandig ubers. von H. Joachim." Berlin 1890. By Heinrich Joachim [1860-?].


[B_073,rvw] CATNYP# QBKQ+++ (Papyrus Ebers. Hermetische Buch uber die Arzeneimittel), "Papyros Ebers, das hermetische Buch uber die Arzeneimittel der alten Agypter in hieratischer lateinischem Glossar, von Ludwig Stern. Mit unterstutzung des Koniglich sachsischen Cultusministerium..." Liepzig 1875.


See this link related to the Ebers and Edwin Smith Medical Papyri.


See this similar German link from Petra Habiger.


(as per P. Habiger) NO CATNYP "Papyrus Ebers Umschrift. Ubersetzung und Kommentar, J. C. Heinrichs'sche Buchhandlung" Liepzig 191_?

By W. Wreszinski.


(as per AEB 95.1138) Bardinet, Thierry, Les Papyrus medicaux de l'Egypte pharaonique. Tr. integrale et comm., Paris, Fayard, 1995.

This includes mention of P. Hearst; Med. P. Berlin; Med. P. Kahun; Med. P. London; Brooklyn P.; and the Veterinary P. Kahun,

(as per AEB 91/2.2058) Spalinger, Anthony J., A return to Papyrus Ebers, BES 10, (1989/1990), 137-144; See [B_015]


(as per EEF ,M. Tilgner)

"Der Papyrus Ebers. Die groesste Buchrolle zur Heilkunde


[Papyrus Ebers. The largest scroll about the     medicine of AE]

Date: February 14 - March 23, 2002

P, Ebers

[which is in the possession of the University of Leipzig, Germany]

Will be displayed completely for the first time (in 129 years) and then it will not be shown again for a long time!

info in German:


German press release:


Further links:

Photograph of pEbers, cols. 1-2:


Hieroglyphic transcription and German translation:

P. Ebers 294, page 1.


page 2:


[B_563=Y_013,rvw] CATNYP# *OBZ 93-6646

SUMMIT# R127.3 .P3613 1974

“Papyrus Ebers, English. / Ancient Egyptian medicine : the Papyrus Ebers / translated from the German.”

Chicago, 1974.



CATNYP# *OBKQ (Papyrus Ebers. Papyrus Ebers. 1937)

“The Papyrus Ebers, the greatest Egyptian medical document, translated by B. Ebbell...”

Copenhagen, 1937.

Bendix Ebbell [1865-?].



EBLA: (Cuneiform) tablets/archives; language and territory of


See NUZI. See The Alalakh Tablets.




See Mari tablets. See METROLOGY


”Ebla is a city in Northern Syria. Approximately 17000 tablets have been unearthed since their initial discovery in 1964, though unfortunately full details have never been released. At its height, a flourishing kingdom was based on the city. In conventional terms the peak was around 2300 BCE, and in the New Chronology interpretation about one or two centuries later. The city was destroyed by a Mesopotamian ruler called Naram-Sin around 2250 BCE using conventional dating, and around 2000 BCE in New Chronology terms. The tablet archive therefore dates from the closing century of the 3rd millennium in NC terms. The tablets found at Ebla describe influential nearby cities and record law codes and judicial decisions made at the city. The structure of laws and customs provides a good parallel for the Genesis accounts. Personal names matching those in Genesis are also found.”


EBLA0=Ebla: A New Look at History, Giovanni Pettinato, John


EBLA1=Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite

Language (Vol 1), Gordon/Rendsburg/Winter (eds.),

Eisenbrauns: 1987.

EBLA2=Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite

Language (Vol 2), Gordon/Rendsburg (eds.), Eisenbrauns:


EBLA3=Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite

Language (Vol 3), Gordon/Rendsburg/Winter (eds.),

Eisenbrauns: 1992.


EDFU or EDFOU: (Greek period; AE) papyri and ostraca

See *Triumph of Horus* in the Edfu temple,

Published and discussed by H. W. Fairman.


[B_048,tr,NO IMG,8.5's] (as per Y. Koenig) Seek CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t.59 "La Grande Texte des Donations au Temple d'Edfou", by Dimitri Meeks, (BdE LIX), p.73, note 66.

(Edfu is dedicated to Horus).

No Mathematics but some demotic numbers in accounts.

The main text is similar to Wilbour P. II.


[W_043,OS2,SK IMG] WATSON# 533.54 V69. "A propos d'un extrait de la stele d'Emheb", Vikentiev, Vladimir, [Cairo], 1947.

Reprint from the Bulletin of the Faculty of Arts, Fouad I Univ. Vol. IX, Part I – May 1947.

Theatrical content.


[B_120,rvw] CATNYP# *OAA (Deutsche morgenlandische…),

“L’enteuxis [romanized form] de Varsovie (Papyrus Edfou VIII).”

See Bd.31,nr.4, Weisbaden, 1955.


(as per E. G. Turner) See Greek papyri from Edfou published in:

Fouilles franco-polonaises.

Rapport i, Tell Edfou, Cairo, 1937.

Rapport ii, Tell Edfou, Cairo, 1938.

Rapport iii, Tell Edfou, Cairo, 1950.

Includes (Greek) ostraka.


