Home | Color Guide | Abbreviation Guide | Personal Library Master key | Usage Guide | Thank You A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W-X | Y-Z 

Last updated 12/25/05


See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID




DAKKA: [Roman period; AE] Temple with gutters!

See CONSTRUCTION and [B_230].



DAKLEH: (Wadi; AE)oasis; Stela

AKA Kellis.





(as per S. Katary, [B_100]) See JEA 19 (1933), “The Dakleh Stela”,

pp. 19-30.



DARIUS: (ZOROASTRIAN/ Persian/ ACHAEMENIAN/ Iranian) ruler(s)

Do not confuse them!


(as per this link):

Darius. [Heb. and Aramaic Dareyawesh. "Darius" is the Latinized spelling of the Greek equivalent of the Old Persian royal name Daµrayavaush, spelled DaÆriyaÆwush in Babylonian texts.]


1. DARIUS I AKA DARIUS the great;

Lived 550 - 486 BCE and ruled 522 – 486 BCE.

(as per Encyclopedia Britannica)

Administrative Genius.

Failed to conquer Greece.

Defeated at Marathon by the Athienians in 490 BCE.

King of Persia from 522 – 486 BCE.

Son of Hystaspes the Governor of Parthia.

Usurped the throne from Cyrus the Great.

Pursue the story of Guamata.


(as per this link):

Darius the King says: There was not a man, neither a Persian nor a Mede nor anyone of our family, who might make that Gaumata the Magian deprived of the kingdom. The people feared him greatly, (thinking that) he would slay in numbers the people who previously had known Smerdis; for this reason he would slay the people, "lest they know me, that I am not Smerdis the son of Cyrus." Nobody dared say anything about Gaumata the Magian, until I came. After that I sought help of Ahuramazda; Ahuramazda bore me aid; of the month Bagayadi 10 days were past, then I with a few men slew that Gaumata the Magian, and those who were his foremost followers. A fortress named Sikayauvati, a district named Nisaya, in Media -- here I slew him. I took the kingdom from him. By the favor of Ahuramazda I became king; Ahuramazda bestowed the kingdom upon me.


See Bisitun [Bahistun] inscriptions in which he records his 19 victories and supression of 9 rebel leaders.

[those who disagreed with his violent methods of ascension].


Inserted Link:


Standardized coinage and metrology.

Respected traditions of other cultures [*Judaism].

Built a temple to the God Amon at Wadi Kharga.

Endowed Temple at Edfu in Egypt.

Organized the Persian Empire into Satrapies.

Satrapies [districts] were ruled by Satraps.

Ordered his Satrap to codify the Egyptian laws.

Built or completed canal connecting Nile to Suez!

In 512 BCE Darius I conquered at Hellenespont and controlled the territory from the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea.

(as per this link):

When Darius came to the throne the building of the Temple at Jerusalem had been suspended by the false Smerdis because of complaints against the Jews by their jealous neighbours. With the change of government the Jews took heart, and encouraged by the prophets Haggai and Zechariah, resumed their building activity. When the matter was brought to the attention of Darius by the deputy satrap Tatnai, who had visited Jerusalem, the king had the whole case investigated, and after finding that the Jews had legal rights to rebuild their Temple, he issued a decree that favoured the Jews even more than the decree of Cyrus had done some 18 years earlier (Ezr 4:24 to 6:15). A number of prophetic utterances and visions of Haggai and Zechariah are dated in terms of regnal years of Darius (Hag 1:1, 15; 2:1, 10; Zec 1:1, 7; Zec 7:1).

See this link to an image of his tomb:




Ruled 423?- 405 or 404 BCE.

(As per this link):


Son of Artaxerxes I and a concubine.

Spent most of his time quelling rebellions [Syria; Lydia; Media].

Unpopular and unsuccesful.

Lost control of Egypt in 410 BCE.

Still was influential in Greece in the Pelopenesian War.

Artaxerxes II succeeded Darius II, but that succession was later challenged by Cyrus the Younger [a son of Darius II].


3. DARIUS III; ~333 BCE.

Meets Alexander the Great in October of 333 BCE.

Alexander defeats him at Gaugemela in 331 BCE.

(as per this link)

Ruled 336 – 330 BCE.


4. DARIUS of MEDIA AKA DARIUS the MEDE; Parthian ruler ~70 BCE.

(as per this link):

Prolific numismatist and or egomaniac.

(as per this link):

Darius the Mede, son of Ahasuerus, unknown by that name except in Daniel. He "took the kingdom" from Belshazzar at about the age of 62 years at the time of Cyrus’ conquest of Babylon (539 b.c.), and had at least one regnal year (Dan 5:31; 6:28; 9:1). He appointed various governors, making Daniel one of his three most intimate counsellors (ch 6:1–3). Tricked by Daniel’s enemies into issuing a decree which the Hebrew statesman could not obey, he was forced to throw his friend Daniel to the lions, and was exceedingly happy when Daniel was miraculously saved (vs. 4–27).



DAVID: (Greek) papyri

P.David: Antidoron Martino David oblatum, Miscellanea Papyrologica


P.David 1. Inventory of and revenues of an [NK] Egyptian temple:

(Greek; 138-161 AD; from Soknopaiou Nesos)

Pursue image!

Sloppy; damaged math content.



DE: (publication) Discussions in Egyptology

[B_297;8.5’s,math]CATNYP#  *OBH 89-1224

“Discussions in Egyptology.”

Oxford, 1985-

[1995] DE 33 p. 115-121, contains an article by Jean Rousseau on Metrology:

“Metrologie et Coudee”

I am not convinced.


[1996] DE 36 p. 69-78, contains an article by John Legon on Metrology:

“The Quest for the True NBJ Measure.”

I am not convinced.

My letter to Mr. Legon and the related letter to M. St. John titled “the egg came first” and my notes are filed with this. Dozens of related citations are contained within the text and this website.




[B_180a,8.5,IMG, v. 1] CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t. 82, “Hommages Serge Sauneron, Cairo, 1979. By Christiane M. Zivie.

See volume one, image of the Rite of Erection of the Obelisque.           

See also sarcophage Berlin 11986.



DEIR EL-BALAIZEH: (Coptic and Late Greek) papyri / texts

P.Bal.: Bala'izah: Coptic Texts from Deir el Bala'izah in Upper Egypt



DEIR EL-MEDINEH: (MK, AE) inscriptions and graffitti

The Royal Workmen's Community AKA the Place of Truth.


(as per K. Weeks) The workmen's village for KV tombs.


(as per S. Alamin) Name literally means "the village monastery".


[B_014,8.5's] (CATNYP# *OBKG+76-79t.16) "Catalogue de poids a inscriptions Hieratiques de Deir el Medineh" Numbers 5001-5423, Dominique Valbelle; includes a manuscript by Jaroslav Cerny, Posener.


[W_042,rvw]WATSON# 529T84 M974 v1. "L'archivio demotico da Deir el-Medineh", Botti, Guiseppe, Firenze [Florence], 1967. Keyword search Torino (Musee).


Follow this link to the Deir el-Medineh database from Leiden University.


(as per LEX) Work by J. Cerny and G. Posener and S. Sauneron in DFIFAO.


(as per AEB) Cherpion, Nadine, Deux tombes de la XVIII dynastie a Deir el-Medina. Nos 340 (Amenemhat) et 345 (anonyme). Avec une contribution de Jean Marie Krutchen, Le Caire 1999, MIFAO.


(as per AEB) Davies, Benedict G., Who's Who at Deir el-Medineh. A Prosopographic Study of the Royal Workmen's Community, Leiden, Nederlands Inst. voor het Nabije Oosten, 1999.


McDowell, A. G. Jurisdiction in the Workmen's Community of Deir el-Medina. Egyptologische Uitgaven 5. Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten, 1990.



DEISSMANN: (Greek) ostraca

O. Deiss.: (Greek; 123 bce)

See also SAMMLUNG.



DEMOTIC: (an excellent NK) Grammar book

Purchase on-line at:


(as per C. E. Jones; EEF; 072703)

As part of its ELECTRONIC PUBLICATIONS ON-LINE, the Oriental

Institute Publications Office announces an additional letter, Ayin,

for the Chicago Demotic Dictionary, edited by Janet H. Johnson.

This document is an Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) file:



DEN: (predynastic AE) Pharoah

See this reference to a palette of King Den (Dynasty 0 or 1) with 1200 cubits or 1200 rods of fine Libyan oil.

See this loosely related link to glyphs for early Pharaohs.

See this loosely related link showing a dish from his tomb.

{SAQARRA; 45 rooms}

Note that I do not share any conclusions on this item except that the workmanship is magnificent. I inspected the item closely at the MET and found no convincing evidence of arithmetic/math intent.



(as per EEF; F. Raffaele; 061102)

See ivory label of Den from Abydos. It is in the British Museum, EA 55586.


DENDERA: (MK, AE) astronomical reliefs


See the Mystery of Osiris found at Dendera


Possible (implied) math resides in the zodiac.


(as perAEB, 95.1137) Auborg, Eric, "La date de concepcion duzodiaquedu temple d'Hathor aDendera", BIFAO 95 (1995).

(as perAEB) Cauville, Sylvie, Le Temple de Dendara. Guide archaeologique. 2nd Edition, Le Caire, Inst Fr. d'Arch. Orientale, 1995.

(as per AEB) Cauville, S., Dendara I. Tr., Leuven, Uitgeverij Peeters, 1998.

(as per AEB) Cauville, S., Dendara II. Tr. , Leuven, Uitgeverij Peeters, 1999.


(as per EEF; Federico Rocchi) ”…the complete list of Decans in Budge's The Gods of the Egyptians, vol. 2, 304-310. He gave both the Egyptian hieroglyphic versions (the earlier and the quite different Ptolemaic ones) and the Greek renditions.”


(as per EEF; Amir Bey) ”…Here are some "suitable” reading sources:

Ancient Astrology by Tamsyn Barton, ROUTLEDGE, 1995

Origins of Astrology by Jack Lindsay, BARNES & NOBLE, 1971

Histoire de L'Astrologie by Wilhelm Knappich, (Translated from the

original German) VERNAL, 1986. NO CATNYP.

Plus any and all work on  astronomy, which would including

Parker, Neugebauer, J. Norman Lockyer, L. Kakosy, Ptolemy among




DENON: (Author) papyri collection

Denon is a wing in the Louvre Museum.

Vivant Denon (1747-1825)


(see ISIS_N?)