O. Edfou: (Greek; 135-6 bce)


P.Edfou: Tell Edfou

P.Edfou 1.1.: (Greek; from Apollonopolis Magna)


(as per EEF; J. Legon; 121303)
One of the key inscriptions is a "double date" from the temple at Edfu
(Depuydt, 83-4). Concerning the glyphs of this date, Depudyt says:
"The sequence feather + snake + falcon was first identified as 18, the
civil day number, by Brugsch (1872: 15), who reads the feather (or wing
as one half of a pair) as /gs/ "half (of 30)," the snake as /r/ "part,"
and the Horus falcon as "10" ." [Gardiner signs H6 + I14 + G5).


R.A. Parker _The Calendars of Ancient Egypt_ (1950, 42), seems to
Accept Brugsch's rendering without comment. However, De Wit (1961), evidently
gives a different translation, as /xr <H3t sp> mDn.t/ or "in year 10".


In other Edfu inscriptions thought to show the same date, the
fractional parts of the month are stated explicitly as 1/2 + 1/10. May I assume
that Brugsch's reading of the glyphs in question as "18" was just a
guess, or is there some other evidence to support his interpretation?
(as per EEF; C. Bennett response; 121303)
I know it doesn't address your question on Edfu, but to the evidence
considered in this book should be added a series of lunar/civil
synchronisms from Medinet Habu, given in H. J. Thissen, Die demotischen Graffiti von
Medinet Habu (Bamberg, 1989).
These are all from the reigns of Berenice IV and Cleopatra VII.
(Thissen assigns one to year (21) [Ptolemy VI] = year 10(?) [Ptolemy VIII], but
this is most unlikely on historical grounds, and IMO is more likely to be
year (17) = year 2(?) of Cleopatra VII.) They have had some importance in
establishing the exact chronology of Berenice IV.
Calendrically, the most interesting feature of these synchronisms is
that they are all one day late on the Parker reconstruction of Carlsberg 9
calendar, except for one which is two days late.



EDWARDS: (Author); explorer

Amelia B. Edwards



EDWIN SMITH: (Author; AE) papyrus

Edwin Smith 1912-1971.


Papyrus at the NY Academy of Medicine.


See EBERS links.


See this link for background information on the medical papyrus:


[W_041,rvw] WATSON# 533.5 B74 (as per Petra Habiger) "The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus", Rs 20, 13-21, 3, tr. by James Henry Breasted, Univ. Chicago press, 1930. NO CATNYP.


(as per P. Habiger) "Papyrus Edwin Smith", Rs 20, 13-21, 3, tr. by Prof. Dr. Wolfhart Westendorf, Verlag Hans Huber, Stuttgart.



EES: society

Follow this link to the EES (Egypt Exploration Society).




EGERTON: papyri


See [B_267], TORAH.

Volume two (D-G)

See Egerton Papyrus 2.

AKA P. Lond. Christ. 1

Five fragments of a codex

1.       Part of a controversy between Jesus and Jewish leaders over the interpretation of Scripture and the authority of Moses.

2.       The conclusion of a story of an attempt to stone and arrest Jesus.

3.       Story of Jesus’s healing of a leper.

4.       An account of a controversy concerning tribute money.

Possible Math content!

5.       Part of a report of a nature miracle of Jesus at the Jordan river.



“Fragments of an Unknown Gospel and Other Early Christian Papyri.” By Bell, H. I. And Skeat, T. C., eds. 1935, London.

On the miracles of Jesus


EGYPT: land of wonder


Contacts at Egyptian Museums:


(as per EEF)

Egypte Eternelle has put up a "TOUR D'EGYPTE" with clickable

maps and links to 310 photos:


See this on satellite imaging aids for archaeology:



EGYPTIAN MATH: in addition to items noted throughout

1.1. Neugebauer, O. The Exact Sciences in Antiquity. 1st ed. Copenhagen: E.Munksgaard, and London: Oxford University Press, 1951; Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952. 2nd ed. Providence, R.I.: Brown University, 1957. Reprinted New York: Harper, 1962. Reprinted New York: Dover, 1969. [Only relevant chapters].

1.2. Gillain, O. La science égyptienne: L’arithmétique au Moyen Empire. Brussels: Edition de la Fondation Egyptologique Reine Elisabeth, 1927.

1.3. Peet, T. E. “Mathematics in Ancient Egypt”. Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 15 (1931).

1.4. Van der Waerden, B. L. “Die Entstehungsgeschichte der aegyptischen Bruchrechnung”. Quellen und Studien zu Geschichte de Mathematik, Abteilung B: Studien 4 (1937–1938), 359– 382.

1.5. Gillings, R. J. Mathematics in the Time of the Pharaohs. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1972. New York: Dover, 1982.

1.6. Gillings, R. J. “The Mathematics of Ancient Egypt”. In Dictionary of Scientific Biography. XV, Supplement 1. C. Gillispie (ed), New York: Scribner’s, 1978, 681–705.

1.7. Korostovtsev, M. A. The Science of Ancient Egypt. Moscow: “Nauka”, 1982. In Russian.

1.8. Van der Waerden, B.L. Geometry and Algebra in Ancient Civilizations. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1983.

1.9. Vogel, Kurt. Kleinere Schriften zur Geschichte der Mathematik. 2 vols. M. Folkerts (ed). Stutgart: Franz Stern Verlag, 1988. [Only relevant chapters].

1.10. Vogel, Kurt. Vorgriechische Mathematik. Vol. 1. Vorgeschichte in Aegyptien. Hannover: Hermann Schroedel Verlag; Paderborn: Verlag Ferdinand Schoningh, 1988.