[B_069,8.5,IMG,BOTD] CATNYP# *OBR 97-7105, "Book of Breathings.; (alt title; Boek van het ademan van Isis); De Papyrus Denon in het Museum Meermanno-Westreenianium, den Haag, of, Het Boek van het ademan van Isis / voorgesteld, vertaald en toegelicht door M. Coenen en J. Quaegebeur." Leuven : Uitgeverij Peeters, 1995.

My Dutch friends have stated that the images and analysis of papyri from this text yield no mathematics. This mostly describes one’s Ba in relation to the Gods and the afterlife. In effect: funerary.

(as per above) See Rituel P. Louvre 3284 and 3121;

Dem. P. Medinet Habu (Kolom I/ Isis/Osiris);


[B_407,IGNR] CATNYP# *OBM+ 94-5282

“Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte : pendant les campagnes du general Bonaparte / par Vivant Denon ; introduction de Jean-Claude Vatin.”

Cairo, IFAO, 1989-1990.


[B_407b,IGNR] CATNYP# BLE (Denon, D. V. Travels in upper and lower Egypte)

"Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt, during the campaigns of General Bonaparte in that country; and published under his immediate patronage.  By Vivant Denon. Tr. From the French. To which is prefixed, an historical account of the invasion of Egypt by the French. By Arthur Aikin…”

NY, Heard and Forman, 1803.

Not helpful in finding CUBIT references from Lepsius’s [B_149].


[B_407b2,PRSU] CATNYP# BLE (Denon, D. V. Voyage dans la Basse et dans la Haute Egypte)

“Voyage dans la Basse et dans la Haute Egypte pendant les campagnes du general Bonaparte”

Paris, Didot, an x [1802]

Pursue to find CUBIT references from Lepsius’s [B_149].

Find V2, P. 32 and p. 279.


[B_407c,IGNR] CATNYP# JFD 98-15491

“Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte : pendant les campagnes du general Bonaparte / par Vivant Denon ; Preface et annote par Helene Guichard…” Paris, 1998.

We still need the French original text!

Not available at NYPL.



DERVENI: papyrus

(as per D. Fowler) Found 1963; in Greece.

The literary content described as a “line by line commentary on an Orphic Cosmological poem”. Very minor math content.

Seek image in [E. G.] Turner, GMAW, no. 51.


[B_137=Y_002,8.5] CATNYP# JFD 97-9259

=SUMMIT# BL 782 .S88 1997,

“Studies on the Derveni Papyrus / edited by Andre Laks and Glenn W. Most.”, Oxford 1997.

A reference to moria (parts) as wisdom!


“whom they mourn on this occasion it is not pious for me to say”

This quote in the text is not from Derveni P., but from Herodotus.

[They mourn the death of Osiris.]


(as per E. G. Turner) This Greek P. was found in Macedonia.



DETROIT: papyrus collections




(as per D. Fowler) This Greek term describes a correction to compensate for

an inherent error in (math) land survey calculations.


(as per the late Sir Eric G. Turner) an alternate tr.:

Diaphoron Schoinismou= “tax payment for measurement” or tax



DIATESSARON: Biblical Study

See Tatian: The Roman Christian Scholar


DICTIONARY: look it up!


(Difficult or obscure English words; laconic epistolary)



DIDYMUS: the blind

See COLONIENSIA; [B_520=O_074,rvw]

See these alternate related titles attributed to Didymus the Blind, identified via U. of Western Ontario.

1.       Kommentar zum Ecclesiastes (TURA-Papyrus) / in zusammenarbeit mit dem Agyptischen Museum zu Kairo ; Herausgegeben und ubers. Von Gerhard Binder und Leo Liesenborghs. Bonn, 1969.

2.       Kommentar zu Hiob (Tura-Papyrus). Bonn, 1968-

Neither of these found in CATNYP or BOBCAT.


DIGBY ROLL: oldest PALMISTRY work extant



DIKAIOMATA: (Greek) roll of

(as per E. G. Turner) (Greek) found at Elephantine island.

Alexandrian civil law, ~250 BCE.

See: [O_026]

P. Halle: "Graeca Halensis," Dikaiomata, Auszüge aus Alexandrinischen Gesetzen u. Verordnungen in einem Papyrus des Phil. Sem. der Univ. Halle mit einem Anhang weiterer Papyri derselben Sammlung (Berlin, 1913)


[O_026,8.5,IMG,NO CATNYP]

BOBST# PA3318 .H2

“Dikaiomata; auszuge aus alexandrinischen gesetzen und verordnungen, in einem papyrus des Philologischen seminars der Universitat Halle (Pap. Halle 1) mit einem Anhang weiterer Papyri derselben Sammlung / Herausgegeben von der Graeca Halensis mit neun lichtdrucktafeln.”

Berlin, 1913.

See BOBST Archive: O 1

With legal accounts and fragments of SAPPHO and the Odyssey by HOMER


DIOGENES: (Greek) papyri

P.Diog.: Les Archives de Marcus Lucretius Diogenes et textes apparentés


P.Diog. 1. Notification of birth (testatio):

(Greek; AD 127; from Contrapollonopolis Magna)



DIONYSIUS: (Greek; Demotic) papyri

P.Dion.: Les archives privés de Dionysios, fils de Kephalas


P.Dion. 1. Lease of land: (Greek; 110 bce; from Hermoupolis Magna)



DIOPHANTUS: (Greek) Mathematician


“Diophantus of Alexandria”

alt title:

“Diophanti Alexandrini opera omnia, cum Graecis Commentariis edidit et Latine interpretatus est Paulus Tannery.”

Stuttgart, 1974.


See copies from volume two.

Reference: Codex exhibit S. 387 and:


Se prologue/prolegomena IV-V.

Reference: other surviving codices:

Marciano 303 saec. XIV

Saec. XVII Canonicianum Bodleianum 32

Codex Parisinus 2390

p. VII

Who is Nicholas Rhabdas?


Reference: Codex Vaticano 191

Reference: Matritensi 48

p. IX

Reference: Codex Laurentianus LVIII, 29 adsignatur


Reference: Codice Parisino 2372 (saec. XV)

p. XIV

Reference: [Codex?] Vaticanus gr. 116

Reference: [Codex?] Naniano 255

Reference: [Codex?] Marciano Cl. VI cod. VI, saec. XV.

p. XV

Reference: [Codex?] Marcianum 308 (saec. XV)

Reference: Codicibus Parisinus hausi?

Reference: [Codex?] Marcianum posui = B

Reference: [Codex?] Parisinum 2485 = K

Reference: [Codex?] Arsenaciensem 8406 = X

Reference: [Codex?] Parisinus 2379

Reference: [Codex?] Matritensi Vaticanus gr. 191 = V

p. XVI

Reference: [Codex?] Vaticani gr. 304 = V

Reference: [Codex?] Parisinum 2378


Reference: “Sur les Notations numeriques et algebraiques anterieurment au XVIe siecle.” Paris, Leroux, 1881.


See chart with other codex references and assumed timeline of origin.

p. XLII, part VII: “De fractionum notationibus.”


Reference: Palatini codices

Same text pages 56-57; 72-73; 126-127; Get Melita’s HELP!

See [B_390; KESKINTO]




Follow this link to analysis and tr.

of many ancient inscriptions and papyri.



DOUCH: (Greek) ostraca

O. Douch.: (Greek; ~350 AD)



DRESDEN: (Mayan) codex

Links to Mayan (and Olmec) math.


(as per M. Gardner) See work by Floyd Lounsbury.

See also Archaeology Magazine, March 2000. Incan CALENDAR.


(as per G. Ifrah; [B_359]) Seek calendrical data in:

Codex Tro-Cortesianus. From the American Museum, Madrid.

Codex Mendoza [post-conquest; math]

Codex Nuttall

Codex Selden


See also RYLANDS; [B_093,IMG]

See: “Representations of Dieties of theMAYAManuscripts,” Papers of the PEABODYMuseum, vol. Iv., 1904.


Brief mention of Codex Traono.


Refers to ZFE=Zeitschrift fur Ethnographie.

“Die Tierbilder der mexikanischen und der Maya-Handschriften.”

Bd. 42, 1910, p. 75 and 77, by Seler.


See the Codex de Zempoala. Review by J. Galarza, (Paris 1977), p. 175, tabl. 87



Codex Dresden=Dresdensis.


Because of their perishable nature and zealous Spanish book burning, only four codices remain today.

The contents of the codices must have varied, but some of them were evidently similar to astronomic almanacs. We have examples of a Venus table, eclipse tables in a codex in Dresden. There is a codex in Paris that seems to contain some kind of Maya Zodiac, but if it is and how it must have worked are still unknown. Another major example of Maya almanacs are present in the Madrid Codex. The fourth codex is called the Grolier and was authenticated as late as 1983. These codices probably contained much of the information used by priests or the noble class to determine dates of importance or seasonal interest. We can only speculate as to whether or not the Maya developed poetry or drama that was committed to paper. The codices probably kept track of dynastic information as well.


Dresden Codex

Current location: Staatsarchiv, Dresden, Germany

Amatl paper screenfold painted on both sides. 39 leaves, 4 blank.

Published in Kingsborough Antiguidades de Mexico Volume III. (A copy drawn by Aglio around 1825-30 for this edition is in the British Museum).

The most complete work on the Dresden is Commentary on the Dresden Codex by Eric Thompson. The 1972 original printing of this was only 1000 copies, so if you find it you're pretty lucky. A more widely available recent impression has been published by Fondo Cultura Economica in Spanish as Commentarios al Codice Dresde (check with your local bookseller, it may be out of print).



See TROANO; [B_566 in Spanish=O_064 in English,rvw,SAH] CATNYP# JFD 02-8075

Printout of above [by Felix Verbelen] on file with [B_566]

4 Ahua 8 Cumku coincides with longcount dates;

9. 9. 16. 0. 0.


0. 0. 0. 0. 0.


Two yearly starting festivals:

Years of different lengths running concurrently

Umbral eclipse=a blackout; Penumbral eclipse=darkness with a light show of flare

Reference to PASP


See UHN: p. 310: image DRESDEN codex Fig 22.28


[B_611,OS,IMG] CATNYP# HBV+ 75-2120
“A Commentary on the Dresden Codex; a Maya hieroglyphic book [by] J. Eric S. Thompson.”
American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 1972.