1.11. Couchoud, Sylvia. Mathématiques égyptiennes. Recherches sur les connaissances mathématiques de l’Egypte pharaonique. Paris: Le Léopard d’Or. 1993.

1.12. Parker, Richard A. “Some demotic mathematical papyri”. Centaurus 14 (1969), 136–141.

1.13. Parker, Richard A. Demotic Mathematical Papyri. Providence, R.I.: Brown University Press, 1972.

1.14. Neugebauer, O. Die Grundlagen der Aegyptischen Bruchrechnung. Berlin: Springer, 1926.

1.15. Neugebauer, O. “Zur Aegyptischen Bruchrechnung”. Zeitschrift fur Aegyptische Sprache 64 (1929), 44–48.

1.16. Vogel, K. “Zur Frage der Scheffelteile”. Zeitschrift fur aegyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 66 (1930), 33– 35.

1.17. Chace, Arnold B. “The Egyptian Fraction Reckoning”. Archeion 13 (1931), 40–41.

1.18. Bruins, Evert M. “Ancien Egyptian Arithmetic: 2/N”. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen Proceedings, Series A, Mathematical Sciences (Amsterdam) 55 (1952), 81–91. Also in Indagationes Mathematicae 14 (1952), 81–91.

1.19. Gillings, Richard J. “The Recto of the Rhind Mathema ical Papyrus: How Did he Ancient Egyptian Scribe Prepare It ?” Archive for History of Exact Sciences 12 (1974), 291–298.

1.20. Bruins, Evert M. “On some hau–problems. A revision”. Janus 70 (1983), 229–262.

1.21. Gillings, Richard J. “The Division of 2 by the Odd Numbers 3 to 101 from the Recto of the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (B. M. 10058)”. Australian Journal of Science 18 (1955), 43–49.

1.22. Bruins, Evert M. “Platon et la table égyptienne 2/n”. Janus 46 (1957), 253–263.

1.23. Gillings, Richard J. “The Egyptian 2/3 Table for Fractions. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (B. M. 10057–8)”. Australian Journal of Science 22 (1959), 247–250.

1.24. Rising, Gerald R. “The Egyptian Use of Unit Fractions for Equitable Distribution”. Historia Mathematica 1 (1974), 73 –74.

1.25. Bruins, Evert M. “The Part in Ancient Egyptian Mathematics”. Centaurus 19 (1975), 241–251.

1.26. Bruckheimer, M., and Y. Salomon. “Some Comments on R. J. Gillings’ Analysis of the 2/n Table in the Rhind Papyrus.” Historia Mathematica 4 (1977), 445–452; response by Gillings, 5 (1978), 221–227.

1.27. Campbell, Paul J. “A ‘Practical’ Approach to Egyptian Fractions”. Journal of Recreational Mathematics 10 (1977–1978), 81–86.

1.28. Raik, Anna E. “On the Theory of Egyptian Fractions”. Istoriko-Matematicheskie Issledovaniia No. 23 (1978), 181–191. [In Russian.]

1.29. Van der Waerden, B. L.. “The (2 : n) Table in the Rhind Papyrus”. Centaurus 23 (1980), 259–274.

1.30. Bruins, Evert M. “Egyptian Arithmetic”. Janus 68 (1981), 33–52.

1.31. Knorr, Wilbur R. “Techniques of Fractions in Ancient Egypt and Greece”. Historia Mathematica 9 (1982), 133–171.

1.32. Bruins, Evert M. “Reducible and Trivial Decompositions Concerning Egyptian Arithmetics”. Janus 68 (1981), 281–297.

1.33. Gardner, Milo. “Babylonian and Egyptian Mathema ics, an Egyptian Historical Gap”, (in four instalments); “Breaking he RMP 2/nth Table Code [revised version of second instalment]” ( 1995.

1.34. Brown, K.S.“The Rhind Papyrus 2/N Table” (, 1995.

1.35. Brown, K.S.“The Akhmin Papyrus” (, 1995?.


The above and more via this link:


See also:


1.25. Bruins, Evert M. “The Part in Ancient Egyptian Mathematics”. Centaurus 19 (1975), 241–251.=[B_459]; Bruins’ theories align closely with Clagett's in Volume three of: [B_028]

[B_028,8.5’s,HOUSE] CATNYP# JFM 95-854 (see volume two)

 "Ancient Egyptian Science: a source book / by Marshall Clagett”

Philadelphia : American Philosophical Society, 1989-


[B_428,8.5,MISC AE] CATNYP# *O-*OBKG 73-780

“Lexicon der Agyptologie. Hrsg. Von Wolfgang Helck und Eberhard Otto.” Wiesbaden, 1973-?

Miscellaneous bibliography of AE works.


[B_429,8.5,MISC AE,AEB] CATNYP# *O-*OBI 86-878

“Annual Egyptological Bibliography = Bibliographie Egyptologique annuelle / International Association of Egyptologists.”

Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1948-

I have reviewed all volumes from 1948-2000!

Miscellaneous bibliography of AE works.