Sir John Eric Sidney Thompson [b. 1898, d. 1975]
Note various great year modules
Periods of 52 and 78 days
Eclipse periods [177 and 178 days]
Solar periods of 365 days
Venus periods of 584 days
And others
Note high powers top down reading [contrasts UHN]

See very good images:

See article by Edwin L. Barnhart, on divination with images
[little or no math]


[1] Aveni, Anthony F.: Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico (U. of Texas Press, 1980)
[2] ---- (ed.): Native American Astronomy (U. of Texas Press, 1977)
[3] ---- (ed.): Archaeoastronomy in the New World (Cambridge U. P., 1983)
[4] ---- (ed.): Archaeoastronomy in Pre-Columbian America (University of Texas Press)
[5] ----: Empires of Time, subtitled Calendars, Clocks, and Cultures, Part III, Chapter 6 (Basic Books, Inc., New York, 1989)
[5a] ----: The Sky in Mayan Literature (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1992)
[6] ---- and Gordon Brotherston (eds.): Calendars in Mesoamerica and Peru: Native American Computations of Time (BAR International Series, no. 174, Oxford, 1983)
[7] ---- and H. Hartung: Maya City Planning and the Calendar, Transactions of the Amer. Phil. Soc., Vol 76, Part 7, 1986
[8] Azcapotzalco Maguey Manuscript, in facsimile (The Maya Society, Publication 6, 1935)
[9] Blom, Frans F.: Maya Books and Sciences
[10] Bolles, John S.: Las Monjas, A Major Pre-Mexican Architectural Complex at Chichen Itza (U. of Oklahoma Press, 1977)
[11] Bourgeois, Julia F.: The True Calendar-Years of Aztecs and Mayas and the True Mayan Calendar System (Editorial Cultura, Mexico, 1942)
[12] Bowditch, C. P.: Was the Beginning Day of the Maya Month Numbered Zero (or Twenty) or One? (Cambridge U.P., 1901)
[13] ----: The Numeration, Calendar Systems and Astronomical Knowledge of the Mayas (Cambridge U.P., 1910)
[14] Bricker, V. R. and H. M. Bricker: "The Seasonal Table in the Dresden Codex", Archaeoastronomy, No. 12, 1988, pp.S1-S62
[15] ----: "Classic Maya prediction of solar eclipses", Current Anthropology, xxiv, 1-23 (Chicago)
[16] Brunhouse, R. L.: Sylvanus G. Morley and the World of the Ancient Mayas (University of Oklahoma Press, 1971)
[17] Closs, Michael P.: Comment on Harvey M. Bricker and Victoria R. Bricker, "Classic Maya prediction of solar eclipses", Current Anthropology, xxiv, 19 (Chicago)
[18] ---- (ed.): Native American Mathematics (U. of Texas Press, 1986)
[19] ----, A. F. Aveni & B. Crowley: "The planet Venus and Temple 22 at Copan", Indiana, ix, 221-47 (Berlin)
[20] Codex Nutall (Dover Publications, 1975)
[21] Coe, Michael D.: The Maya, 3rd ed. (Frederick Praeger, 1975; Thames & Hudson, 1984)
[21a] ----, Breaking the Maya Code, 1992
[22] Edmonson, M. S. (transl.): The Ancient Future of the Itza, the Book of Chilam Balam of Tizimin (U. of Texas Press, 1982)
[23] Gallenkamp, Charles: Maya (Viking, 1985)
[24] Gates, William E.: The Maya and Tzental Calendars (Cleveland, 1900)
[25] ----: The Dresden Codex (Maya Society, Baltimore, 1932)
[26] Goodman, J. T.: The Archaic Maya Inscriptions (Taylor and Francis, London, 1897)
[27] Gruyter, W. J. de: A New Approach to Maya Hieroglyphs (Amsterdam, 1946)
[27a] Heinrich, Walther: Die Sonnen von Tiwanaku, INTI-Verlag, Trier, 1983 (with English summary, also available at Library of Congress, Wash. D.C.)
[27b] Heinrich, Walther: Altamerikanische Kalender, INTI-Verlag, Trier, 1993
[27c] Heinrich, Walther: Der Sonnenstein der Azteken, INTI-Verlag, Trier, 1995
[27d] Heinrich, Walther: Zahl und Zeit in magischen Quadraten — Die Primzahlen und das Sonnenjahr — Verbindungen zu Altamerika, INTI-Verlag, Trier, 1997.
[28] Ifrah, Georges: From One to Zero (Chapter 28), Penguin Books
[29] Justeson, John S.: Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions (Peabody Museum Press, 1975)
[30] Kelley, D. H.: Deciphering the Maya Script (University of Texas Press, 1976)
[31] ---- and H. A. Moran: The Alphabet and the Ancient Calendar Signs, 2nd edition (Daily Press, 1969)
[32] Knorosov, Yuri V.: "New data on the Maya written language", Proceedings of the Thirty-Second International Congress of Americanists (Copenhagen, 1956), pp. 467-475.
[33] Leon-Portilla, Miguel: Time and Reality in the Thought of the Maya, with foreword by Sir J. Eric S. Thompson (U. of Oklahoma Press, 1988)
[34] ---- and S. L. Cline (eds.): The Testaments of Culhuacan (UCLA Latin American Center Publications, 1984)
[35] Le Plongeon, A.: Sacred Mysteries among the Mayas and the Quiches 1150 Years Ago, subtitled Their Relation to the Sacred Mysteries of Egypt, Greece, Chaldea and India (New York, 1886)
[36] Lister, R. H., and R. C. Lister: In Search of Maya Glyphs (Museum of New Mexico Press, 1970)
[37] Lowe, John W. G.: The Dynamics of Apocalypse, a Systems Simulation of the Classic Maya Collapse (U. of New Mexico Press, 1985)
[38] Makemson, Maud W.: The Astronomical Tables of the Maya (Contributions to American Anthropology, no. 42, 1943)
[39] Morley, S. G.: An Introduction to the Study of the Maya Hieroglyphs (Smithsonian Institution, 1915; Dover Publications, 1975)