(as per B. YARE; EEF)

Currently I have scripts by:

Winglyph output

Birch, Samuel, 1867 /Dictionary/

Budge, Sir E A I Wallis, 1896 /An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Reading book/

Budge, Sir E A I Wallis, 1876 /Dictionary of Hieroglyphs/

(Holograph manuscript of Samuel Birch's dictionary)

de Buck, Dr A, 1982 /Egyptian Reading Book/

Faulkner, Raymond O, 1962 /A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian/

Gardiner, Sir Alan 1949 /Onomastica/

Rose, John, 1985 /The Sons of Re/

Sethe, Kurt, 1928 /Ägyptische Lesestücke/

Watterson, Barbara, 1985 /More about Egyptian Hieroglyphs/

Wilson, Hilary, 1995 /Understanding Hieroglyphs/


(as per R. Fellows)

The Treasures of the Egyptian Museum is a beautiful, eight pound catalog published by the American University in Cairo Press.<snip>

Available at Barnes & Noble. The ISBN is 9774245040.


EGYPTIAN TEXTS: Compilation of English Tr.



EGYPTOLOGISTS: a curious lot

Follow this link to the (University of Chicago)

Directory of North American Egyptologists.



EICHLERS: Judaica/ bookstore

62 West 45th Street; Between 5th & 6th P: (212) 719-1918

also at:

1401 Coney Island Avenue; P: (718) 258-7643




Eisenbrauns Booknews mailing list

To subscribe or unsubscribe, visit


Visit Eisenbrauns on the web at:

Customer Service:

Phone: 574-269-2011, Fax: 574-269-6788,

Toll Free Fax (USA only): 1-800-736-7921

Eisenbrauns, Inc., P.O. Box 275, Winona Lake, IN 46590-0275



EL-HOSH: petroglyphs (~7000 BCE?) at ancient city of


Fish-trap motifs about 5000 BCE or possibly much older.



(as per J. Holladay, personal correspondence; 051002)

<snip>check out the work of Dr. Nicholas B. Millet at the ROM, since he's the latest archaeologist to work there.  I think there might be a couple of short articles in print, possibly in the Newsletter of the Canadian Mediterranean Institute (now defunct) and, also possibly, in the Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities.<snip>


A better source might be a student of Professor Mary Ann Wegner, of Near and Middle Eastern Studies, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, our new Egyptian Archaeologist.  If I'm not mistaken, she is working on a research paper dealing with el Lahun/Kahun, <snip>


(as per Y. Muffs) See [W_012=B_191], ELEPHANTINE.

See Papyrus Kahun II, I (MK; XII dynasty, 2000-1788 BCE.)

Legal content. See DJE; [AHDO; ATLA] I, pp. II ff.


ELEPHANTINE: (AE; Aramaic; Demotic; Greek and more) papyri; stelae;

inscriptions and graffiti at island of


(as per EEF) Elephantine Stele relates to HARRIS P. and includes mention of the family SETHNAKHTE.



Note: The stele of Sethnakht at Elephantine Island.


(as per WATSONLINE) The (Demotic) Elephantine P. (from the Sammlung collection) is at the Staatliche Musee in Berlin.


[B_074=B_196,rvw] CATNYP# *OBH (Agyptologische Abhandlungen. Bd.36), "Die Elephantine-Stele des Sethnacht und ihr historischer Hintergrund / von Rosemarie Drenkhahn." Weisbaden 1980.


[W_002,8.5’s,to file with B_002,8.5,for no reason] WATSON# 533.6 B39 "Demotische Papyri aus den Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin", Berlin, 1978. See Lfg. 1 "Papyri von der Insel Elephantine" by Theodore Zauzich, 1978. This is part of the SAMMLUNG P. collection.

This text includes images of Berlin P. 13537

and others with math content.


[W_007,rvw] WATSON# 544.5 Sal Q. "Aramaische Papyrus und Ostraka aus der einer judischen Militar-Kolonie zu Elephantine"


(as per D. Meeks) Seek Spiegelberg’s review of Dem. P. Elephantine.

See [W_008].


[W_008,rvw] WATSON# 533.4 Sp4 v2, "Demotische Papyrus von der Insel Elephantine", Liepzig, 1908. (Part of the Wilhelm Spiegelberg Series).

This volume also includes Arabic, Greek, Coptic and Latin papyri from the area.


[W_009=R_008,IMG, file with B_008] WATSON# 533.6 EL2. "The Elephantine papyri in English : three millenia of cross-cultural continuity and change / by Bezalel Porten : with J. Joel Farber...{et al} : and contributions by Simon Hopkins and Ramon Katzoff." Leiden 1996.

Found at the WILBOUR, 4/17/02.

See Aramaic papyri on plates.

See Aramaic loan document.

Image of Greek P. Edmonstone; P. Munch; P. Or. Inst.

Extensive bibliography.


[R_009,IMG, file with B_009]

"The Brooklyn Museum Aramaic papyri / New Documents of the Fifth Century B.C. from the Jewish Colony at ELEPHANTINE, Edited with a historical introduction by EMIL G. KRAELING.”

Yale University Press, 1953, reprint 1969.

Found at the WILBOUR, 4/17/02.

See Aramaic on plates.


[W_010,NO IMG,8.5’s; filed with B_002,8.5,for no reason] WATSON# NO TLOC? "From the archive of Ananiah son of Azariah, a Jew from Elephantine; part 2, The history and inheritance of the houses of Elephantine located on the eastern side of the Jewish Temple and the King's Street; revisions of previous plans." By Ayad Ayad, Boulos, Boulder 1999.

(As per the above) Go to Brooklyn Museum to seek Aramaic Papyri #'s 9,10,12,3,4. The author interprets the date of the destruction of the (never rebuilt; monotheistic) Jewish Temple at Elephantine Island, to the reign of Darius II {must be later!} ~411 BCE.

Author notes that the term "above" refers to South as in "Upper Egypt".