[40] ----: "Correlation of Maya and Christian Chronology", Amer. J. of Archaeology, 2nd ser., XIV (1910), pp. 193-204.
[41] ----: The Inscriptions at Copan (Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1920)
[42] ----: The Inscriptions of Peten, 6 volumes (Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1937-38)
[43] ----: The Maya Correlation Problem (1946)
[44] ---- and A. B. Vásquez: The Maya Chronicles (Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1949)
[45] ----: The Ancient Maya (Stanford U. P., 2nd printing, 1958)
[46] Owen, Nancy K.: "The Use of Eclipse Data to Determine the Maya Correlation Number", in Aveni[4], pp. 237-246.
[47] Penrose, Th.: Mayan Cryptoquantum Numerations (Liberty Bell Associates, 1984)
[48] Peterson, Frederick: Ancient Mexico (Capricorn Books, 1959)
[49] Proskouriakoff, Tatiana A.: An Album of Maya Architecture (U. of Oklahoma Press, 1977)
[50] ----: "Historical implications of a pattern of dates at Piedras Negras, Guatemala", American Antiquities (The Society for American Archaeology), 1960, Vol. XXV, No. 4, p.470.
[51] ---- and J. E. S. Thompson: Maya Calendar Round Dates such as 9 Ahau 17 Mol (Notes on Middle American Archaeology and Ethnology, no. 79, Washington, 1947)
[52] Rau, Jack: Discovering the Lost Maya Cities (Pre-Columbian Press, 1960) [53] Rauh, James H.: "Two new concepts in Mayan calendrical studies" (Trustees for Harvard University, 1971)
[54] Recinos, Adrian (transl.): Popul Vuh (U. of Oklahoma Press, 1950)
[54a] Robertson, Merle Greene (ed.): Third Palenque Round Table, 1978: Part 2, The Palenque Round Table Series Volume V (University of Texas Press, Austin, 1980)
[55] Robicsek, Francis: Copan — Home of the Mayan Gods (Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 1972)
[56] ----: The Maya Book of the Dead — the Corpus of Codex Style Ceramics of the Late Classic Period (University of Oklahoma Press, 1981)
[57] ----: The Smoking Gods, Tobacco in Maya Art, History and Religion (U. of Oklahoma Press, 1972)
[58] Roys, Ralph L.: The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel, with introduction by J. Eric S. Thompson (U. of Oklahoma Press, 1967)
[59] Sablov, Jeremy A.: The New Archaeology and the Ancient Maya (Scientific American Library, 1990)
[60] Satterthwaite, Linton: Concepts and Structures of Maya Calendrical Arithmetics (Philadelphia, 1947)
[61] Severin, Gregory M.: The Paris Codex: Decoding an Astronomical Ephemeris, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Volume 71, Part 5, 1981
[62] Smiley, Charles H.: "The Solar Eclipse Warning Table in the Dresden Codex", in Aveni[4], pp. 247-256.
[63] Smither, R. K.: "The 88 Lunar Month Pattern of Solar and Lunar Eclipses and its Relationship to the Maya Calendars", Archaeoastronomy, Vol. IX (1986), pp.99-113
[64] Spinden, Herbert J.: The Reduction of Mayan Dates (Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, vol. 6, no. 4, 1924)
[65] Tedlock, Barbara: Time and the Highland Maya (U. of New Mexico Press, 1982)
[66] Tedlock, Dennis (transl.): Popul Vuh (Simon & Schuster, 1985)
[67] Temple, J. E.: "Maya Astronomy", Contributions to American Archaeology (Carnegie Institution of Washington), Vol. 1, 1931, pp.29-115
[68] Thomas, Cyrus: Mayan Calendar Systems
[69] ----: A study of the Manuscript Troano (Contributions to North American Ethnology, vol. 5, pt. 3, 1882)
[70] Thompson, J. Eric S.: Maya Hieroglyphic Writing, 2nd edition (U. of Oklahoma Press, 1960)
[71] ----: A Catalog of Maya Hieroglyphs (U. of Oklahoma Press, 1962)
[72] ----: The Rise & Fall of Maya Civilization, 2nd edition (U. of Oklahoma Press, 1966)
[73] ----: Maya History and Religion (U. of Oklahoma Press, 1970)
[74] ----: Commentary on the Dresden Codex, with facsimile reproduction of the Dresden Codex (American Philosophical Society, 1972)
[75] ----: Maya Heiroglyphs without Tears (British Museum, 1972)
[76] ----: "Maya Astronomy", Phil. trans. Royal Soc. of London, A, cclxxvi, pp.83-98
[77] Tozzer, Alfred M.: "A Maya Grammar", Papers of the Peabody Museum (Harvard University, 1941), Vol. XVIII
[78] ----: "Landa's Relacion de las Cosas de Yucatan, a translation", Papers of the Peabody Museum (Harvard University, 1941), Vol. XVIII
[79] Whittaker, Arabelle, and Viola Warkentin: Chol Texts on the Supernatural (U. of Oklahoma Press, 1965)
[80] Willson, Robert W.: Astronomical Notes on the Mayan Codices (Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 6, no. 3, 1924)
[81] Wright, Ronald: Time Among the Maya, Travels in Belize, Guatemala and Mexico (Henry Holt, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1991)
Supplementary Bibliography
This is a list of books and articles concerning the Maya which either were not cited in the first version of this work or which have come to the attention of the author since his Maya Calendar software was completed in June 1990.
Special mention should be made of John M. Jenkins'
Tzolkin — Visionary Perspectives and Calendar Studies