Seek Kraeling and seek the following text:

"The Jews of Egypt, from Ramses II to Emperor Hadrian" NJ, 1995, by Joseph Meleze Modrzejejewski.


[W_011=B_481=O_051,rvw] WATSON# 573.6 W12. "Les Papyrus et les Ostraca grecs d'Elephantine / par Guy Wagner." 1998.

BOBST# PA3371 .W34 1998

CATNYP# *OBKQ+ 98-3582

See Plates!


[W_012=B_191,8.5,JH] WATSON# 544.6 M69.=CATNYP# *PIA 1969, "Studies in the Aramaic Legal Papyri from Elephantine" By Muffs, Yochanan, 1969.

Subject is Jewish Law.

Aramaic deeds and versions of the Ahiqar romance.

Detailed cross cultural analysis of the legal terms of satisfaction (quitclaims). [Release and hold harmless…]

See ALALAKH (tablets).


Refers to the following texts:

H. Bauer and B. Meissner, “Ein aramaischer Pachtvertrag aus dem 7. Jahre Darius I.,” SPAW, 1936, pp. 414-424. The same text has been re-edited by A. Dupont-Sommer, “Un contrat de metayage egypto-arameen de l’an 7 de Darius Ier,” MAI, 14(2), 1944, pp. I ff.


For a discussion of Jewish Mercenaries in antiquity, cf. P. Korngreen, Jewish Military Colonies [in Hebrew] (Tel Aviv, 1948).

See also M. Greenberg, “Ezekiel 17 and the Policy of Psammetichus II,” JBL, 76 (1957), p. 307.


See related work by Revillout:

Les origines egyptiennes, “Supplement sur les contrats egypto-arameens d’Elephantine,” pp. 52-60.


Also Spiegelberg as quoted by T. Noldeke in:

“Die aramaischen Papyri von Assuan,” ZAS 20 (1907), pp. 130 ff.


See MDAIK 1997, Tafel 37 for image of the demotic graffito vom Satettempel auf Elephantine.


Visit this link to Elephantine inscriptions from the Old Kingdom.


(as per E. G. Turner) Seek Greek papyri from Elephantine in:

“Elephantine Papyri”, ed. O. Rubensohn, Berlin, 1907.


(as per S. Rosmorduc and M. Luban and? M. Tilgner; EEF)

Michael Tilgner writes:


[M. Luban]“The Elephantine Stela advertises that Setnakht fought an unnamed foe who, in flight, left behind a good deal of gold and silver.  This enemy was routed to a location I do not recognize.  Does anyone have any thoughts about the stela and the identification of this enemy and the place in question?”


[S. Rosmorduc] Enemy: According to Drenkhahn the enemy in question was the chancellor Bay who tried to seize power after Tausret had died. However, Altenmueller argued that both Siptah and Bay did not live any more and that Tausret was Sethnakht's enemy.


[S. Rosmorduc] About Bay a very important and rather definitive article has just been

published by Pierre Grandet in the latest BIFAO :

P. Grandet, L'exécution du chancellier Bay O. IFAO 1864,

BIFAO 100, pp. 339-345.

In short, he has assembled two ostraca fragments which together give :

   Year 5, 3 shemu, day 27. This day the scribe of the Tomb Paser has come to say "Pharao VSF has killed the great enemy Bay".

From various details, Grandet concludes that the document's date is year 5 of Siptah.


(Anyway, this doesn't preclude Bay from being the enemy in Siptah's stela. After all, we have examples of pharaohs boasting of the defeat of long bygone enemies (e.g. Hatchepsout alluding to the expulsion of the Hyksos in the Speos Artemidos).


S. Rosmorduc

See Kraeling papyri at the Brooklyn Museum.


Find out more of the Khnum Temple of ELEPHANTINE.

(active OK-Roman period?)


P.Eleph.: Aegyptische Urkunden aus den königlichen Museen in Berlin

P.Eleph. 1intdupl. Marriage contract:

(Greek; 311 bce; from ELEPHANTINE)

Dowry of 1000 drachma?



EL-HOSH: petroglyphs (~7000+ BCE?) at ancient city of



ELKAB: (OK; AE) tombs and (Greek) ostraca

(as per EEF) New discovery of 2nd Dynasty tombs in Upper Egypt.

*Evidence of occupation from 6000 BCE.


O. Elkab: (Greek; 242 bce)





See (CATNYP) work by R. B. Parkinson.



EMLR: (AE; MK) papyrus (leather roll)*

The Egyptian Mathematical Leather Roll is discussed

on my (old) website as, the big UGLY. <![endif]> emlr050602.htm

(Dynasty XVI). From the Rhind Collection. (BM 10250 1864), London.

Unrolled in 1927.


I wish to correspond with anyone who has studied the EMLR more



[B_001, HOUSE;IMG] CATNYP# OBK 94 2555.(as per J. Legon) Dover reprint of Cambridge 1972 edition "Mathematics in the time of the Pharaohs" by Richard J. Gillings.


See also:

Gillings, R. J. “The Mathematics of Ancient Egypt”. In Dictionary of Scientific Biography. XV, Supplement 1. C. Gillispie (ed), New York: Scribner’s, 1978, 681–705.


[B_017,rvw,EMLR IMG from Chace] CATNYP# OBH+ JEA 13, 1927, pp. 232-8, "The Mathematical Leather Roll in the British Museum", Glanville, S.R.K.

See [A_003=B_002,OS, with good EMLR IMG].



Follow this link to M. Gardner's review of the line 17 error.

A reasonable correction is offered.


See these two other related (posts) Milo Gardner.



(as per AEB 81.1161,HM) Gillings, R.J., "The Egyptian Mathematical Leather Roll-Line 8. How Did the Scribe Do It?, Historia Mathematica, Toronto 6 (1979) 442-7.



ENHEDUANNA: (2300 BCE, Sumerian Priestess at UR)

See Inanna (2300 BCE, Sumerian Goddess/ Deity).

[B_512,rvw] CATNYP# *OCY 01-9815

“Inanna, Lady of Largest Heart : poems of the Sumerian high priestess Enheduanna / [edited] by Betty De Shong Meador [1931-?] ; foreword by Judy Grahn.

Austin, Texas, 2002.

Available from OXBOW catalog [B_332 alt]

(051998) Betty Meador — “The Temple Hymns of Enheduanna” The Sumerian High Priestess Enheduanna wrote a series of 42 hymns to various temples throughout Mesopotamia. The hymns are a precious repository of the ancient female religion from the hand of the first author of record. Recently translated by Betty Meador, Jungian psychologist and author of Uncursing the Dark, through the hymns we will explore the religion's most sacred place, the dark interior of the holy of holies, where “even the light of the moon does not penetrate.”

ENIGMATIC: script/ inscriptions

(as per ZAS) See Coffin of (Tomb of) Seti I in ZAS 11, 1873.


See also the RMP problem number 85 (upside down).

This problem is a patch!


See also glyph inscriptions in Ptolemaic Temple at Esna.


(as per H. Goedicke) Seek P. Turin 248, 1.10 and 1882 r' 5,7, ENIGMATIC.


(As per A.B. Chace) See tombs in Thebes.

See Le P. Renouf, ZAS 12, 1874.

See J.F. Champollion, “grammaire egyptienne”, Paris 1836.

See T. Deveria, “Memoires et Fragments”, v. 2, 1897.

See Brugsch, “Index des hieroglyphes phonetiques”, Liepzig, 1872.

See Sethe, “Die aenigmatischen Inschriften,” London, 1908




(as per EEF; J. Griffith; 042104) <snip>

the Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld, Section B, available at:



ENTEUXIS.: (Greek) papyri


AKA Entetheis?


(as per E. G. Turner)

P.Enteux.: Enteuxeis: Requêtes et plaintes addressées au Roi d'Égypte au IIIe siècle avant J.-C.


P.Enteux. pglxxxviii.: (Greek; 242 bce)


See also: MAGDOLA.



ENUMA ANU ENLIL: Babylonian tablets (of lunar eclipse data).




AKA Enuma Elish

See [B_261] Torah.

(page 30 and forward.)


(as per CATNYP) Enuma and Enlil are Mesopotamian Gods.


[B_104=W_080,IGNR] CATNYP# *OCS 77-2898 Babylonian planetary omens, v. 1. "Enuma Anu Enlil tablet 63, the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa / by Erica Reiner, in collaboration with David Pingree", California, 1975.

This text shows countings of the days Venus is visible.

Synodic periods.


[W_081,not avail 9/01-4/02,see COLUMBIA (Butler),see WILBOUR,RLIN notes filed in WATSON index]

WATSON# 541.39 R58 "Aspects of Babylonian Celestial Divination: the lunar eclipse tablets of Enuma Anu Enlil / by Francesca Rochberg-Halton, 1988.

Possibly available at NYPL although not found in CATNYP.


[W_082,8.5’s,CUNE’to file with B_104] WATSON# (Request at desk), "Solar Omens of Enuma Anu Enlil, tablets 23(24)-29(30), Istanbul, 1995. Soldt, Wilfred H.

The Samas Tablets. This is a review of the tablets with non-eclipse omina. Provinence of Niniveh and Babylon. Akkadian Cuneiform.

"If seven disks rise [Ajaru 15].."

[Moon; Sun; Mercury; Venus; Mars; Jupiter; Saturn?]

"If eight disks rise [Ajaru 30].."

[What could the eighth disk be? A moon of Jupiter?

A star or constellation?]

…"One King will send a declaration of war to another King."

(Lunar?) Month name Ajaru…

Disks are constellations?



[W_081,not avail 9/01-4/02,see COLUMBIA (Butler),see WILBOUR,RLIN notes filed in WATSON index]

WATSON# 541.39 R58 “Aspects of Babylonian Celestial Divination: the lunar eclipse tablets of Enuma Anu Enlil / by Francesca Rochberg-Halton, 1988.

Possibly available at NYPL although not found in CATNYP


[B_430=O_073,8.5,CUNE] CATNYP# *EA A57lt

BOBCAT# PJ3921.A8 R63 1998

“American Philosophical Society: <Transactions of>: TAPS.”

1998 v. 88, part 1. Pages 1-164. article: “Babylonian Horoscopes.”

[Library has most volumes from 1771 to present.]

Also, bibliography refers to this, by B. R. Goldstein: See ISIS 76 (1985) and Centaurus 32 (1989).

See page 35 for month names from analysis of numerous horoscope tablets/fragments.:

BARA = Nisannu (March/April) = [Nisan] = AVIV or ABIB (meaning Barley harvest or simply meaning ripened - barley) an ancient Canaanite or possibly Phoenician name in final caps

GU = Ajaru (April/May) [Iyar] = ZIV (meaning month of flowers)

SIG = Simanu (May/June) [Sivan]

SU = Du’uzu (June/July) = [Tammuz]

NE = Abu [Father] (July/August) = [Av]

KIN = Ululu (August/September) = [Elul]

DU = Tasritu (September/October) = [Tishrei] = EITANIM (meaning

month of seasonal streams)

APIN = Arahsamna (October/November) = [Heshvan or Marcheshvan]

= BUL (meaning rain or showers)

GAN = Kislimu (November/December) = [Kislev]

AB = Tebetu (December/January) = [Tevet]

ZIZ = Sabatu (January/February) = [Shevat]

SE = Addaru (February/March) = [Adar]

SE.DIRI = Adarru arku (intercalary month)

= [Adar 2 or Adar Sheni; as required to maintain seasonal holidays]

As per my copy of Jim Carlson’s paper [not via LB; see link] adaru 2 in the 19th year of the cycle was called – Ululu 2 by the babylonians – filed with [B_551] for no reason.



Months of Arab calendar introduced by Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab

[592-644 CE]:

1. MuHarram

2. Safar

3. Raby’al-awal

4. Raby’al-Thaany

5. Jumaada

6. Jumaada al-Thaany

7. Rajab

8. Sha’baan

9. RamaDHaan

10. Shawwal

11. Thw al-Qi’dah

12 Thw al-Hijjah


See UHN: p. 161:

Coded Sexagesimal Cryptograms (Sumerian & Babylonian)

ANU: god of heaven, father of all other gods, 60

ENLIL: god of Earth, 50 (Later replaced by MARDUK, 10)

EA: god of water, 40 (sometimes 60)

SIN: lunar god, month, 30

SHAMASH: solar god, 20

ADAD: ?, 10 or 6

ISHTAR: queen of heavens, daughter of ANU, 15

NINURTA: son of ENLIL, also 50

NERGAL: ?, 14

GIBIL & NISKU: companions of SHAMASH, 10 for either (and/or both?)


The Sumerians worshiped anu, the supreme god of heaven, Enlil, god of water, and Ea, god of magic and creator of man. The Sumerians held the belief that a sacred ritual marriage between the ruler and Inanna, goddess of love and fertility brought rich harvests.


EOS: organization

See the works of G. Elliot Smith; Royal Mummies etc.


EPAGOMENAL: (Feast) days

AKA the 5 intercalary days;

added to bring the 360 day year (12 months of 3 ten-day weeks)

to a higher degree of accuracy (more consistent seasons).


See Hibeh papapegma/ calendar. P. Rylands iv 589;

P. Carlsberg 9.


(As per E.A. Budge)

Osiris was born on the 1st day.

Horus (Son of Isis and Osiris) on the 2nd.

Set on the 3rd.

Isis on the 4th.

Nephthys on the 5th.

(Not necessarily in the same year.)

See P. Sallier IV, B.M. 10184, 17th day of month Hathor, and the 26th day of the month Thoth are unlucky.


See work by Brugsch, Kalendarische Inschriften.



(as per F. Chabas) P. I. 346 Leiden mentions epagomenal days,

and P. Leiden #346 is AKA: The Book of the end of the Year,

and includes; The Book of 5 Days.

See this link (by E. Weisstein):


(as per EEF ;J. Dieleman) Seek Christian Leitz’ “Tagewaehlerei”, Aegyptologische Abhandlungen, Harrasowitz Verlag 1994. including commentary on P. Cairo JE 86637 and P. Sallier IV recto.

Also seek Martin Bomas’ “Die Mythisierung der Zeit”, Goettinger Orientforschungen, Aegypten IV, Harrasowitz Verlag 1999.





ERASMUS: University at Rotterdam

(Greek) collections

P.Erasm.: Papyri in the Collection of the Erasmus University (Rotterdam)

P.Erasm. 1.1. Petition: (Greek; 148 bce; from Oxyrhyncha)

Territory dispute?



ERBACH: (demotic) papyrus fragment

(as per ZAS index# 1627) Seek ZAS 42, 1905.



ERDOS: (Hungarian mathematician died 1996)

“The Man Who Loved Only Numbers / The Story of Paul Erdos and the Search for Mathematical Truth.” By Paul Hoffman.Hyperion, NY, 1998.



EREM.: (Greek) ostraca



O. Erem.: (Greek; 63 AD)



ERLANGEN: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) See “Die Papyri der Universitatsbibliothek Erlangen”, ed. W. Schubart, Liepzig, 1942.


P.Erl. 16.: (Greek)



ERMAN: (Author) Adolf Erman



ERMITAGE: (MK; hieratic) papyri

See Moscow; Leningrad; Petrograd and Saint Petersbourg


(as per LEX) See Golenischeff, Liepzig, 1913.



ERZHERHOG RAINER: (Greek) papyri

See MPER. Many mathematical tables in Greek.

See Jakob KRALL.


P.Rain.Cent.: Festschrift zum 100-jährigen Bestehen der Papyrussammlung der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek, Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer [Wien, 1983].

Available at U. of Western Ontario.

See index file with [B_520]


Vol xx, Cat. P. Raineri Series Graeca Pars I Textus Graeci Papyrorum qui in libro ‘Pap. Erz. Rainer—Fuhrer durch die Ausstellung Wien 1894’ descriptisunt, ed. C. Wessely, 1921.


CATNYP# *OBKQ++ (Papyrus Erzherhog Rainer)

“Papyrus Erzherhog Rainer: Fuhrer durch die Ausstellung…”

Wien, 1894.



ESAGIL: (Cuneiform) tablet

See UHN: p.159 on ESAGIL tablet; See EXODUS

G. Contenau on the stated dimensions of the Temple to Marduk and Tower of Babel.:

“This difficult text looks on first reading like a bland statement of the dimensions of yards and terraces – a mere sequence of numbers, as on a stock list, with all it has to say stated plainly. However the scribe has peppered his account with the intercalated formula so often found in hieratic texts:

May the initiated explain this to the initiated and the uninitiated see it not!

We should not forget the significant role played by the oral teaching of the pupil by the master which accompanied the lessons of the invariably summary texts themselves. Even texts which appear to be utterly ordinary hid esoteric meanings which we cannot imagine.”


Compare this thought to my notes on Exodus 26:1-6.

Consider this related to my analysis, as yet unfinished, on the rest of Exodus 26.


ESIP: text

(as per G. Ifrah; footnote of UHN)

[B_554,rvw] CATNYP# JFD 83-7283

ESIP=Ecritures : Systemes ideographiques et pratiques expressives : actes du colloque international de l’Universite Paris VII, 22, 23 et 24 avril 1980 / organise par Anne-Marie Christin ; [articles de] P[ierre]. Amiet…et al. Paris, 1982. [B_554]


ESQUIRE: magazine for men

[B_382,HOUSE,OS2] CATNYP# JFF 78-346

“Esquire, the magazine for morons…”


See alternate [original] February of 1969

Showing: “Chicks up front!” (How troublemakers use girls to put down the cops. See page 86)



EUCLID: A Greek Genius and his Elements

(As per HM; L. Borzacchini)

See Greek classics of arithmetic: Nicomachus and Iamblichus.


See the employment of letters to represent algebraic quantities in:

“Euclid's Sectio Canonis” theory shows that in that field the geometric representation of numbers (any segment on the canon was a number) had to be quite natural and credibly common even among the late Pythagoreans (Archytas for example). And in the same context it was credibly set [to] the question of the discrete/continuous nature of the magnitudes.


See the 1551 Euclid; “Euclidis elementorum”




The [Euclidean] manuscript [IMAGE!] of 888 CE: [MS. D'Orville 301, fol. 46r]


See FAYUM; [B_075=O_002]

[B_569,HOUSE,gift from CJP] CATNYP# JFL 88-71 v.11

“Great books of the Western World. Encyclopaedia Britannica, inc., in collaboration with the University of Chicago.[Robert Maynard Hutchins, editor in chief].”

Volume 11: Euclid / Archimedes / Apollonius of Perga / Nicomachus.

Chicago, 1952.


See [B_390; KESKINTO]


EUDOXUS: A Greek Astronomer/Mathematician from ~300 BCE.



Pronounce: Ev-Thok-Sus.


His astronomical efforts may have influenced the Hibeh Papyri (Calendar).


(as per M. Gardner) Eudoxus taught 1654 days = 4 sidereal years.

1465 / 4 = 366.25.

The four varied years were 367, 363, 363, 363 days.

The AE reformed the calendar thusly in 237 BCE.


Study the Chinese “String of Pearls” planetary alignment.


See [B_390; KESKINTO]



EURIPIDES: (Author; Greek); papyri; playwright


See also Oxyrhynchos.

NO CATNYP “The Plays of Euripides.”

By James Morwood, Bristol, 2002.

See alt CATNYP


[B_517,rvw] CATNYP# NSEI (Hadas) (Euripides. Plays)

“The plays of Euripides including: Alcestis, Medea, Hippolytus, Andromache, Ion, Trojan women, Electra, Iphigenia among the Taurians, the Bacchants, Iphigenia at Aulis. Done into English by Moses Hadas, PH.D., and John Harvey McLean, M.A.”

New York, 1936.

Available from OXBOW catalog [B_332 alt]


BOBST# PA3978.Z5 D6n

Euripides papyri / Bruce E. Donovan.”

New Haven, Connecticut, 1969-?.

Studies include Greek Papyri from Oxyrhynchos.

See bibliography.




CATNYP# NRD p.v.13,no.10

“Papyrus-studien und andere beiträge dem Innsbrucker philologenklub zur feier seines vierzigjährigen bestandes gewidmet von den verfassern.”

Innsbruck, 1914.

Studies include Greek Papyri by Euripides and Hippocrates and Statius.




EXODUS: see TORAH and the link below


See UHN: p. 159: See TORAH

See Exodus 26 and Numbers 29; rich in numerical content; math

See cubit and calendar and venus

See ESAGIL. Compare to my notes on Exodus 26:1-6.

Consider this related to my analysis, as yet unfinished, on the rest of Exodus 26.

Note, my independent analysis of the numerical content of Torah: Nu. 26-9 filed with [B_528]


The following items filed with [B_528]

1. My notes [Excel] Sanhedrin[?] reference to anguli as 7 barleycorn’s side by side.

2. Jewish Encyclopedia on “Weights and Measures.”

EZRA: (Jewish) Rabbi; the best Teacher

See UHN; P. 589: “Sefer Ha Mispar” i.e. the Book of Number, by Rabbi Ben Ezra (1092-1167). Sifra used for Zero.

Same pg. FIBONACCI used Zephirim which led to Zefiro and then by contraction to zero.

See also p. 346 for reference to zero called Galgal [hebrew for wheel]




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