which discusses in detail the metaphysical, astrological, numerological and mathematical significance of the Maya and Aztec calendars.
Argüelles, José: Earth Ascending (Bear & Co., 1984, 1988)
----: The Mayan Factor (Bear & Co., 1989)
Aveni, A. F. (ed.): Archaeoastronomy in Pre-Columbian American (1975)
Baudez, Claude and Sydney Picaso: Lost Cities of the Maya (Abrams Discoveries, 1992)
Benson, Elizabeth P.: The Maya World (Thomas Crowell)
Brinton, D.G.: The Books of Chilam Balam (1892)
Carr, Robert F.: Tikal Report No. 11 (University of Pennsylvania, Museum monographs, 1961)
Carstensen, Jeanne: "Mayan Cultural Resurgence" (Whole Earth Review, Fall 1991, pp.74-77)
Coe, Michael D.: Mexico (1962)
----: Breaking the Maya Code (Thames and Hudson, 1992)
Coe, William R.: Tikal, a handbook of the Ancient Maya Ruins (University of Pennsylvania, 1967)
Colby, Benjamin N.: The Daykeeper — the Life and Discourse of an Ixil Diviner (Harvard University Press, 1981)
Edmonson, Munro, S.: The Book of the Year: Middle American Calendrical Systems (University of Utah Press, 1988)
Ferguson, William M. and John Royce: Maya Ruins of Mexico in Color (University of New Mexico Press, 1984)
Gates, W.: An Outline Dictionary of Maya Glyphs (1931)
Goetz, Delia and Sylvanus G. Morley (transl.): Popul Vuh (U. of Oklahoma Press, 1950)
Gordon, G. B.: Prehistoric Ruins of Copan, Honduras (1896)
Harris, John F. and Stephen K. Stearns: Understanding Maya Inscriptions: A Hieroglyph Handbook (Philadelphia: The University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 1992)
Harris, John and Stephen K. Sterns: Understanding Maya Inscriptions, a Hieroglyphic Handbook (University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1992)
Hellmuth, Nicholas M.: Maya Archaeology: Tikal, Copan (Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research, St. Louis, Missouri, 1978)
Hunbatz Men: Secrets of Mayan Science/Religion (Bear & Co., 1990)
Hunter, C. Bruce: A Guide to the Ancient Mayan Ruins (University of Oklahoma Press, 1974)
Jenkins, John M.: Journey to the Mayan Underworld (Four Ahau Press, 1989)
----: Tzolkin — Visionary Perspectives and Calendar Studies (Borderland Sciences, 1994)
Kurbjuhn, Kornelia: Maya: The Complete Catalogue of Glyph Readings (Kassell, Germany, 1989)
Landa, Diego de: Relacion de las cosas de Yucatan (1956). English translation by W. Gates: Yucatan Before and After the Conquest (1937).
Leon-Portilla, M.: Pre-Columbian Literature of Mexico (1969)
Lounsbury, Floyd: "The Base of the Venus Table of the Dresden Codex and its Significance for the Calendar-Correlation Problem", in Aveni & Brotherston [6]
----: "Maya Numeration, Computation, and Calendrical Astronomy," in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, ed., Charles Coulston
----: "A Derivation of the Mayan-to-Julian Calendar Correlation from the Dresden Codex Venus Chronology," Aveni [5a], p. 184
----: "A Solution for the Number of the Mayan Venus Table," Aveni [5a], p.207
----: "Some Problems in the Interpretation of the Mythological Portion of the Hieroglyphic Text of the Temple of the Cross at Palenque," in Robertson [54a], p.99
----: "A Palenque King and the Planet Jupiter"
Luxton, Richard and Pablo Balam: The Mystery of the Mayan Hieroglyphs (Harper & Row, 1981)
Makemson, Maud W.: The Maya Correlation Problem (Publications of the Wassar College Observatory, No 5, New York 1946)
Maler, T.: Explorations in the Department of Peten, Guatemala (1911)
Malmstroem, Vincent H.: Cyles of the Sun, Mysteries of the Moon — The Calendar in Mesoamerican Civilization (University of Texas Press, 1997)
Meyer, C. and C. Gallenkamp: The Mystery of the Ancient Maya (1985)
Miller, M. E.: The Arts of Mesoamerica (1986)
Morris, A. A.: Digging in Yucatan (1931)
Morris, E. H., J. Charlot and A. A. Morris: The Temple of the Warriors at Chichen Itza (1931)
O'Neil, W.M.: Time and the Calendars (1975)
Perera, Victor: The Last Lords of Palenque (University of California Press, 1985)
Peters, Daniel: Tikal (historical novel)
Proskouriakoff, T.: A Study of Classical Maya Sculpture (1950)
Robertson, Merle Green: Sculpture of Palenque, Volumes I - IV (Princeton U. P., 1983 and later)
Rupert, Karl: The Caracol at Chicen Itza (1933)
----, J. Eric S. Thompson and T. Proskouriakoff: Bonampak, Chiapas, Mexico (Carnegie Institution of Washington publication no. 602).
Schele, Linda, and Peter Mathews: The Bodega of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico (Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C., 1979)
----: Maya glyphs: the Verbs (University of Texas Press, Austin, 1982)
----: The Mirror, the Rabbit and the Bundle: "Accession" Expressions from the Classic Maya Inscriptions (Trustees for Harvard University, 1983)
---- and Mary Ellen Miller: The Blood of Kings: Dynasty and Ritual in Maya Art (Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, 1986)
---- and David Freidel: A Forest of Kings: the Untold Story of the Ancient Maya (Morrow, New York, 1990)
Schook, Edwin M.: Explorations in the Ruins of Oxkintok, Yucatan (1940)
----: Tikal Reports (University of Pennsylvania, Museum monographs, 1958)
---- and T. Proskouriakoff: Yucatan (1951)
Scofield, Bruce: Day Signs: native American Astrology from Ancient Mexico (One Reed Publications, Amherst, Massachusetts, 1982)
Sitchin, Zecharia: The Lost Realms (Bear & Co., 1990)
Smith, A. L.: Archaeological Reconnaissance in Central Guatemala (1955)
Spinden, H. J.: A Study of Maya Art (1913)
----: New World Correlations (1926)
----: Origin of Civilizations in Central America and Mexico (1933)
Stirling, M.: Stone Monuments of Southern Mexico (1943)
Tate, Carolyn E.: Yaxchilán: The Design of a Maya Ceremonial City (University of Texas Press, 1992)
Thompson, J. Eric S.: "Maya Chronology: The Correlation Question," in Contributions to American Archaeology, Volume III, Nos. 13 to 19, Carnegie Institution of Washington, No. 14, 1937, pp. 51-104
----: "The Introduction of Puuc Style of Dating at Yaxchilan", Notes on Middle American Archaeology and Ethnology No. 110, May 15, 1952
Tozzer, A. M.: Chicen Itza and its Cenote of Sacrifices (1957)
Wasson, R. Gordon: Wondrous Mushrooms — Mycolatry in Meso-America (McGraw Hill, 1980)
Westheim, P.: The Sculpture of Ancient Mexico (1963)
Wauchope, Robert (ed.): Handbook of Middle American Indians, 16 volumes (U. of Texas Press, 1964-92)
Willard, T. A.: The City and the Sacred Well (1926)
----: The Lost Empires of the Itzaes and Maya (1933)
Williamson, R. A. (ed): Archaeoastronomy in the Americas (1978)
Vogt, Evon Z.: The Zinacantecos of Mexico: A Modern Maya Way of Life (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970)



DROVETTI: (AE; Phoenician) papyrus and CUBIT collection

M. Drovetti served as Consul General de France en Egypte.

Now at the Louvre and at Turin Museum.


See the following text [microform] for more info.

CATNYP# *ZO-35 [at the Oriental Humanities department, room 219]

Author Barges, Jean Joseph Leandre, abbe, 1810-1896

Title: “Papyrus egypto-arameen appartenant au Musee egyptien du Louvre [microform], explique et analyse pour la premiere fois par L’abbe J. J. L. Barges.”

Published: Paris, B. Duprat, 1862.

Description: 35 pages, fascimile, 32 cm.

Note: Includes the text of the papyrus no I (7) of the Collection Drovetti in the Louvre.

Subject: Phoenician inscriptions

See also: Paris (Fr.). Musee du Louvre. Departement des Antiquities egyptiennes. Mss. (Collection Drovetti, no I (7).





DUBLIN: (AE; BOTD and Greek) papyri

(as per E.A. Budge) See (Da of M. Naville’s edition); BOTD; 25 feet long.


See (Alfred) CHESTER BEATTY and Oxyrhynchus.


See Greek Papyri from Dublin, ed. B.C. McGing. Bonn 1995.

(Pap.Texte Abh. XLII). Nos. 1-34. [o.e. RH]


P. DUBL. 3. Cession of katoikik land:

(Greek; AD 14; from Oxyrhynchus)



DUKE: university papyrus collection


(Another extensive papyrological bibliography)



DURA: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) P. Dura = The Excavations at Dura-Europos …Final Report, v, Part I, The Parchments and Papyri, ed. C. Bradford Welles, Robert O. Fink, J. Frank Gilliam. New Haven, 1959.

See also “Feriale Duranum.”

AKA Doura-Europos.


P.Dura: The Excavations at Dura-Europos conducted by Yale University and the French Academy of Inscriptions and Letters


P.Dura 12. Extract from the registry law of succession:

(Greek; AD 225-50; from Dura)

See LAW.






Home | Color Guide | Abbreviation Guide | Personal Library Master key | Usage Guide | Thank You A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W-X | Y-Z  




See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID