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Last updated 12/25/05




See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID


C. ETIQ. MOM.: (Greek)

Corpus des Etiquettes de Momies Grecques.

See also DUKE.



C. EPIST. LAT.: (Latin)

=Corpus Epistolarum Latinarum, papyris tabulis ostracis servatarum




C. ILLUM. PAP. I: (Greek)

=Illuminierte Papyri, Pergamente und Papiere.

See also DUKE.



C.JUD.SYR.EG.: (Greek)

=The Judaean-Syrian-Egyptian Conflict of 102-101 B.C.: a multilingual dossier concerning a "War of Sceptres". (Greek)



C. PAP. GR.: (Greek)

=Corpus Papyrorum Graecarum.




CAIRO: (Egyptian Museum) papyri and ostraca and stelae

See CG for catalog entries at the Museum.


(as per Y. Koenig) Seek Caire 86637, an AE Calendar.


[B_066,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKQ+ 75-1648, "The Cairo calendar no. 86637, by Abd el-Mohsen Bakir." Cairo, 1966. Includes images, transcription and translation.


(as per Petra Habiger) Setne I is preserved in C.M. Papyrus no. 30646.


(as per D. Meeks) Stele Caire (CG 50044) is trilingual.

Seek CG 30789, demotic papyrus.

CG 30813 is demotic and relates to the Cult of Thoth.


(as per E.A. Budge) See Cairo P. of Mes-em-neter; BOTD.

See Naville, “Todtenbuch”.


(as per E. G. Turner) Pursue Greek papyri at C.M.

1. P. Cair. = “Greek Papyri, CGC, X, Nos. 10001-869, by B.P. Grenfell and A.S. Hunt, Oxford, 1903.

2. P. Cairo Goodspeed = “Greek Papyri from the Cairo Museum”, ed. E.J. Goodspeed, Chicago, 1902.

3. P. Cair. Isidor. = “The archive of Aurelius Isidorus in the Egyptian Museum and in the University of Michigan” ed. A.E.R. Boak and H.C. Youtie, Ann Arbor, 1960. = [B_466=O_035,rvw] See COLL. YOUTIE; AURELIUS ISODORUS

4. P. Cair. Masp. = CGC, “papyrus grecs d’epoque byzantine” ed. J. Maspero, Cairo, 1911-1916, 3 volumes.

5. P. Cairo. Preis. = “Greichische Urkunden des Agyptischen Museums zu Kairo”, ed. F. Preisigke, Strassburg, 1911.

6. P. Cairo Zen. = CGC, “Zenon Papyri”, ed. C.C. Edgar, 1925-31, 4 volumes.


[B_180a,8.5,IMG, v. 1] CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t. 82, “Hommages Serge Sauneron, Cairo, 1979, v. 1.

See work by Dimitri Meeks, “Une fondation Memphite de Taharqa”, (Stele du Caire JE [Journal Entry?] 36861).

C.M. acquired this in 1904.


[B_180b, v. 2]

See volume two, mention of P. Cairo Zen. 59245,

dated to (23 Fevrier 252 a. C.).


AKA Kairo and Le Caire.


[The Centennial Anniversary; 2002] of the Egyptian Museum

Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt (tel/fax: 202-579-4596)

Dr. Mamdouh Eldamaty

Director General

Egyptian Museum


O. Cair. 1: (Greek ~150 bce)


P.Cair.Goodsp.: Greek Papyri from the Cairo Museum

P.Cair.Goodsp. 3.= Chr.Wilck. 50


P.Cair.Isid.: The Archive of Aurelius Isidorus in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, and the University of Michigan

P.Cair.Isid. 1. Edict of Aristios Optatos: (Greek; AD 127; from KARANIS)


P.Cair.Masp.: Papyrus grecs d'époque byzantine, Catalogue général des antiquités égyptiennes du Musée du Caire

P.Cair.Masp. 1.67001. Contract: (Greek; AD 514; from Aphrodito, Aphroditopolis)



P.Cair.Mich.: A Tax List from Karanis (P.Cair.Mich. 359)

(Greek; AD 175; KARANIS)

(math content; typically charges are multiples of 4 drachma)


P.Cair.Preis.: Griechische Urkunden des Aegyptischen Museums zu Kairo

P.Cair.Preis. 1. Record of proceedings; (Greek; 148+AD; Arsinoite)


P.Cair.Zen.: Zenon Papyri, Catalogue général des antiquités égyptiennes du Musée du Caire

P.Cair.Zen. 1.59001. Loan of money [34 Drachmai]: (Greek; 273 bce; from Phil<Memphite)




Bobcat# PA3303.C13 G8

“Greek papyri from the CAIRO Museum, together with papyri of Roman Egypt from American collections by Edgar J. Goodspeed / Instructor in Biblical and Patristic Greek.”

Chicago, University Press, 1902.

[printed from Volume 5]

Includes translations and transcriptions of these papyri:

CAIRO Papyri

1. Odyssey o 216-253                                        ~200 CE

2. Medical fragment                                            ~200 CE

3. Letter                                                            ~300 BCE

4. Letter of Recommendation                              ~200 BCE

5. Promise to Pay                                              ~200 CE;


6. Deed of Land                                                 129 BCE          


7. Official Accounts                                            119-118 BCE    

from FAYUM

8. Loan Contract                                                111 BCE          

Cairo M. # 10366

9. Memorandum of Rent                                     ~100 BCE

10. Memphis Tax Receipt                                   180 CE

11. Receipt for Shipment of Wine                        ~400 CE; See SHIPS

12. Certified List of Taxpayers                             340 CE

13. Special Warranty Deed                                 341 CE

14. Contract for Corn Transport                            343 CE

Cairo M. # 10265; Possibly from Ashmunen

15. Complaint of Aurelia                                      362 CE from Ashmunen; Cairo M. # 10269


16. Grain Receipt                                               158-159 CE       from Kom Ushim

17. Grain Receipt                                               144-145 CE       from Kom Ushim

18-24. Grain Receipts                                         158-159 CE       from Kom Ushim

25. Aknwldg Embankment Service                       161 CE from Kom Ushim

26. Date                                                            163-164 CE       from Kom Ushim

27. Acknowledgement of Payment                       ~200 CE           from Kom Ushim; Westminster College 12.



28. Boat Ticket                                                  ~200 CE

29. Legal Proceedings                                        ~150 CE

30. Accounts                                                     191-192 CE


See index of Kings, Emperors, Consuls, and Indictions



[B_341,alt,8.5] The Journal of Mediterannean Archaeology and Archaeometry, Volume 2, No. 1, pp. 111-124, copyright MAA, 2002.
Article by Flora Vafea:
“The Mathematics of Pyramid Construction in Ancient Egypt.”

An interesting article with a suitable bibliography for further queries.
Refers to Demotic p. CAIRO 89127-30, 89137-43 containing pyramid problems.

Also refers to RMP; MMP; SEKED; CUBIT.




(as per EEF; R. Bauval; 081704)
Bakir, Abd el-Mohsen. The Cairo Calendar of Lucky and Unlucky Days
(Journal d'Entree, 86637). ASAE 48 (1948): 425-431. Also by same
author, 'The Cairo CALENDAR No. 86637', Cairo 1966

(as per EEF; S. Gauss; 090304)
It is of Ramesside date.
See also:
Christian Leitz, Tagewählerei (Ägyptologische Abhandlungen 55).


(as per EEF; G. Passera; 083103)
a: In "KMT, Amarna Letters Vol. 2, Courtier, Confidant, Counselor,
King: The God's Father Ay", page 113, Otto Schaden show a stela from
Giza (Cairo 34187) dated to Year 3 of King Ay without giving a
b: The hieroglyph text of this stella is also in G. Daressy Recueil
/ Notes & Remarques, page 123 CVIII with a short comment about a
wife of King AY : Maut-net'emit.
c: Henry Breasted in Ancient Records of Egypt vol 2 page 428 give a
translation of this stella where Mutnezmet is the wife of an Ay's
official <snip>
G. Daressy and H.Breasted texts do not match, <snip>


CALCULI: (ancient) counting tokens

See UHN: p. 97: OLDEST calculi (symbolic COUNTING TOKENS)

From the 9th to 7th millenium BCE.

Found at:



Ganj Dara Tepe, IRAN

Khartoum, SUDAN

Jericho, WEST BANK

Abu Hureyra, SYRIA


More recent calculi from the 2nd millenium BCE from:

Tepe Hissan, IRAN

Megiddo, ISRAEL





CALENDAR: Always changing but not always for the better.

Search for CALENDAR throughout the site.


See historical Venus influences


(as per S. Whittet) See 364 day solar year divided into lunar months.

See the Saros cycle (See Hibeh and Paris; 18 years + 11 days).

and the Metonic cycle (19 year cycles).

the Callipic cycle (by Callipus 325 BCE=4 Metonic cycles=27,759 days).

Also the Hipparchic cycle=4 Callipic cycles less one day


See this link (by E. Weisstein):


(as per the Columbia Encyclopedia):

A synodic period is the length of time for any non Earth planet to be viewed in the same elongation from Earth.

A planet’s year, or sidereal period, is the time required for it to complete one full circuit around the sun.

Mercury and Venus are the two inferior planets.

(Planets with orbits closer to the Sun than Earth.)

The superior planets are Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.

When a planet lies on the line drawn from the earth to the sun, its elongation is 0° and is said to be in conjunction. When a planet’s elongation is 90°, it is in quadrature. When its elongation is 180°, it is in opposition.

Venus passes through phases like those of the moon, varying from a large bright crescent when the planet is near inferior conjunction (nearest the earth) to a smaller silvery disk when it is at superior conjunction (farthest from the earth).

Venus revolves around the sun at a mean distance of c.67 million mi in a nearly circular orbit, and its period of revolution is about 225 days.

All the planets rotate about their own axes as they revolve around the sun; their periods of rotation vary from just under 10 earth hours for Jupiter to 243 earth days for Venus.


(as per E. Weisstein) See his site below:

Venus passes between the Sun and Earth 4 times every 243 years.


(as per N. Brayer; M. Gardner) OK Egyptian Astronomy made note that:

13 (orbital) periods of Venus ~8 Earth Sidereal years.


As early as 4000 years ago the AE CIVIL calendar was arranged to start the new year with the helical rising of Sirius.


An AE Great year calendar (see the Mayan Codex) included:

(typically computed) ~21,550 days.(~59 years).

(2) Sidereal periods of Saturn?

(5) Sidereal periods of Jupiter.

(31) Sidereal periods of Mars.

(59) Earth Solar years.

(96) Sidereal periods of Venus.

(245) Sidereal periods of Mercury.

(769) Sidereal periods of the Earth’s Moon.

~21,609 days.

See the work by E.C. Krupp, “Egyptian Calendars.”


See also RYLANDS; [B_093].


(as per NASA)


Orbital parameters of Venus.

Sidereal orbit period (days)=224.701
Tropical orbit period (days)=224.695
Synodic period (days)=583.92
Sidereal rotation period (hrs)=-5832.5
Length of day (Earth hrs)=2802.0



I recall, the mean change in sunlit hours (on Earth) daily is ~3 min 56 seconds.

A secondary daily adjustment must be made to compensate for our elliptical orbit.


(as per T. E. Peet) See “Kalendarischen Inschriften” by Dumichen.


(as per S. Katary, [B_100])  See C. W. Goodwin, “Notes on the Calendar-question,” ZAS 5 (1867) , pp. 57-60.


(as per W. Muss-Arnolt) See J. Oppert in:

Calendrier et dates Egyptiennes (De Rouge): RA X (’64) 81.


Beckerath, J. von. Chronologie des pharaonischens Ägyptens: Die Zeit bestimmung der ägyptischen Geschichte von der Vorzeit bis 332 v. Christ. Münchener Ägyptologische Studien 46. Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1997.


Depuydt, L. Civil Calendar and Lunar Calendar in Ancient Egypt. Orientalia Lovaniensa Analecta 77. Leuven: Vitgeverij Peeters en Departement Oosterse Studies, 1997.


Hornung, E. Untersuchungen zur Chronologie und Geschichte des Neuen Reiches.

[B_196; See B_074] Ägyptologische Abhandlungen 2. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1964.


Kitchen, K. A. "The Chronology of Ancient Egypt." World Archaeology 23/2 (October 1991): 201-208.


Parker, R. "The Calendars and Chronology." Chapter in The Legacy of Egypt, ed. J. R. Harris, 13-26. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.


Parker, R. The Calendars of Egypt. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 26. Chicago: The Oriental Institute, 1950.


Parker, R. "Sothic Dates and Calendar 'Adjustment.'" Revue d'Egyptologie 9 (1952): 101-08.


Parker, R. "The Sothic Dating of the Twelfth and Eighteenth Dynasties." In Studies in Honor of George R. Hughes. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 39, pp. 177-190. Chicago: The Oriental Institute, 1977.


Wente, E. F. and Van Siclen III, C. C. "A Chronology of the New Kingdom." In Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 39, pp. 217-262. Chicago: The Oriental Institute, 1977.


See Muslim leap year = (Arabic) nasi

See Muslim festival of Nowruz= New Year.

See Jewish New Year=Rosh Hashanah


(as per M. St. John) NO CATNYP.


“The Egyptian Calendar, a work for Eternity.”

Periplus, 1999.

By Dr. A. S. [Anne-Sophie] Bomhard.

A marvelous text.

See detailed bibliography.


A.S. Bomhard text on AE Calendar notes:

I wonder if in the 47 [annus vagus] years from the close of the Sothic Cycle to the close of a Solar Cycle, did the AE priests note any variance in the equinox? Awareness of precession is critical to calendar and Pole star considerations.


Comparison of feasts from Hibeh, I,.27 to Buto Stele [gap analysis]

No reasonable comparisons found!

See BUTO STELE notes at HIBEH; see [B_051].

[an alternate perspective on the NARMER PALETTE]:



(as per EEF; S. Cross; 040103)

Gardiner A. H. 'Regnal Years and Civil Calendar in Pharaonic Egypt'

JEA 31  (1945) p 11-28.



In the Muslim calendar the year is only 354 days long, 11 days shorter than the Western calendar system. This is because of its lunar system, where every year consists of exactly 12 moon cycles. The other common name of the Muslim calendar is "hijra", referring to the fleeing of the Prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib (later Madina). The hijra calendar starts counting its days starting on July 16, 622 CE. It is commanded in the Koran that the Muslim calendar should consist of 12 purely lunar months, and there are no form of leap days or months to make up for the shortness of the year compared to the seasons.


[B_338,rvw,LB] CATNYP# Sc 913.32-H

John Richard Harris, editor.

“The legacy of Egypt; edited by J. R. Harris. Second edition.”

Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1971.

See “The Calendars and Chronology.”

See also [B_338b,rvw]

[B_338b,rvw] CATNYP# Sc 913.32-H

See “Mathematics and Astronomy.” By G. J. Toomer.

(as per A. Eyma; EEF; 071303)
In GM194, 59-64, Gyula Priskin launc[h]es the hypothesis that the
Greek[s] borrowed the concept of the golden ratio [phi] from Egypt.
Now as it is first found in EUCLID who worked in Alexandria
(300 BC) that would not be impossible, in principle, however
she does not prove it by architectural proportions or similar
contexts, but via the temporal(!) (in her theory: premeditated) scheme
in the building of the Ptolemaic temples of Dendera and Edfu (i.e.
using the dates(!) in their construction history, 237 - 20 BC). I may be
dense, but I find myself totally unconvinced. Idem by the notion that
this temporal use would root in calendar issues, i.e. the relation
between civil CALENDAR and lunar calendar [(365/29.53) = (20/phi)].

(as per EEF; B. McMurray; 082603)
FYI: The NASA website has tables for phases of the moon, lunar and
solar eclipses:
There is also an Egyptian date calculator at:
<snip> Be careful before reaching any firm conclusions; I have found that

the phases of the moon recur on the same date in the Egyptian civil

calendar at intervals of 25 years (of 365 days each). For example, there

would again be a new moon on 21 Pakhons in Year 47 of Thutmose III,

if he lived that long. So, the inscription could refer to a day in 1507 BC,

1482 BC, 1457 BC, etc.

Some other clue should help in picking the right year.

CAMBRIDGE: university; (Coptic) Manuscripts and (Greek) ostraca

(as per EEF; P. Gould)

Christ's College, Cambridge, possesses a unique collection of records

from the birth of Egyptology, in the form of 17 volumes of rare Coptic

manuscripts. Mostly from the 16th and 17th centuries, these documents

include a parchment codex which was produced as a result of growing

interest in the mysteries of the ancient Egyptian language. It played

a decisive role in the decipherment of hieroglyphics, and can be said

to belong to the birth of the science of Egyptology.


The manuscripts are in urgent need of conservation - one theory is

that they were shipwrecked, as they show signs of water damage! To

preserve these precious documents for future generations of scholars

and enthusiasts, Christ's College has launched a major conservation

project with the dual aims of expert restoration and long-term



O. Camb.: (Greek; 251 bce)



CAMINOS: (Author); AE, hieratic papyrus

Ricardo Augusto Caminos 1915-.


(as per D. Meeks) seek Chronicle of Prince Osorkon. See PUSHKIN 127 by Ricardo CAMINOS.


[W_039,IMG,OS2] WATSON# 533.6 C143. "A tale of woe : from a hieratic papyrus in the A. S. PUSHKIN Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow / by Ricardo A. Caminos.",Oxford 1977.

AKA Papyrus PUSHKIN 127.

~1000 BCE.

Golenischeff stated these were found in/near El Hiba [HIBEH].

Literary /epistolary / unique style / hieratic.


See R. Caminos, The Chronicle of Prince Osorkon, in Analecta Orientalia (1956). See [B_290].


(Search this link for Osorkon)


Find this text! Late Egyptian Miscellanies



CANOPUS: (tri-lingual) decree of

(as per M. Brandt, EEF) The decree is dated II Shemu I in 238 BCE.


See (Table of) TANIS.


Hieroglyphic, Demotic and Greek.

See discussions on the Prstt (Persians or Philistines?).



CARLSBERG: (AE; demotic) astronomical and other papyri

At Univ. Copenhagen.


[B_046,8.5's,IGNR,V2,V3] CATNYP# M- 10 6007 Bd.1,nr.2, "Papyrus Carlsberg No. I", 1940. Papyri #2 –4. Demotic cosmology text?

But I haven’t learnt demotic - yet.


[W_040=B_046] WATSON# 533.6 P196.


See link below for [Greco-Roman period] astronomical papyrus [P. Carlsberg 32] in Demotic:
At: The Carsten Niebuhr Institute of Near Eastern Studies, University of Copenhagen
See also my image grid:


FRONT and BACK: Demotic, Mathematical Text
Publication: R. A. Parker, Demotic mathematical papyri (Rhode Island, 1972), problems 68-72, plate 25.


FRONT: Demotic, Astronomical
Publication: R. A. Parker, "Two demotic astronomical papyri in the Carlsberg Collection", AcOr 26 (1962), 143-147, w. pl. --- O. Neugebauer - R. A. Parker, Egyptian astronomical texts, III: Decans, planets, constellations, and zodiacs (Rhode Island, 1960), esp. 217-220, 241-243, pl. 79.
BACK: Demotic, Wisdom Text (?)


FRONT: Demotic, Astronomical
Publication: R. A. Parker, "Two demotic astronomical papyri in the Carlsberg Collection", AcOr 26 (1962), 143-147, w. pl. --- O. Neugebauer - R. A. Parker, Egyptian astronomical texts, III: Decans, planets, constellations, and zodiacs (Rhode Island, 1960), esp. 217-220, 240-241, pl. 79.
BACK: Blank


See also:
P. CARLSBERG 9: Calendrical

K. Ryholt, A Demotic Version of Nectanebos' Dream (P. Carlsberg 562),
in: ZPE, vol. 122, pp. 197-200, 1998


See this link to images of Demotic.


See this link to an extensive bibliography of the Carlsberg Collection.


(as per LEX) Seek work by Neugebauer, Otto.


(as per AEB) The Carlsberg Papyri 3: A Miscellany of Demotic Texts and Studies: With Contributions by J.F. Quack, K. Ryholt, W.J. Tait, K.-Th. Zauzich. Ed. by P.J. Frandsen and Kim Ryholt, Copenhagen, The Carsten Niebuhr Inst. of Near Eastern Studies, 2000, CNI Publications.


(as per AEB) Ryholt, K. The Carlsberg Papyri 4. The Story of Petese

(See PETESI) son of Petetum and seventy other good and bad stories. Copenhagen, (Niebuhr), 1999, CNI.


(as per D. Fowler) Seek (demotic) P. Carlsberg 9,

similar to P. Rylands iv 589.

Lunar Calendar. 9125 days/ 309 mean synodic months.

Seek the following texts:

Neugebauer and Parker; EAT iii, 220-5

Neugebauer; HAMA i, 563 f.

Parker; CAE.
[University of Copenhagen; publications]

CAPPADOCIA or KATPATUKA: (Cuneiform) clay tablets from

[Assyrian trade colony in Northern Anatolia]

Around 14000 tablets have been discovered at Kültepe (in modern Turkey). These originate from an Assyrian trading post in a region of Anatolia later controlled by the Hittites. They are roughly contemporary with the early Isin-Larsa period in Mesopotamia. In conventional terms this corresponds to 2000-1800 BCE, and in New Chronology terms around 1800-1700. The tablets are predominantly business documents, and illustrate commercial and negotiation practices used at this time. The term 'Habiru', commonly identified with the Biblical word Hebrew, appears in this archive.





CARNAVON: (AE; MK) tablet

(as per EEF; M. Hindley; 112303)

<snip> covered with a fine plaster, the so-called
'Carnarvon Tablet' comes to mind. Found by Lord Carnarvon [and Howard Carter]

in 1908 the board carries a text describing the defeat of the Hyksos by Kamose.
See Gardiner's article in JEA Vol.III, pages 95 to 110 for full
description plus his translation together with photographs.


From the reign of Ahmose or AAHMOSE; first ruler of the 18th Dynasty?
Last ruler of the 17th dynasty?
See also the Kamose Stela.

CASATI: (AE; Demotic) Papyri

See APAW [B_199]

Names of Ptolemaic Kings.

see UPZ II 180a.

CATTAOUI: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) See P. Cattaoui I, ed. B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt, P. M. Meyer, in archiv iii, p. 55 ff.


(as per WLGR link) See: B.P. Grenfell and A.S. Hunt, ‘Papyrus Cattaoui', Archiv für Papyrusforschung (1903-6) 3: 55 ff.



CAVE PAINTINGS: France and Spain

France cave 1

Arcy's images have been radiocarbon dated to 27,000-29,000 years ago, making them the second oldest cave paintings after those in the Chauvet Cave. As at Chauvet, the majority of Arcy's animals are fearsome--rhinoceroses, bears, lions, mammoths. Starting 25,000 years ago, prehistoric artists in France and Spain began decorating caves primarily with the animals they hunted. The reasons for the shift in emphasis are mysterious. Baffier describes a “change in the prehistoric artists' ideology,” while Jean Clottes, head of the team researching the Chauvet Cave, suggests a change in the environment that might have caused some of the region's fauna to disperse. Arcy is the northernmost painted cave [yet discovered] in Europe


France cave 2; See NEOLITHIC



CATNYP# Sc E 78-329

“Origins: what new discoveries reveal about the emergence of our species and its possible future / Richard E. Leakey and Roger Lewin.”

NY, 1977.


homo-erectus:; Makapansgat Pebble From the cave of Makapansgat:

Found by Mary Leakey?

Origin: Makapansgat (Valley of the Northern Province, South Africa)
Absolute dating: 3.000.000 years (Dart) and 2.5 - 2.9 million years (Bednarik).  Find studied by Raymond Dart, Mary Leakey, Robert G. Bednarik (Drawing deduced from a drawing of Bednarik).




Find “the mind in the cave: Consciousness and the Origins of Art” by David Lewis-Williams, Thames, $30. Avail via OXBOW, 2002.


CCER: a fine asset

Centre for Computer-aided Egyptological Research:

(as per M. Tilgner, EEF)

See the Catalog of the 6900 signs available in the Extended Library,

version 2


See also:

Prosopographia Aegypti (online)

Database of 58.000 Ancient Egyptian private names, based on the

archives of the Woerterbuch der Aegyptische Sprache

(Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften).


Multilingual Egyptological Thesaurus

Now consists of seven languages:

(English, Dutch, German, French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese).

The online version also has a translation module.


Computer program that provides automatic translations of ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic texts:



CDLI: cuneiform archive



CELSUS: as roasted by ORIGENIS


Origen states that he had heard that there were two individuals of this name, both of them Epicureans, the earlier of the two having lived in the time of Nero, and the other in the time of Adrian, or later.  Redepenning is of opinion that Celsus must have composed his work in the time of Marcus Aurelius (161-180 a.d.), on account of his supposed mention of the Marcionites (whose leader did not make his appearance at Rome before 142 a.d.), and of the Marcellians (followers of the Carpocratian Marcellina), a sect which was founded after the year 155 a.d. under Bishop Anicetus.




[B_257,8.5,no cubits,medicine]

CATNYP# *R-NRDZ C331 .D34 Vol 1, 2, 3

“De Medicina / Celsus ; with an English tr. by W. G. Spencer”

Celsus, Aulus Cornelius

Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard Press, 1935-38 (reprint 1971-94)

“The remaining part of my work relates to the bones; …”



CATNYP# ZEM++ (Origen. Opera omnia quae Graece vel Latine tantum extant)

4 volumes. Parisiis : J. Vincent, 1733-1759.

Origenes Contra Celsus, Tome one, pages 785 and 786.

Lepsius refers to this in [B_149]. This rare 1733 text makes note of Celsus’ Ancient Greek mentionings of cubits and has a Latin Commentary.

Text below was copied from the actual title page:

Origenus ta heuriskomena panta.


opera omnia

quae Graece vel Latine tantum exstant

et ejus nomine


Ex Variis Editionibus, & Codicibus manu earatis, Gallicanis,

Italicis, Germanicis & Anglicis collecta, recensita, latine versa,

atque annotationibus illustrata, cum copiosis indicibus, vita

Auctoris, & multis dissertationibus.

Opera & studio Domni Caroli Delarue, Presbyteri & Monachi

Benedictini e Congregatione S. Mauri.




Typis JACOBI VINCENT, via Sancti Severini, ad insigne Angeli.




The text's pages are divided into a column of Celsus' Greek with Latin translations/commentary at the side. The specified footnote entry begins on, and is primarily seen on, page 785 and ends on 786.

This is entry number 58 of the premier tome.

It [the Latin] begins as follows:


58. Pergit Celsus: Nihil in hisce rebus vel minimum esse cujus cura non alicui potestati mandata fuerit, id discere licet ex AEgyptiis, qui aiunt sex & triginta daemones aut aethereos quosdam deos (sunt etiam qui plures numerent) corporis in totidem partes divisi alium alius partis curam suscipere jussos suisse. Sciunt etiam daemonum illorum nomina linguae suae propria, ut Chnoumen, Chnachoumen, Cnat, Sicat, Biou, Erou, Erebiou, Ramanor, Reianoor, & alia quae sua lingua nominant.....About 200 words in all, plus a large footnote.


Ramanor, is REMEN!

Seek astronomical info from this texts excerpts.


The above was also quoted in:

“Biot, Memoire sur le Zodiac circulaire de Denderah”


I additionally found an issue of "Origenes, Contra Celsum" by Robert Bader, 1940, Stuttgart. I reserved this at NYPL so that I could examine the bibliography more closely for references to the older version. (above)

See also TBZAW.

(Which makes a reference to a similar Latin/Greek text from 1605. Reprint Below)


[B_258,8.5] CATNYP# *ZET (Origen, contra celsus libri VIII)

“Contra Celsum Libri VIII, et Gregori Neocaesar…”

Augustae Vindelicorum, 1605.

See sections 58 and 60. In Latin, begin on page 423-427.

See hymn of Minerva page 429.

Remen [Ramanoor] on page 424.


[B_383,rvw] CATNYP# ZFD (Hippolytus. Philosophumena)

“Philosophumena; or, The refutation of all heresies, formerly attributed to Origen, but now to Hippolytus, bishop and martyr, who flourished about 220 A. D. Translated from the text of Cruice, by F. Legge.” Two volumes.

London, Society for promoting Christian knowledge; New York, 1921.



CEN: title

CEN=Cenotaph of Seti I at Abydos, 1933, Frankfort.



Frankfort , H . and De Buck , A . and Gunn , B . The Cenotaph of Seti I at Abydos , 2 vol. , Memoir of the Egypt exploration society , Egypt exploration society , London , 1933 .


See SETI I; [O_004]


“The Cenotaph of Seti I at Abydos / by H. Frankfort with chapters by A De Buck and Battiscombe Gunn in two volumes [volume 1: text; volume two: plates] [within] Thirty-Ninth memoir of the Egypt Exploration Society [1933].”
*Not found in CATNYP but see old catalog volume 225; page 43; card ?
Volume I:
Chapter VII on Decans
Chapter VIII on Shadow clock and Borchardt’s proposition that this was used in conjunction with a cubit. See p. 77 reference to a length of 5 spans [a double remen?]

Volume II:
Plates of Seti I cartouche and Decan charts and Book of Gates

See also
[B_442=O_006,no copy]
CATNYP# *OBL++ (Capart, J. Abydos)
“Abydos, Le Temple de Seti Ier; etude generale par Jean Capart.”
Bruxelles, 1912.
Images of glyphs of lesser quality than in text above.


[B_588,no copy]
EES-Arch. Survey / the Temple of Sethos I at Abydos.”
By Alan H. Gardiner.
*Not found in CATNYP but see old catalog volume 225; page 44; card 21
Images of glyphs of lesser quality than in text above.
V. 1
Plate 33: Offering of 5 ducks
Plates 37-39: Air shafts in tomb
V. 2:
Plate 32: math content; account; distribution quantities from 1-20 pieces of fowl and food stuffs with image of HPP or Sem priest of Ptah at right.
Plate 35: similar to above; account
Plate 43-45: Air shafts

CENTAURUS: publication

(as per Milo Gardner)

In reading this important 10 page paper, from end to end,  for the first

time, I found  Bruins' work excellent on several levels. Historically, Bruins may be correct that Platonic era students worked these problems in the manner he specified. However, related to the RMP 2/nth table, and other 1,500 year older Egyptian texts, such as the EMLR and MMP, I suggest that simpler mental methods were  available to Ahmes and other scribes, as follows:

1. For 2/p series, a method very close to the well known Hultsch-Bruins method can be stated as an algebraic  identity, in the form:

2/p - 1/A = (2A -p)/Ap


2/p = 1/A + (2A - p)/Ap

where A, a highly divisible composite number, chosen in the range

p/2 < A < p   (as Greeks generalized n/p conversions to p/n < A < p )

with the aliquot parts, divisors of A, were  used to uniquely compute

(2A- p), such as p = 19, with A = 12, and (2A -p) = 5.  Uniqueness was historically implied in the RMP 2/nth table by inspecting a small list of alternatives, as Bruins alludes to, in this case (2A -p) = 5,

or  (3 + 2) and (4 + 1), with the set of aliquot parts containing the largest last term, (3 + 2), being selected, in this case producing 2/19 = (3 + 2)/(12*19) = 1/76 + 1/114.

2. 2/pq = 2/A x A/pq

where A = (p + 1)

Bruins discusses the p + 1 case, almost as cited above, however,  it

seems that he did  miss Occam's Razor's simplest case, as surely is written in the RMP 2/nth table, as anyone can confirm with a pencil and paper in a few minutes.

Concerning the EMLR, I can provide a formal paper , by URL to HM or

anyone off line,, to show that the  2/pq = 2/A x A/pq algebraic identity was known to the student scribe, but  interestingly A = 4, 5, 7 were tested rather than (p + 1), possibly looking for an optimal case  (as the  RMP clearly  does report in ALL of its cases.)



[B_459,8.5,SIBL] CATNYP# JSP 92-191


See this link to a pdf of Bruins’ work in Centaurus XIX (1975) no. 4 pp. 241-5: “The part in Ancient Egyptian Mathematics.”

See also:


CG: catalog

See CAIRO (Museum)

CG=CG=CGC=Catalogue General du Musee du Caire, 1901-

[B_302,OS; Akhmim wood tablets]

CATNYP# *OBKM+(Cairo. Musee des Antiquites Egyptiennes. Catalogue General. Ostraca hieratiques)

“Catalogue General des Antiquites Egyptiennes du Musee du Caire”

See 1901 volume with No.s 25001-25385 par M. G. Daressy [See Akhmim]

See 1930-1935 volume with No.s 25501-25832 par Jaroslav Cerny.

See 1904-1907 volume with steingefasse [stone vessels].



CHAMPOLLION: (Author(s))

Jean-Francois Champollion (1790-1832)

Decipherer of Glyphs and Man of Wonder.


See Lepsius’ [B_149], numerous references to the works of all of the family!


[B_204,hand,sm IMGS,IGNR] CATNYP# *OBL++ (Champollion, J.F. Monuments de l’Egypte et de la Nubie) (Locked Cage)

“Monuments de l’Egypte et de la Nubie; notices descriptives conformes aux manuscrits autographes rediges sur les lieux par Champollion le Jeune.”

Paris, F. Didot freres, 1844-1889.

I was digging for the following text and found this first. No copies.


[B_205,OS IMGS,NO COPY] CATNYP# *OBL+++ (Champollion, J.F. Monuments de l’Egypte et de la Nubie)

“Monuments de l’Egypte et de la Nubie, d’apres les dessins executes sur les lieux sous la direction de Champollion-le-Jeune, et les descriptions autographes qu’il en a redigees; pub. Sous les auspices de M. Guizot et de M. Thiers…par une commission speciale. Planches…”

Paris, Firmin Didot freres, 1835-1845.

See Lepsius’ [B_149], references to plates 206 and 321, cubits.

My notes:

Yes, there are only four tomes.

No, this does not mean that 4 books is the sum of the collection.


Actually this set is made of 7 (SEVEN) separate books! (or MORE!)


Tome one, Volume 1, contains plates 1 through 101. (This is the huge one, 35 kilos.)

Tome one, Volume 2, contains plates 101 through 145. (This volume and the rest are lighter.)

Tome two, Volume 1, contains plates 146 through 200.

Tome three, Volume 1, contains plates 201 through 248. (Leppy footnote to plate 206)

Tome three, Volume 2, contains plates 249 through 300.

Tome four, Volume 1, contains plates 301 through 375. (Leppy footnote to plate 321)

Tome four, Volume 2, contains plates 376 through 446.

(The NYPL specifies 511 plates!, they must be missing other volumes!)

Plate 321, found in T4V1 is a description of the obelisk at the entrance to Luxor Temple.

(I have been there and photographed the obelisk. It is still in very good condition.)

Plate Heading: "Thebes-Louqsor [LUXOR]".

(showing what is poorly described as the 3rd and 4th side of the obelisk.)

The image contains the frequent appearance of the bent arm glyphs and hand glyphs.


I spent many hours looming over this magnificent set of books.

Below I note other interesting items found:


P38, T1V1

Plate XXXVIII-Shows an image from Ipsamboul. Bent arm glyphs and math content. See MATH: prior to 1601


P45, T1V1

Plate XLV-Shows math content. See MATH: prior to 1601


P61, T1V1

Plate LXI, Figure three-Shows what appears to be a glyph message about land portioning and/or proportion! This also contains bent arm glyphs. See MATH: prior to 1601


P71, T1V1

Plate LXXI-Shows an odd glyph which I am unsure of that is made of two arms facing away from each other and connected by a squat obelisk. Glyph not identified via Gardiner’s Grammar [B_209].


P91.4, T1V1

Plate XCI (ter), Figure one-Shows a glyph that strongly resembles a plumb-bob. See CONSTRUCTION.


P101 and 106, T1V1

See Sorek (Sobek?)


P115 and 116, T1V1

Plate CXV and CXVI, See a possible arithmetic progression, Math. See MATH: prior to 1601


P122, T1V1

Plate CXXII, See esseboua, [Wadi Es Seboua?]


P125, T1V1

Plate CXXV, See Edfou, killed snake


P145, T1V1

Plate CXLV, See Esneh AKA Esna, Horus as a crocodile.


P159, T2V1

Plate CLIX, See MAKOU.


P163.2, T2V1 See BELLOWS.

Plate CLXIII, See use of forced air as fuel in coal bed.


P163.4, T2V1

Plate CLXIII, See use of BELLOWS for baking.


P166.3, T2V1

Plate CLXVI, See development of BELLOWS from an inflated organ.


P186, T2V1

Plate CLXXXVI, See wood carving tools. See CONSTRUCTION.


P192, T2V1

Plate CXCII, See Wheel manufacture in edifice of Thutmosis III.



P272.4, T3V2

Plate CCLXXII (ter)-Shows an image which seems to represent constellations in the reign of Ramses V. Possible calendrical math. See MATH: prior to 1601



P272.5, T3V2

Plate CCLXXII (quint)-Shows cubits, remen, and setat!


P275, T3V2

Plate CCLXXV-Shows an image from Biban-el Molouk that may contain lunar eclipse data! See MATH: prior to 1601.


P276, T3V2

Plate CCLXXVI-Shows an image from Biban-el Molouk that may also contain lunar eclipse data! See MATH: prior to 1601.


These last two have me quite piqued! I hope to explain why.

I found the plate 206 from the hugely oversized books:

"Monuments de l'Egypte et de la Nubie”

Note: I could barely lift the large volume one, 35 kilos!

Plate 206 shows the triple lotus symbol (3000) many times and this 19th Dynasty Ramses-something inscription from Medinat-Habu shows the bent arm glyph(s) a few times also.

This with a procession of a Royal Party.

(If you know something of the BARKS or BARQUES, this is a good example).

The Royal party includes:

2 of the Pharaohs sons (Princes).

A few Army chiefs.

Many prisoners shown with arms knotted together (with cords) over their heads.

Some Army Officers.

Some scribes recording the total killed by counting (removed) hands and phalluses.

See my notes about the knife handle, Item A# 26.241.1; 16.2.22 (in Gallery One), at the Met. See Narmer.It has similar (older) depictions.


Jean-Francois CHAMPOLLION, Precis du systeme hieroglyphique des anciens Egyptiens, 2nd ed.

L'Impremerie Royale. Paris, 1828. Reprinted by Elibron Classics, 2001. 528 pp. Preview the text; no plates; USD 9.95.



CHARITE: (Greek) archive; papyri

P.Charite: Das Aurelia Charite Archiv


P.Charite 1. Application to lease:

(Greek; AD 314?; from Hermoupolis Magna)



CHARLEMAGNE: (Great Ruler of France b. 742 -d. 814 AD)

AKA Charles the Great; AKA Charles I.

[B_404,HOUSE] CATNYP# JFD 73-361

“The Life of Charlemagne by Einhard with a foreword by Sidney Painter.”

Pub. The University of Michigan Press; 1960.

Translated from “Monumenta Germaniae” by Samuel Epes Turner.

See also “Vita Caroli Magni.” Written by Einhard between 817 and 836 AD.

Succeeded by his son Louis the Pious who appointed Einhard as his private Secretary.



CHELSEA: home away from home

Post office @ chelsea:

217 w. 18th st (between 7th and 8th Ave.)

800 275 8777or 212 675 2414 or special# 212 675 0548
m 8-6
t 8-6
w 8-6
th 8-8 ??
f 8-6
sa 9-4
su ? 9-4 no hrs?


Noodle Corner: the best duck soup in the world!

(212) 989-1668
[get a job]
[find a subway]



CHESTER BEATTY: (Author); papyri; biblical papyri

Sir Alfred Chester Beatty 1875-1968.


[B_047txt,8.5's, and 047b,IMG,PIX,r06.1; r07.1] CATNYP# OBR+ (British Museum. Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities, Department of Hieratic Papyri) "Hieratic papyri in the British Museum. Third Series: Chester Beatty gift, edited by Alan H. Gardiner", London, 1935, for text. As above also CATNYP# OBR+++(the same) for plates. [B_047b,IMG,PIX,r06.1]

As per the above text:

The Scribe/ author of C.B. III is Kenhikhopshef who is in turn mentioned twice in SALT P. 124.

C.B. IX = B.M. 10689, is Similar to TURIN P. in that both relate the Ritual of Amenophis.

C.B. XVI is shown in Peet's “Great Tomb Robberies.” See ABBOTT.

C.B. XIX = B.M. 10699 is similar to SALLIER P. II.


(as per S. Lorber) Seek Papyrus Chester Beatty 3.5 and III and VI and VII and C.B. XVII?= B.M. 10697.


[B_067,rvw] CATNYP# *OBR 76-1870, "Love songs of the New Kingdom. Translated from the ancient Egyptian by John L. Foster. Illustrated with hieroglyphs drawn by the translator and with paintings from Egyptian tombs by Nina M. Davies." New York, Scribner [1974].

above text refers to and includes translations of:

P. Chester Beatty I= songs of great heart's ease, love song

Cairo ostracon 25218 = songs

P. Harris 500 = songs of the garden and = songs of the birdcatcher's daughter

P. Turin 1966 = songs of the orchard


(as per R.A. Parker) C.B. III is the earliest dreambook. It was copied during Ramses II from a ?12th dynasty original. See VIENNA, ENUMA ANU ENLIL.


[B_119,rvw] CATNYP# JFE 94-10031,

“Apocryphon of Jannes and Jambres the magicians. Polyglot.”

By Albert Pietersma(n), Leiden, 1994.

Includes references to C.B. XVI and,

P. Vindobonensis 29456 and 29828. (Greek)


(as per E. G. Turner) See (C. B.) MANICHAEAN codex. Biblical. Greek.


(as per E. G. Turner) Greek biblical papyri

See “The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri”

1. Fasc i, General Introduction, ed. F. G. Kenyon, 1933.

2. Fasc ii, The Gospels and Acts, F. G. Kenyon, 1933.

3. Fasc iii, Pauline Epistles and the Revelation, F. G. Kenyon, 1934.

4. Fasc iv, Genesis, F. G. Kenyon, 1934. See Plates. See TORAH.

5. Fasc v, Numbers and Deuteronomy, F. G. Kenyon, 1935. See Plates 1958.

6. Fasc vi, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ecclesiasticus, F. G. Kenyon, 1937. See Plates 1958.

7. Fasc vii, Ezekiel, Daniel, Esther, F. G. Kenyon, 1937. See Plates 1938.

8. Fasc viii, Enoch and Melito, F. G. Kenyon, See Plates 1941.

9. Fasc viii, also see “The last chapters of Enoch in Greek” ed. Campbell Bonner, London, 1937.

(as per S. Katary, [B_100])

P. Chester Beatty V rt. 7, 12-8, 1.

Mentions assessment, “Chief Assessing Master”.


(as per L. Bailey) See C.B. I: [the contendings of Horus and Seth]

“Thereupon Neith, the mighty, the god’s mother, sent a letter to the Ennead, saying: Give the office of Osiris to his son Horus, and do not do those great acts of wickedness which are not in their place, else I shall be angry, and the heaven shall crash to the ground.”
I passed close to his house and discovered his door ajar.
My brother stood aside his mother and all his kin.
Love for him ensnares the heart of everyone who strolls along the road.
A precious boy! He has no peer. His character's beyond reproach.
My brother gazed at me as I walked by, but I exult alone.
How happily my heart rejoices, O my brother, since first I beheld you! If my mother knew my heart, she'd go inside his house for a little while.
O Golden One, put that thought in her head. Then I'd hasten to my brother and kiss him before his companions, nor would I be embarrassed before them all.
I'd rejoice to have them see that you are acquainted with me.
I'd keep festival to my goddess. My heart leaps to go forth and gaze upon my beloved brother tonight.
How lovely the passing by!



CHICAGO: University; (Greek) papyri

(Mr. Charles E. Jones, Research Associate, Bibliographer)

The Oriental Institute, Chicago

1155 E. 58th St.  Chicago IL  60637-1569


[B_103,rvw] CATNYP# *OAC (Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization no. 39).

Above text refers to:

King Wahkare Ahtoy;

Demotic magical P. of London and Leiden;


Naucratis stela;

P. Harkness;


Medinet Habu reliefs;

Cairo Ostracon;

Tomb of Queen Tiyi.


Is the Edwin Smith P. in Chicago?


(as per Y. Koenig) Seek P. Chicago I. 92, Magical?


See also: The Philinna Papyrus Incantation and the Scorpion Wives of Horus.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Chic. Goodspeed, “Papyri from Karanis in the Chicago Museum”, ed. F. J. Goodspeed, Chicago, 1902.

CHICAGO: (Greek) papyri; See CAIRO; [O_010, 8.5,NO IMG,BOBST]


CHINESE MATHEMATICS: I have only dabbled

2.1. Martzloff, Jean-Claude. “Chinese Mathematics”. In Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences. Vol. I. Edited by Ivor Grattan-Guinness. London: Routledge (1994), 93-103.

2.2. Li Yan, and Du Shiran. Chinese Mathematics, Concise History. Translated by John N. Crossley and Anthony W.-C. Lun. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.

2.3. Martzloff, Jean-Claude. Histoire des mathématiques chinoises. Paris: Masson, 1987. Revised as A History of Chinese Mathematics, translated by Stephen S. Wilson. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1997.

2.4. Mikami, Yoshio. The Development of Mathematics in China and Japan. Leipzig: Teubner, 1913. Reprinted New York: Chelsea, 1974. [pp. 1-155]

2.5. Needham, Joseph, and Wang Ling. Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth. Vol. 3 of Science and Civilisation in China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1959. [pp. 1-168]

2.6. Berezkina, El’vira Ivanovna. Matematika drevnego Kitaya. (Mathematics of ancient China, in Russian) Moscow: Nauka, 1980.

2.7. Cullen, Christopher. “An Eighth Century Chinese Table of Tangents”. Chinese Science 5 (1982), 1-33.

2.8. Chemla, Karine. “Qu’est-ce qu’un problème dans la tradition mathématique de la Chine ancienne? Quelques indices glanés dans les commentaires rédigés entre le 3ième et le 7ième siècles au classique Han Les neuf chapitres sur les procédures mathématiques”. In La valeur de l’exemple. Perspective chinoises.(Extrême-Orient, Extrême-Occident, 19.) Saint-Denis: Presses Universitaires de Vincennes, 1997, 91-126.

2.9. Chemla, Karine. “De la signification mathématique de marqueurs de couleurs dans le commentarie de Liu Hui”. In Linguistique en Asie Orientale. Mélanges en hommage à Alexis Rygaloff. Edited by Alain Peyraube, Irène Tamba, and Alain Lucas. (Cahiers de Linguistique-Asie Orientale, 23.) Pairs: Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Centre de recherches linguistiques sur l’Asie Orientale, 1994, 61-76.

2.10. Needham, Joseph. “Mathematics and Science in China and the West”. Science & Society 20 (1956), 320-343.

2.11. Siu Man-Keung. “Mathematics Education in Ancient China: What Lesson Do We Learn From It?” Historia Scientiarum 4 (1995), 223-232.

2.12. Smith, David Eugene. “Unsettled Questions Concerning the Mathematics of China”. The Scientific Monthly 33 (September, 1931), 244-250.

2.13. Swetz, Frank J. “The ’Piling Up of Squares’ in Ancient China”. Mathematics Teacher 70 (1977), 72-79.

2.14. Volkov, A. “Transformation of Objects in Ancient Chinese Mathematics And Their Evolution”. In Notions et perceptions du changement en Chine. Edited by V. Alleton and A. Volkov. Paris: Collège de France, 1994, 133-148.

2.15. Wu Wen-tsun (Wu Wenjun; Wu Wenchun). “The Out-In Complementary Principle”. In Ancient China’s Technology and Science. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1983, 66-89.

2.16. Yushkevich, Adol’f Pavlovich. “O dostizheniyakh kitaiiskikh uchenykh v oblasti matematiki”. (On the achievements of Chinese scholars in the field of mathematics, in Russian). Istoriko-matematicheskie issledovaniya (Studies in history of mathematics) 8 (1955), 539-572. Reprinted in I. V. Kuznetsov et al., eds., Iz istorii nauki i tekhniki Kitaya (On the History of Science and echnology in China). Moscow: Academy of Sciences, 1955, 130-159.

2.17. Ang Tian-Se, and F. J. Swetz. “A Chinese Mathematical Classic of the Third Century: The Sea Island Manual of Liu Hui”. Historia Mathematica 13 (1986), 99-117.

2.18. Chemla, Karine. “Relations between procedure and demonstration. Measuring the circle in the Nine Chapters on Mathematical Procedures and the commentary by Liu Hui (3rd century)”. In H. N. Jahnke, N. Knoche, and M. Otte, eds., History of Mathematics and Education: Ideas and Experiences. Goettingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1996, 69-112.

2.19. Cullen, Christopher. Astronomy and Mathematics in Ancient China: the Zhou Bi Suan Jing. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

2.20. Gillon, Brendan S. “Introduction, Translation, and Discussion of Chao Chun-Ch’ing’s ‘Notes to the Diagrams of Short Legs and Long Legs and of Squares and Circles’”. Historia Mathematica 4 (1977), 253-293.

2.21. Ho Peng-Yoke. “The Lost Problem of the Chang Ch’iu-chien Suan Ching, a Fifth-Century Chinese Mathematical Manual”. Oriens Extremus 12 (1965), 37-53.

2.22. Lam Lay Yong. “Yang Hui’s commentary on the ‘ying nu‘ chapter of the Chiu Chang Suan Shu. Historia Mathematica 1 (1974), 54-55.

2.23. Lam Lay Yong. “Jiu Zhang Suanshu (Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art): An Overview”. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 47 (1994), 1-51.

2.24. Lam Lay Yong. “Zhang Qiujian Suanjing (The Mathematical Classic of Zhang Qiujian): An Overview”. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 50 (1997), 201-240.

2.25. Lam Lay Yong, and Ang Tian-Se. Fleeting Footsteps. Tracing the Conception of Arithmetic and Algebra in Ancient China. Singapore: World Scientific, 1992.

2.26. Swetz, Frank J. The Sea Island Mathematical Manual: Surveying and Mathematics in Ancient China. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992.

2.27. Wagner, D. B. “Doubts Concerning the Attribution of Liu Hui’s Commentary on the Chiu-chang suan-shu”. Acta Orientalia 39 (1978), 199-212.

2.28. Chemla, Karine. “Nombres, opérations et équations en divers fonctionnements: Quelques méthodes de comparaison entre des procéd res élaborées dans trois mondes différents”. In Nombres, astres, plantes et viscères: Sept essais sur l’histoire des sciences et des techniques en Asie orientale. Edited by Isabelle Ang and Pierre-Etienne Will. Paris: Institut des Hautes Etudes Chinoises, 1994, 1-36.

2.29. Lam Lay Yong. “The Conceptual Origin of our Numeral System and the Symbolic Form of Algebra”. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 36 (1986), 183-195.

2.30. Lam Lay Yong. “A Chinese Genesis: Rewriting the History of Our Numeral System”. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 38 (1988), 101-108.

2.31. Mei Rongzhao. “The Decimal Place-Value Numeration and the Rod and Bead Arithmetics”. In Ancient China’s Technology and Science. Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 1983, 57-65.

2.32. Volkov, A. “Large Numbers and Counting Rods”. In Sous les nombres, le monde: Matériaux pour l’histoire culturel le du nombre en Chine ancienne. (Extrême-Orient, Extrême-Occident, 16.) Saint-Denis: Presses Universitaires de Vincennes, 1994, 71-92.

2.33. Chemla, Karine. “Les fractions comme modèle formel en Chine ancienne”. In Histoire de fractions, fractions d’histoire. Edited by P. Benoit, K. Chemla and J. Ritter. Basel: Birkhauser, 1992, 188-207.

2.34. Poor, Robert. “The Circle and the Square: Measure and Ritual in Ancient China”. Monumenta Serica 43 (1995), 159-210.

2.35. Volkov, A. “Supplementary Data on the Values of pi in the History of Chinese Mathematics”. Philosophy and the History of Science. Taiwanese Journal 3 (1994), 95-110.

2.36. Cammann, Schuyler. “The Evolution of Magic Squares in China”. Journal of the American Oriental Society 80 (1960), 116-124.

2.37. Cammann, Schuyler. “The Magic Square of Three in Old Chinese Philosophy and Religion”. History of Religions 1 (1961), 37-80.

2.38. Cammann, Schuyler. “Old Chinese Magic Squares”. Sinologica 7 (1962), 14-53.

2.39. Ang Tian-Se. “The Use of Interpolation Techniques in Chinese Calendar”. Oriens Extremus 23 (1976), 135-151.

2.40. Lam Lay Yong. “Linkages: Exploring the Similarities Between the Chinese Rod Numeral System and our Numeral System”. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 37 (1979), 365-392.

2.41. Lam Lay Yong. “The Development of Hindu-Arabic and Traditional Chinese Arithmetic”. Chinese Science 13 (1996), 35-54.

2.42. Chemla, Karine. “Theoretical Aspects of the Chinese Algorithmic Tradition (first to third century)”. Historia Scientiarum 42 (1991), 75-98.

2.43. Chemla, Karine. “Des nombres irrationnels en Chine entre le premier et le troisième siècle”. Revue d’Histoire des Sciences 45 (1992), 135-140.

2.44. Chemla, Karine. “Fractions and Irrationals: Between Algorithm And Proof In Ancient China”. Studies in History of Medicine and Science (New Series) 15 (1-2) (1997-98), 31-54.

2.45. Chemla, Karine. “Similarities between Chinese and Arabic Mathematical Documents (I): Root Extraction”. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 2 (4) (1994), 207-266.

2.46. Gauchet, L. “Note sur la généralisation de l’extraction de la racine carré chez les anciens auteurs chinois et quelques problèmes du Jiuzhang suanshu”. T’oung Pao 15 (1914), 531-550.

2.47. Lam Lay Yong. “The Geometrical Basis of the Ancient Chinese Square Root Method”. Isis 61 (1969), 96-102.

2.48. Wang Ling, and Joseph Needham. “Horner’s Method in Chinese Mathematics; its Origins in the Root-Extraction Proced res of the Han Dynasty”. T’oung Pao 43 (1955), 345-401.

2.49. Guo Shuchun. “The Numerical Solution of Higher Equations and the Tianyuan Method”. In Ancient China’s Technology and Science, Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1983, 111-123.

2.50. Lam Lay Yong. “The Chinese Connexion Between the Pascal Triangle and the Solution of Numerical Equations of any Degree”. Historia Mathematica 7 (1980), 407-424.

2.51. Lam Lay Yong. “Chinese Polynomial Equations in the Thirteenth Century”. In Explorations in The History of Science and Technology in China. Edited by Li Guohao, et al. Shanghai: Chinese Classics Publishing House, 1982, 231-272.

2.52. Lam Lay Yong and Ang Tian-Se. “The Earliest Negative Numbers: How They Emerged from a Solution of Simultaneous Linear Equations”. Archives internationales d’histoire des sciences 37 (1987), 222-262.

2.53. Lam Lay Yong and Shen Kangsheng. “Methods of Solving Linear Equations in Traditional China”. Historia Mathematica 16 (1989), 107-122.

2.54. Chemla, Karine. “Reflections on the World-Wide History of the Rule of False Double Position, or: How a Loop was Closed”. Centaurus 39 (1997), 97-120.

2.55. Lam Lay Yong and Shen Kangsheng. “Mathematical Problems on Surveying in Ancient China”. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 36 (1986), 1-20.

2.56. Lam Lay Yong and Shen Kangsheng. “Right-angled Triangles in Ancient China”. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 30 (1984), 87-112.

2.57. Swetz, Frank J., and T. I. Kao. Was Pythagoras Chinese? An Examination of Right Triangle Theory in Ancient China. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1977.

2.58. He Shaogeng. “Method for Determining Segment Areas and Evaluation of pi”. In Ancient China’s Technology and Science. Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 1983, 90-98.

2.59. Jami, Catherine. “Une histoire chinoise du nombre pi”. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 38 (1988), 39-50.

2.60. Liu Dun. “A Comparison of Archimedes’ and Liu Hui’s Studies of Circles”. In Chinese Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology. Edited by Fan Dainian and Robert S. Cohen. Dordrecht: Kl wer Academic Publishers, 1996, 279-289.

2.61. Smeur, A. J. E. M.. “On the Value Equivalent of pi in Ancient Mathematical Texts. A New Interpretation”. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 6 no. 4 (1970), 249-270.

2.62. Volkov, A. “Calculation of pi in Ancient China: from Liu Hui to Zu Chongzhi”. Historia Scientiarum 4 (1994), 139-157.

2.63. Volkov, A. “Zhao Youqin and his calculation of pi”. Historia Mathematica 24 (1997), 301-331.

2.64. Wang Ling. “A New Suggestion on Tzu Ch’ung-Chih’s [=Zu Chongzhi] Method of Finding the Value of pi and its Significance in the History of Mathematics”. Papers on Far Eastern History 16 (1977), 161-165.

2.65. Zha You-Liang. “Research on Tsu Ch’ung-Chih’s [=Zu Chongzhi] Approximate Method for pi”. In Science and Technology in Chinese Civilization. Edited by Chen Cheng-Yih. Singapore: World Scientific P blishing Co., 1987, 77-86.

2.66. Fu Daiwie. “Why Did Liu Hui Fail to Derive the Volume of a Sphere?” Historia Mathematica 18 (1991), 212-238.

2.67. Wagner, Donald B. “Liu Hui and Tsu Keng-chih [=Zu Gengzhi] on the Volume of a Sphere”. Chinese Science 3 (1978), 59-79.

2.68. Wagner, Donald B. “An Early Derivation of the Volume of a Pyramid: Liu Hui, Third Century AD”. Historia Mathematica 6 (1979), 164-188.

2.69. Lam Lay Yong and Shen Kangsheng. “The Chinese Concept of Cavalieri’s Principle and its Applications”. Historia Mathematica 12 (1985), 219-228.

2.70. Libbrecht, Ulrich. “Mathematical Manuscripts from the Tunhuang Caves”. In Explorations in The History of Science and Technology in China. Edited by Li Guohao, et al. Shanghai: Chinese Classics Publishing House, 1982, 203-229.

2.71. Chemla, Karine. “Méthodes infinitésimales en Chine et en Grèce anciennes: les limites d’un parallèle”. In Le labyrinthe du continu. Edited by H. Sinaceur and J. M. Salanskis. Berlin: Springer, 1992, 31-46.

2.72. Chen Cheng-Yih. “A Comparative Study of Early Chinese and Greek Work on the Concept of Limit”. In Science and Technology in Chinese Civilization. Edited by Chen Cheng-Yih. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co., 1987, 3-52.

2.73. Horng Wann-Sheng. “How Did Liu Hui Perceive the Concept of Infinity: A Revisit”. Historia Scientiarum 4 (1995), 207-222.

2.74. Chemla, Karine. “What is at Stake in Mathematical Proofs from Third Century China?” Science in Context 10 (2) (1997), 227-251.

2.75. Siu Man-Keung. “Proof and Pedagogy in Ancient China: Examples from Liu Hui’s Commentary on the Jiu Zhang Suan Shu”. Educational Studies in Mathematics 24 (1993), 345-357.

2.76. Brenier, Joël. “Notation et optimisation du calcul des grands nombres en Chine: Le cas de l’échiquier de go dans le Mengqi bitan de Shen Gua (1086)”. In Nombres, astres, plantes et viscères: Sept essais sur l’histoire des sciences et des techniques en Asie orientale. Edited by Isabelle Ang and Pierre-Etienne Will. Paris: Institut des Hautes Etudes Chinoises, 1994, 89-111.

2.77. Hoe, John [Jock]. Les systèmes d’équations polynomes dans le Siyuan Yujian (1303). Paris: Collège de France, Institut des Hautes Etudes Chinoises, 1977, 341 pp.

2.78. Lam Lay Yong. “The Jih Yung Suan Fa [ Riyong suan fa]: an Elementary Textbook of the Thirteenth Century”. Isis 63 (1972), 370-383.

2.79. Lam Lay Yong. Critical Study of the Yang Hui Suan Fa, a Thirteenth-Century Mathematical Treatise. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1977.

2.80. Lam Lay Yong. “Chu Shih-chieh’s Suan Hsueh Ch’i-meng [Introduction to Mathematical Studies]”. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 21 (1979), 1-31.

2.81. Lam Lay Yong and Ang Tian-Se. “Li Ye and his Yi Gu Yan Duan (= Yigu yanduan) [Old Mathematics in Expanded Sections]”. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 29 (1984), 237-266.

2.82. Libbrecht, Ulrich. Chinese Mathematics in the Thirteenth Century. The Shu-shu Chiu-chang of Ch’in Chiu-shao. Cambridge, MA: MI Press, 1973.

2.83. Chen Weiping. “On the ‘arriving at principles from numbers’ method of thought in the late-Ming, early-Qing period: A look at the nature of late-Ming, early-Qing thought from one angle”. Chinese Studies in Philosophy 22 (1990-91), 2-23.

2.84. Jami, Catherine. “Western Influence and Chinese Tradition in an Eighteenth-Century Chinese Mathematical Work”. Historia Mathematica 15 (1988), 311-331.

2.85. Jami, Catherine. “Rencontre entre arithmétiques chinoise et occidentale au XVIIe siècle”. In Histoire de fractions, fractions d’histoire. Edited by P. Benoit, K. Chemla, and J. Ritter. Basel: Birkhäuser, 1992, 351-373.

2.86. Jami, Catherine. “Learning the Mathematical Sciences in the Late Ming and Early Ch’ing”. In Education and Society in Late Imperial China. Edited by B. Elman and A. Woodside. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994, 223-256.

2.87. Jami, Catherine. “L’empereur Kangxi (1662-1722) et la diffusion des sciences occidentales en Chine”. In Nombres, astres, plantes et viscères. Sept essais sur l’histoire des sciences en Asie orientale. Edited by I. Ang, and P. E. Will. (Mémoires de l’Institut des Hautes Etudes Chinoises, 35.) Paris: Collège de France, 1994, 193-209.

2.88. Jami, Catherine. “The French Mission and Verbiest’s Scientific Legacy”. In Ferdinand Verbiest. Jesuit Missionary, Scientist, Engineer and Diplomat. Edited by John Witek S. J., Nettetal: Steyler Verlag, 1995, 531-542.

2.89. Qu Anjing. “On Hypotenuse Diagrams in Ancient China”. Centaurus 39 (1997), 193-210.


The above and more via this link:

CHINESE REMAINDER THEOREM: the string of pearls event

See Ore, Oystein [B_318,HOUSE]



CHOIX: (Greek) papyri

Pap.Choix: Choix de papyrus grecs: Essai de traitement automatique


Pap.Choix 5.: (Greek; AD 127; from THEADELPHIA)



CHREST.MITT.=[Greek] Grundzüge und Chrestomathie der Papyruskunde




CHREST. WILCK.=[Greek] Grundzüge und Chrestomathie der


See also DUKE.

CHRISTEN SABINUS: (Greek) papyri




BOBST# PA3343 .B5

“Der fluch des Christen Sabinus, papyrus upsaliensis 8.”

Uppsala, 1938.

Translations of Greek papyri with blessings and curses by:

Bjorck, Gudmund, 1905-?


CLAUDIANUS: (Greek and Latin) ostraca

O. Claud.: (Greek)




CLEPSYDRA: water clocks




CLERE: Author

(as per [B_039]; Hans-Werner Fischer-Elfert; Anastasi) see IV RdE 7, 1950, 77.


[B_068,rvw] CATNYP# *OBO 94-9337, "Melanges Jacques Jean Clere." France 1991. From this series:

“Cahiers de recherches de l’Institut de papyrologie et d’Egyptologie de Lille, 0153-5021 ; no 13.”




WATSONLINE search of CLERE yields P. Nesmin. See NESMIN.



CLOCKS: keep on ticking - even though time is non linear





CATNYP# JSF 87-635

“Heavenly Clockwork : the great astronomical clocks of medieval China.”

By Joseph Needham, Wang Ling, and Derek J. de Solla Price with supplement by John H. Combridge. Second edition.

Cambridge, 1986.

Note Derek Price = Derek John de Solla Price [1922-1983]

A healthy distraction.



CODEX: all unresolved or off my path


medieval manuscripts and codices referenced here


Guidebook, §2(i): Byzantine empire and Western world, before c 1700

Codex Clementino see Vienna Codex

Codex Coner (London, Soane Mus.)

Bramante, Donato, §I, 3(ii)(a): Rome, 1500–14

Bramante, Donato, §II: Critical reception and posthumous reputation

Theatre, §III, 2(i)(a): Italy: Renaissance architecture

Codex Dioskurides (Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., Cod. med. gr. 1)

Anicia Juliana


Or, dig through here for more clues.

Codex Dorenberg see Codex Colombino

Codex Egberti (Trier, Stadtsbib., MS. 24)


Germany, §III, 1(ii): Painting, before c 1400: Ottonian and Romanesque

Manuscript, §II, 1(i): Production and trade: Early medieval

Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists, §I: Master of the Registrum Gregorii

Ottonian art, §IV, 2(ii)(a): Manuscript painting, before c 1025

Reichenau, §2(ii): Oberzell: Painting

Trier, §2: Centre of manuscript production

Codex Franz Josefino see Codex Becker 1

Codex Geymüller (Florence, Uffizi, MSS 7792-7907 A

Sangallo, da: (2) Antonio da Sangallo (i)

Codex Gigas (Uppsala, Ubib.)

Habsburg, §I: (10) Rudolf II, §3: Collections

Codex Hammer

Coke: (1) Thomas Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester

Grand Tour, §III: The `Classic ground’, c 1700–62

Hammer, Armand

Codex Hieroglyphicorum Indiae Meridionales see Vienna Codex

Codex Huygens (New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib., MS. M. A. 1139)

Human proportion, §3: Architecture and cosmology

Varnav, Scarlat

Urbino, Carlo

Codex Ixtlilxochitl (Paris, Bib. N.)

Mesoamerica, Pre-Columbian, §IX, 10: Textiles and dress

Codex Kreichgauer see Vienna Codex

Codex Leicester (Holkam Hall, Norfolk Lib.)

David, Ludovico

Codex Leopoldino see Vienna Codex

Codex Magliabechiano (Florence, Bib. N. Cent., MS. Magl. XVII, 17)

Billi, Antonio

Filarete, §3: The Trattato di architettura

Francesco di Giorgio Martini, §1(ii): Architectural theory and writings

Magliabechiano, Anonimo

Codex Maimuni (Budapest, Lib. Hung. Acad. Sci., MS. A77/I-IV)

Maimonides manuscripts

Codex Mayer see Codex Fejéváry-Mayer

Codex Mendoza (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. 3134, Arch. Selden A.1)

Fan, §VII: Pre-Columbian Americas

Flags and standards, §2: Vexilloid standards

Mesoamerica, Pre-Columbian, §I, 5: Craftspeople, artists and their patrons

Mesoamerica, Pre-Columbian, §IX, 4(ii): Masks: Chronological and regional development

Mesoamerica, Pre-Columbian, §IX, 6: Mosaic

Palace, §IX, 1: Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica

Codex Nuttall (London, BM, MS. 19023-8.1)

Mixtec, §2: Artistic traditions

Codex of S Marta (Naples, Stato, MS. 99. C.I.)

Felice, Matteo

Codex of Vlorë (Tiranë, State Archvs)

Albania, §III: Painting and graphic arts

Codex Palatinus Graecus (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, Cod. P. Gr. 367)

Cyprus, §IV, 2: Lusignan and Venetian: Other arts

Codex Peresianus see Paris Codex

Codex Pérez see Paris Codex

Codex Pesth see Codex Fejérváry-Mayer

Codex Petrei (Florence, Bib. N. Cent., MS. Magl. XIII, 89)

Fabriczy, Cornelius von

Codex Pighianus (untraced)

Antiquaries and antiquarian societies, §1: 16th century and before

Codex Resta (Milan, Bib. Ambrosiana)

Cellini, Benvenuto, §I, 5: Last years in Florence, 1553–71

Codex Ríos (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. 3738)

Mesoamerica, Pre-Columbian, §I, 4(i): Religion and iconography: Cosmogonies

Codex Saussure see Codex Becker 1

Codex Sinopensis see GOSPEL BOOKS -> individual manuscripts -> Sinope Gospels

Codex Trivulziano (Milan, Castello Sforzesco)

Leonardo da Vinci, §I, 2: First Milanese period, c 1482–99

Codex Troana-Cortesianus see Madrid Codex

Codex Tro-Cortesianus see Madrid Codex

Codex Tzapotèque see Codex Becker 1

Codex Usserianus Primus (Dublin, Trinity Coll. Lib., MS. 55)

Insular art, §3: Manuscript illumination

Ireland, §III, 1: Painting and graphic arts, before 1600

Codex Vallardi (Paris, Louvre)

Pisanello, §1(ii): Later career, 1432–55

Codex Vaticanus 3773 see Codex Vaticanus B

Codex Vaticanus A see Codex Ríos

Codex Vienna see Vienna Codex

Codex Vindobonensis see Vienna Codex

Codex Zouche see Codex Nuttall

Códice Bodleiano see Codex Bodley

Códice Borgiano see Codex Borgia

Códice Cospiano see Codex Cospi

Códice de Bolonia see Codex Cospi

Códice del culto a Tonatiuh see Aubin Manuscript 20

Códice de Teozoneas see Aubin Manuscript 20

Códice di Bologna see Codex Cospi

Códice Fábrega see Codex Vaticanus B

Còdice Vaticano Rituale see Codex Vaticanus B

Dresden Codex (Dresden, Sächs. Landesbib., MS. R.310)

Erotic art, §I, 1: Ancient cultures

Egbert Codex see Codex Egberti

Fonds Mexicains 20 see Aubin Manuscript 20

Fulda Codex (Hannover, Niedersächs. Landesbib., Res. I. 189)

Ottonian art, §IV, 2(i): Manuscript painting: Introduction

Glazier Codex (New York, Pierpoint Morgan Lib., MS. G.67)

Coptic art, §IV, 3: Manuscript painting

Hidta Codex (Darmstadt, Hess. Landes- & Hochschbib., Cod. 1640)

Cologne, §II, 2: Art life and organization, AD 457–1200

Hippiatrika Codex (Berlin, Staatsbib. Preuss. Kultbes. Cod. Phillipps 1538)

Byzantine blossom

Jordánsky Codex (untraced)

Hungary, §IV, 2: Painting and graphic arts, c 1500–c 1800

Justinian Codex (Turin, Bib. N. U., MS. E.1.8)

Border, manuscript

Le Culte rendu au soleil see Aubin Manuscript 2

Liber Hieroglyphoricum Aegyptorum see Codex Laud

Libro della China see Codex Cospi

Liuthar Codex (Aachen, Domschatzkam.)

Saxony: (2) Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Germany

Lorsch Codex Aureus (Alba Iulia, Batthyaneum Lib; Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. Pal. lat. 50)

Carolingian art, §IV, 3(ii): Manuscript painting, before c AD 850

Manasse Codex (Heidelberg, Ubib., MS. Pal. germ. 848)

Germany, §III, 1(iii): Painting, before c 1400: Early Gothic

Gothic, §IV, 5(viii): Painting: Holy Roman Empire, c 1300–c 1400

Switzerland, §III, 1(ii): Stained glass and manuscript illumination: Gothic period, before c 1500

Zurich, §2(i): Art life and organization, before c 1700

Manuscrit de Veletri see Codex Borgia

Manuscrit du cacique see Codex Becker 1

Mexicanus I see Vienna Codex

St George Codex (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, Archv Capitolare S Pietro, MS. C. 129)

Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists, §I: Master of the Codex of St George


Virgil Codex (Florence, Bib. Riccardiana, MS. 492)

Apollonio di Giovanni

Vysehrad Codex (Prague, Libs Facs & Inst Charles U., MS. XIV. A.13)

Czech Republic, §IV, 1: Painting and graphic arts, before 1620

Czech Republic, §XI: Patronage


Weissenau Codex (Schloss Zeil)


Wolfegg Codex (Schloss Wolfegg, Fürstl. Samml.)

The Wolfegg Medieval Housebook presently comprises nine gatherings, each with four vellum sheets folded in two, making eight folia (recto and verso) or sixteen pages each, totaling sixty-three folia or 126 pages. The gatherings are attached by an arrangement of leather strips, tied and sewn, to a soft leather wrapper dating from the seventeenth century. The want of a proper binding suggests that the manuscript was not intended for a larger library, but served as a reference that could have been added to and updated. The treatise in the first gathering is in Latin; the rest of the texts are, for the most part, in a German -- sprinkled with Hebrew, Latin, and Italian -- that suggests an origin in that country's southern region.



(as per E.A. Budge) Seek the coffins of:

AMAMU [OK]; ANTEF; Apa-Ankh (from Saqarra);


Menthu-hetep (at Berlin, Staatliche);

(a Queen of the XI Dynasty)



See also sarcophagus of Taka (XI or XII Dynasty).





(as per EEF; D. Shelby)

Coffin Texts (p. 12, Faulkner) Spell #12 says:

"the gods .. who remove the pestilence of the streams so that you may drink water from them."


Utterance 518 (Faulkner p. 191, Line 1200-1201)

"May they let me eat of the fields and drink from the pools within

the Field of Offerings".


See H. Willems’:

“The Coffin of Heqata (Cairo JdE 36418)”

(as per G. Warnemuende; EEF)

There is an Access database in German language produced by Peter

Juergens. For download use the following URL:


COINS: magnificent metrologies



COL.: (Greek) papyri



(as per E. G. Turner)

1. P. Col. 123 = APOKRIMATA

2. P. Col. Inv. 480 = P. Col. i in: Upon Slavery in Ptolemaic Egypt. By W. L. Westermann, NY, 1929.

3. P. Col. ii = Tax lists and transportation Receipts from Theadelphia, ed. By W. L. Westermann and C. W. Keyes, NY, 1932.

4. P. Col. Zen. = Zenon Papyri: Business Papers of the Third Century BC[E] Dealing with Palestine and Egypt, i, ed. W. L. Westermann and E. S. Hasenoehrl, NY, 1934, ii ed. W. L. Westermann, C. W. Keyes, and H. Liebesny, NY, 1940. These volumes are counted as P. Col. iii, and iv.

5. P. Col. v = Tax Documents from Theadelphia, ed. J. Day and C. W. Keyes, NY, 1956. (math?)

Clinton Walker Keyes [editor] 1888-1943.




P. Koln

P. Ammon

P. Bub.

P. Bub. II 5

P. Colon. Theol 1

P. Petaus

P. Soterichos

P. Koln Agypt

P. Wash. Univ. II


COL. TEETER: (Greek; Christian) papyri

P.Col.Teeter: Ten Christian Papyri in the Columbia Collection


P.Col.Teeter 5. List Relating to Axles:

(Late Greek; from Oxyrhynchus?)



COLIN CAMPBELL: (Author); AE ostraca; math

Colin Campbell 1848-1931.


[B_007,8.5s] (CATNYP# *OBN 94-4274) "Hieratic ostraca in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow", A.G.McDowell, 1993.

Little or no math except small accounts/receipts.


(as per Leiden Univ.)

See Ostraca 5, “the only document which seems to mention a price for water.”


[B_150,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKG

(Campbell, C. Miraculous birth of king Amon-Hotep III),

“The Miraculous birth of king Amon-Hotep III, And Other Egyptian Studies/ by Colin Campbell”, 1912.


[B_151,rvw] CATNYP# *OBQ (Campbell, C. Two Theban Princes),

“Two Theban Princes, Kha-em-Uast & Amen-Khepeshf, Sons of Rameses III., Menna, A Land-Steward, And..”. By Colin Campbell. 1910

With Photographs and drawings by C. Campbell.


[B_152,rvw] CATNYP# *OBL (Campbell, C. Two Theban Queens),

“Two Theban Queens, Nefert-Ari and Ty-Yi, And Their Tombs.” 1909.



COLL. YOUTIE: (primarily Greek) papyrus collection

P.Coll.Youtie: Collectanea Papyrologica: Texts Published in Honor of H.C. Youtie


P.Coll.Youtie 1.7. Letter from Amadokos to Kléon: (Greek; 224 bce)



CATNYP# *OBKQ (Aurelius Isidorus, 4th cent. Archive of Aurelius Isidorus in the Egyptian Museum)

BOBST# PA3316 .B6

“The Archive of Aurelius Isidorus in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, and the University of Michigan (P. Cair. Isidor.) Edited by Arthur E. R. Boak [and] Herbert Chaim Youtie.”

Michigan, [1960].

Translations of Greek papyri from Karanis=Kom Aushim, see plates.


COLOGNE: (Greek and Latin) papyri




COLONIENSIA: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) AKA P. Col. See Papyrologica Coloniensia.

See Part i, “Der Psalmenkommentar von Tura”, Quaternio IX,

ed. Aloys Kehl, Cologne 1965.



See the Ketouba [kettubah=marriage contract] de Cologne in:

Pap. Col. XII, 1986.





CATNYP# *OBKQ (Arbeitagameinschaft fur Forschung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen. Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen. Sonderreihe: Papyrologica coloniensa. V. 1)

“Der Psalmenkommentar von Tura, Quaternio IX (Pap. Colon. Theol. 1), herausgegeben, ubers. Und erlautert von Aloys Kehl.”

Koln, 1964.

BOBCAT# PJ1014 .P3 v.1

Commentaries on the Old Testament Psalms by DIDYMUS the Blind.

See plates.


COLT: (Author); (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) AKA P. NESSANA.

P. Colt = Excavations at Nessana.

1. Vol. 1, Introductory Volume (pp. 259-62 contain summary by P. Mayerson of Colt papyri relating to agriculture), ed. H. D. Colt. London, 1962.

2. Vol 2, Literary Papyri, ed. L. Casson and E. L. Hettich. Priceton, 1950.

3. Vol. 3, Non-Literary Papyri, ed. C. J. Kraemer, jr. Princeton, 1958.



COLUMBIA: University; collections; (Greek) papyri

See also COL.

P.Col.: Columbia Papyri


P.Col. 1.Inv480.: (Greek; 198 bce; from Arsinoite)

Some drachmas. Accounts.


See also RYLANDS; [B_093]

See THEADELPHIA [B_468=O_038,rvw]


[O_061,rvw] NO CATNYP

BOBST# PA 3305 .C64 1979

Columbia Papyri VII : fourth century [CE] documents from Karanis / transcribed by Roger S. Bagnall and Naphtali Lewis ; edited with translation and commentary by Roger S. Bagnall.”

Missoula, Mont., 1979.

Greek papyri. See illustrations.

From the series: “American Studies in papyrology.”


[B_487,rvw] CATNYP# JFE 00-15142


Columbia papyri IX : the Vestis militaris codex / edited with commentary by Jennifer A. Sheridan..”

Atlanta, Georgia, 1998.

Create new kywd

=From the series: ASP Volume 39.

On Roman Military accoutrements



COMPUTER: useful bits

[SALES] (as per T. Briell; 121902; SUNY)

[File Extension Clarity] (as per D. Friedman 022803)

for computer parts shopping and compatability concerns

shop for computer related goods

shop for the special portable suitcase-desk.


“and now to suit – our great computer – your magnetic ink.”

Moody Blues; on the threshold of a dream


As of 092402: I got a new dinosaur!

1 gig p3 w/512 meg sd100 ram

20+6 gigs of hard drives and a 48 12 40 cdrw with my old 40xplayer!

A shiny new HP 3570c scanner with hood mounted negative scanner.

New sound/video/netwk cards and a modem.


As of 072504: As above with DVD sony and DVD plextor burner
Roxio 6.0 rocks! Very fast.


081204: See Wnaspi.dll:
for domain mgmt.




(as per PLATO; [B_399])

See P. 441 of REPUBLIC IV:

“…I mean, for example, that the science of house-building is a kind of knowledge which is defined and distinguished from other kinds…”


[B_230,8.5,IMG] CATNYP# *OBL (Clarke, S. Ancient Egyptian masonry)

“Ancient Egyptian masonry; the building craft, by the late Somers Clarke and R. Engelbach.”

London, 1930.

Engelbach, Richard, 1888-1946, joint Author.

See also [B_230b,8.5,IMG]

“Ancient Egyptian Construction and Architecture.”

Points to the AKHMIM wood tablets on page 216!

I have copied much of this, anything about CUBITS.

Includes images and analysis of the TURIN/RAMSES IV papyrus and the nature of OBELISK work at the quarries; gutters; lighting schemes; SAQQARA saddle back flake; masonry general and specific.

Extensive analysis of all those damned oblique joints!

Use of boning rods.

Note that p. 216 footnotes led to the AKHMIM wood tablets images.

See images of chisels; mallets; boning rods; squares; plumbs; brick moulds; palettes; pounding balls in dolerite; polishing stones; wedges and rollers.


[B_230b,8.5,IMG] from L. Bailey

Clark, Somers and R. Englebach. “Egyptian Mathematics.”

In: Ancient Egyptian Construction and Architecture.

NY, Dover, 1990. NO CATNYP.


(as per G. Finkielsztejn and M. Gow at the Wilbour, see below)


“Measuring and Weighing in Ancient Times.”

Published: Haifa, Israel, 2001 by the Reuben and Edith Hecht Museum.

See evidence that roofing tiles were standardized on the mold from the Athenian Agora.


See Vitruvius (~50 BCE) Roman Architect.

Chorobates and Dioptra in De Architectura VIII, 5, 1.

Dioptra similar to modern theodolite.


See Plumb (bobs) called ANAKH

AKA ANAKU from the Akkadian for the metal (tin or lead?)

See Bible: Mishkolet=weight=plumb?

II Kings 21: 13; Isaiah 28: 17.

See Bible: measuring rod=qene midah=kan?

See Roman regula=rod

See Bible: measuring line=qaw

See Wadi al-‘Arrub.

See Mishnah: Metetulet=weight=plumb?

Mishnah Kelim 12, 8.

Levels mentioned in Isaiah and Proverbs: Peles.

See also: sha’al; zeret; shalish.

Square: see Ezekiel 40: 47.


Square=ravu’a?=Roman norma?

See the outline of the city [northern Syria] of Sendjirli.

Enclosed by a polygon wall of 99 sides

Encompassing 400 dunams?

See Greek compass=Circinus=Pargal=Targol


(as per EEF; D. Hall and E. Moyer)

D. Hall wrote:

> a scene of men sawing through a rock block in Ancient Egypt was published.  It was also published that harder stones were set in a saw blade to cut the limestone although I have not seen pictures and am not sure of the setting of stone points in bronze saws.  <snip>

> The cutting and shaping of granite was more difficult yet possible.  Granite will chip when hit with a hammer of stone and thus obelisks were chipped out of solid rock.  A diamond is very hard and cannot be cut easily but will split when hit with a sharp blow.  The use of abrasives to drill through or to smoothen stone was also known in ancient Egypt.


The following references are to Old Kingdom evidence:


Petrie in "The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh"             [B_130,rvw] made remarks concerning sawing and drilling of both granite and limestone.  A summary of his statements may be found at:


Photographic examples of saw cuts may be found at:


Petrie and many other observers since have noted tube drilling of granite.

Examples may be found at:



Please note that I [D. Hall] do not subscribe to Dunn's theories, I merely cite this page because it includes informative photographs. The examples of tube drilling at Aswan show that the AE were able to quarry the hardest rocks with methods other than stone pounders.


Petrie also presented evidence to show that certain artifacts could have

been cut only on rotating lathes.  As he said:

"...the lathe appears to have been as familiar an instrument in the fourth

dynasty, as it is in the modern workshops."

Examples of lathe work may be found at:


Other facts exist to show that the structures and artifacts of the Old

Kingdom involved the use of techniques other than simple stone and

copper tools.  (I [D. Hall] am not yet prepared to handle the suggestion of

abrasive-tipped saws and drills. Petrie expressed reservations about

the suggestion, although it was the only idea he could devise.)


(as per EEF; D. Hall and E. Moyer and G. Johnson)

[G. Johnson]

> Sawing stone.

> While working with the Polish Egyptian Mission at Deir el Bahari

> I photographed the Egyptian workmen, who were restoring the temple

> pavement, cutting limestone blocks with regular steel carpenter's saws.

> There is little doubt that limestone was as easily cut, in ancient Egypt, by copper saws with quartz sand used as the cutting abrasive, as with steel saws.


[E. Moyer]

Refer to my post to D. Hall (above).

One of the difficulties is the rate at which the ancient monuments were



I. E. S. Edwards in “The Pyramids of Egypt”, Maragioglio and Rinaldi in

“L'Architetture delle Piramidi Menfite”, and Mark Lehner in “The Complete

Pyramids” all provided lists if structures that permit us to calculate volumes.

Lehner was kind enough to calculate the individual pyramid volumes in his list, pg 17. These lists do not include the tiny satellite pyramids, nor the insignificant pyramids of Meroe.


Six IVth dynasty structures contain 75% of all Egyptian pyramid volume. 

The two great pyramids at Daschur and the two at Giza contain 2/3 of all

pyramid volume.


Petrie (1883) provided detailed measurements of the Khufu stone courses. 

If we assume [albeit incorrectly] the courses were held constant thickness through each layer we can estimate the total number of stones.  I further assumed that the stones were oblongs with ratios of 1:1:2, not cubes, an assumption that appears valid from available photographs.  The number of stones in Khufu then is approximately 4 million, not the 2.3 million usually assumed.  Using similar criteria for the other IVth dynasty structures the estimated total number of stones quarried and dressed is about 15 million over a span of 80 years from Sneferu through Khafre.

This is a stupendous number of stones.  The stone rate per hour [of daylight] for eighty  years is about 40.

Whatever method we assume for the ancient Egyptians we must accommodate such volumes.


(as per EEF; KYODO NEWS)


Unrelated to my historical research, but fascinating, see this pamphlet:

[B_HOUSE;NO CATNYP;filed with B_303;no reason]

“Agreement and working rules between New York Electrical Contractors Association, Inc. and Local Union No. 3 International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, AFL-CIO.”

June 11, 1998.


[B_HOUSE;NO CATNYP;filed with B_303;no reason]

“Copy of drawing A-1 from Sphera P.O.P, dated 2/28/01”



“Legal Guide to AIA Documents” by Werner Sabo, 4th Edition.

Sabo & Zahn, Chicago Illinois, pub. Aspen Law & Business a division of Aspen Publishers, Inc., 1998.




“Legal Problem Solving analysis, research and writing”

by Marjorie D. Rombauer, American Casebook Series.

West Publishing Co., 1983, 4th Edition.



“Mechanic’s Liens” by Levin/Marcus.

“Reprinted from Publication 800, Warren’s Weed on the New York Law of Real Property, Volume 3, release 73, copyright 1994 by Matthew Bender & Company, Inc., 11 Penn Plaza, New York, New York 10001.”



“Repair & Renovation of Modern Buildings” by Ian Chandler, McGrawHill, 1992.



“Legalines Contracts – Adaptable to [courses utilizing materials by] Murphy.”

Pub. Harcourt Brace Javonovich, 1980.



“Get Everyone in Your Boat Rowing in the Same Direction

/ 5 Leadership Principles to Follow So Others Will Follow You.”

By Bob Boylan 1995; pub.: Adams Marketing Corp.

Short and sweet.




Pub. By the Illuminating Engineering Society, 51 Madison Avenue, New York, NY, 1947.

I have the first edition in HOUSE.



(MSJ sugg,*LP xmas 2001)

CATNYP# *OBL 90-1648

“Ancient Egyptian materials and industries by A. [Alfred] Lucas.”

London, HISTORIES & Mysteries of Man, reprint of 1962, 1989, 1999.

Alfred Lucas 1867-1945


[B_369,HOUSE;SIBL] CATNYP# JSE 77-1067

“Standard Handbook for Civil Engineers / Frederick S. Merritt. 2d ed.”

NY, McGraw-Hill, c. 1976.


[B_370,alt HOUSE;SIBL] CATNYP# JSE 98-1087

“ISO 9000 quality systems development : a systems engineering approach / David Hoyle.”

Oxford, 1998.”

See TL 9000 in HOUSE!


Evidence of AE construction prior to Saqqara’s Steppe Pyramid.


[B_376,alt HOUSE] CATNYP# D-17 6110

“New York State sales and use tax law, with explanation; effective August 1, 1965.”

Chicago, 1965.

See Publication 862 (April 2001) supplement, in HOUSE!



[B_397,IGNR,no copy]

CATNYP# *OBM+ (British School of Archaeology in Egypt and Egyptian Research Account. [Publications] [no. 63])

“Wisdom of the Egyptians. With 128 figures. By Flinders Petrie, kt, …” London, 1940.


P.Berl.Zill.: Vierzehn Berliner griechische Papyri

P.Berl.Zill. 1. Fort construction in Hêrakleopolis:

(Greek; 156 bce; from Herakleopolis)


(as per EEF; Martina Ullmann; 010702) See:

R. und D. Klemm, Die Steine der Pharaonen, Ausstellungskatalog,

Staatliche Sammlung Ägyptischer Kunst München 1981, S. 12-21

R. und D. Klemm, Steine und Steinbrüche im Alten Ägypten,

Berlin 1993, S. 53-59


(as per EEF; F. Yurco)

In the Cairo Museum there is an Old Kingdom sarcophagus that was not

finished. On the backside which would be the bottom, a thick layer was

left, which the quarryers began to saw, and stopped before finishing

because evidently part of the lid broke off. There is very clear evidence

of sawing the granite visible on this piece. What was used to temper the

saw I have no idea, unless it was sand, that derives from deteriorated

quartz. That would be harder than granite, though granite contains quartz

to some extent. So obviously in the Old Kingdom, the Egyptians were

capable of sawing granite, however they did it.


(as per EEF; J. Legon)

Re: diabase/dolerite/basalt debate;

The following quotes from Archae Solenhofen's website (above)

Diabase is a fine-grained intrusive igneous rock of a composition

similar to basalt, but is slightly more coarse-grained than basalt...”

“The term diabase is the North American word for dolerite, which is

commonly used in Europe to describe the same rock type (in Europe

the term diabase sometimes refers to a weakly metamorphosed dolerite).

The diabase deposits of Egypt can also be called coarse-grained basalts

because of their fine grain size.”


See UHN: P. 518 CONSTRUCTION/MECHANICS: Arab author Isma’il ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazzari, 1206 work on mechanics included water clocks camshafts crankshafts and automata..


See the link below for some interesting notes on [Ptolemaic] Egyptian furniture.

"Possible" turning [lathe work] is noted.


(as per G. Reeder; EEF; 051403)

[See:] Temples of the Last Pharaohs. Dieter Arnold, Oxford, 1999.


(as per A. Eyma; EEF; 051403)

For those interested in the topic of experimental research on

ancient Egyptian techniques at large:

below the bibliography of Denys Stocks who has been researching,

manufacturing, testing, evaluating and publishing for over 25 years.


Personal bibliography of Denys Allen Stocks:

Stocks, D.A. 1982. The working of wood and stone in ancient Egypt: the

experimental manufacture and use of copper, bronze and stone tools.

Certificate in Egyptology dissertation, Department of Extra-Mural

Studies, University of Manchester.

  1986a. Sticks and stones of Egyptian technology, Popular Archaeology

7(3): 24-29.

  1986b. Stone vessel manufacture, Popular Archaeology 7 (4): 14-18.

  1986c. Bead production in ancient Egypt, Popular Archaeology 7 (5):


  1986d. Tools of the ancient craftsman, Popular Archaeology 7 (6):


  1987. Experimental stone block fitting techniques: proposed use of a

replica ancient Egyptian tool, The Manchester Archaeological Bulletin


  1988a. A perforated circular stone artefact from the site at Arthill,

Cheshire, The Manchester Archaeological Bulletin 3: 14-20.

  1988b. Industrial technology at Kahun and Gurob: experimental

manufacture and test of replica and reconstructed tools with indicated uses and

effects upon artefact production.        

MPhil. thesis (number 13543), Faculty of Arts, University of Manchester.

  1989a. Ancient factory mass-production techniques: indications of

large-scale stone bead manufacture during the Egyptian New Kingdom

Period, Antiquity 63: 526-531.

  1989b. Indications of ancient Egyptian industrial interdependence:

preliminary statement, The Manchester Archaeological Bulletin 4: 21-26.

  1993a. Making stone vessels in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt,

Antiquity 67: 596-603.

  1993b. Technology and the reed, The Manchester Archaeological

Bulletin 8:58-68.

  1997. Derivation of ancient Egyptian faience core and glaze

materials, Antiquity 71: 179-182.

  1999a. Stone vessels and bead making, in K.A. Bard (ed.),

Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt: 749-751. London: Routledge.

  1999b. Stone sarcophagus manufacture in ancient Egypt, Antiquity 73:


  2000. Ancient Egyptian granite-working methods: new research, in

Manchester Ancient Egypt Society Newsletter December 2000.

  2001a. Leather, in D.B. Redford (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of

Ancient Egypt: II, 282-284. New York (NY): Oxford University Press.

  2001b. Stoneworking, in D.B. Redford (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia

of Ancient Egypt: III, 324-327. New York (NY): Oxford University Press.

  2001c. Tools, in D.B. Redford (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of

Ancient Egypt: III, 442-445. New York (NY): Oxford University Press.

  2001d. Testing ancient Egyptian granite-working methods in Aswan,

Upper Egypt, Antiquity 75: 89-94.

  2001e. Two unusual stone vessels in the Cairo Museum. Internet Web

Site 19th May 2001.

  2001f. Roman stoneworking methods in the eastern desert of Egypt, in

N. J. Higham (ed.), Archaeology of the Roman Empire: A Tribute to the Life

and Works of Professor Barri Jones: 283-286. Oxford: Archaeopress. BAR

International Series 940.

  2002. Technical and material interrelationships: implications for

social change in ancient Egypt, in Willeke Wendrich and Gerrit van der Kooij

(eds.), Moving Matters: Ethnoarchaeology in the Near East. Proceedings

of the International Seminar held at Cairo, 7-10 December 1998: 107-116.

Leiden: Research School of Asian, African, and Amerindian Studies

(CNWS), Universiteit Leiden, The Netherlands.

  2002 Exhibition and demonstrations of ancient Egyptian craftworking

and technology in the Pharaonic Village, Cairo, in Manchester Ancient Egypt

Society Newsletter Spring 2002.

  2002 Ancient Egyptian Craftworking and Technology Exhibition and

Demonstrations in the Pharaonic Village, Cairo. Internet Web Site Spring 2002.

  2003 Immutable laws of friction: preparing and fitting stone blocks

into the Great Pyramid of Giza, Antiquity (Forthcoming).

  2003 Experiments in Egyptian Archaeology: Stoneworking Technology in

Ancient Egypt (Forthcoming).

  2003 Altering a landscape with a vengeance: possible cultural change

consequent upon constructing the Fourth Dynasty Giza pyramids, in S.

Campbell (ed.), Making Places in the Landscape. Oxford: Oxbow Books



[images of AE sawcuts on stone]

(as per EEF; 070203; A. Eyma)
Dear EEF members,
> So they would like to have a list of AE architectural terms
> (that match Greek terms like pylon, hypostyle hall, temple, etc.)
> and their exact meaning.
Thanks to all who responded!
For those interested in the matter, here the results:
For AE terminology, notably this lexicographical study was
recommended by subscribers:
SPENCER, Patricia, The Egyptian Temple. A Lexicographical Study,
London, Kegan Paul International, 1984
ISBN 0-7103-0065-4
as well as the lexicographical lists in vols. 2 (pp. 258-269) and 3
(pp. 524-530) of:
BADAWY, Alexander, A History of Egyptian Architecture. Vol. I - III
several publishers, 1954 -1968
And for AE architecture in general:
ARNOLD, Dieter. The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egyptian Architecture.
Princeton University Press, 2003/I.B. Tauris 2002/3
CURL, James Stevens. (Oxford) Dictionary of Architecture. Oxford,

J. Peter Phillips. The Columns of Egypt. Peartree Publishing 2002
On a somewhat related note - what is the evidence of "ritual sand"
in AE sanctuaries? Is this purely based on archaeological deduction
(i.e. finding sandy floors in excavated temples) or is there also
textual evidence for it? And what could be the thought behind it?
kind regards,
Aayko Eyma

(as per EEF; 070803; A. Oppenheim)
See text by Salah el-Naggar,
Les voûtes dans l'architecture de l'Égypte ancienne, published by
the Institut francais d'archéologie orientale. [IFAO]


(as per S. Whittet; EEF; 081903)


"The History of Plumbing - Egypt":

Reports of Egyptian hydraulic achievements go back to the palette

of the Scorpion King and as you note including changing the course of

rivers; dikes, irrigation ditches, and impounds used to store water and

release it at a later date. <snip>

The noria [water wheel] and the shadduf [lever with bucket]

were used to raise water and the aqueduct to move it.

Copper pipes were formed by hammering sheet copper around a dowel

and soldering the joint. Basins were equipped with metal fittings, clay

tiles were used as sewer pipes.

See also STONE

(as per EEF; 082303)
(predynastic) lathe work:
photo of this object on the following site:
with the comments:

(as per EEF; 082503) Stone technology:


(as per EEF; 082903) Stone technology:
* NYTimes reports that Egyptian archaeologists have begun
cleaning and studying a major quarry at Assuan that yielded black
granite. Drawings of animals, and inscriptions with dates and
measurements of work orders, have been found, among which
an inscription from the 25th year of Tuthmosis III concerning
two obelisks for the temple at Karnak. The remains of seven
obelisks have been found in situ, and thousands of balls of
Nubian dolerite used "to pound slabs free from the
bedrock and put some finishing touches on the works."
[Site needs registration. The above summary covers most of it,
but if you want to read it, and don't want to register, just use
for both id and password: "eefeef". ]
Shortened version at:


AIA: DOB: Directive 14 – self certification


(As per K. Sowada; EEF; 112703)
<snip> D. Grosser, R. Grunewald and B. Kreissl,
'Holz-ein Wichtiger Werkstaff im Alten Agypten', in S. Schoske (ed.),
<<Anch>> Blumen fur das Leben (Munich, 1992), 251-261.
This contains a discussion about the scientific analysis of timbers [Wood]
found in Egypt including, most usefully, a series of microscopic photographs
showing the structure of each timber species…[Sycamore, Tamarisk…]


[B_583,no copy,IGNR]
CATNYP# *O-*OCM 89-539
“A Dictionary of ancient Near Eastern architecture / Gwendolyn Leick ;
with illustrations by Francis J. Kirk.”

London, 1988
On the shelf at room 219.


* Art Burrows has put some more (cp. EEFNEWS 345) illustrated
articles on woodworking in Ancient Egypt online (as PDF files); they
appeared in The Australian Woodworker magazine.
-- Ancient Egyptian Boat Building
-- Ancient Egyptian Woodworking
-- The Ubiquitous Adze
-- Did they really have the lathe

-- Workshops and the Palace

COPTIC: a living ghost

[B_445=Y_006,rvw text and commentary] SUMMIT# PJ2197 .B8 1977 V.1

“Coptic homilies in the dialect of Upper Egypt.”

New York, 1977.

[B_445]: CATNYP# *OCD (British Museum. Egyptian and Assyrian antiquities, Department of. Coptic homilies in the dialect)


Crum W. E.: Walter Ewing 1865-1944


CATNYP# *O-*OCA+ 86-1476

A Coptic dictionary, compiled by W. E. Crum.

Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1929-39.


CORN: (Greek) papyri

See CORNELL; See HIBEH; [O_008,8.5,IMG]


CORNELL: (Greek) papyri from University of



(as per E. G. Turner) “Greek Papyri in the Library of Cornell University”, ed. W. L. Westermann and C. J.

Kraemer, jr. NY, 1926.


P.Corn. 1. Record of Lamp Oil Assigned to the Retinue of Apollônios:

(Greek; 256 bce; from Philadelphia)

Many accounts; fractions (moria)*

Pursue and determine presence of any ligatures for non unit fractions.

CORNELL: math texts online

See work by Levi Conant [B_573]

[B_573;8.5,MSJ sugg 010103,SIBL] CATNYP# OFK (Conant, L. L. Number concept)

“The number concept; its origin and development, by Levi Leonard Conant, Ph.D. [Associate Professor of Mathematics in the Worcester Polytechnic Institute]”

NY, London, 1896


See extensive list of aboriginal peoples’ math number names and analysis of systems.

See NUMBERS; (Mohican) american indian.



CATNYP# OKD (Conant, L. L. Original exercises in plane and solid geometry)

“Original exercises in plane and solid geometry, by Levi L. Conant…”

NY, Cincinatti [etc.], c1905

CORNUCOPIA: of Museum links in the United Kingdom



COWLEY: (Demotic?) papyrus

Egyptian papyrus from about 300 B.C. (Cowley, papyrus 81), which may refer to an object similar to these silver scrolls.




CPR: (Greek) papyri

=Corpus Papyrorum Raineri

See also DUKE; STUD. PAL.




CRUM: (Author); (Greek and Coptic) Ostraca; papyri

Walter Ewing Crum 1865-1944.


[B_152,rvw] CATNYP# *OBM+(MMAEE),

“The Monastery of Epiphanius at Thebes.” NY, 1926.

Includes plates and maps. Ostraca and Papyri.


(as per ZPE, D. Fowler) Seek Coptic Calculation Material.

Ostraca Crum 480 (poorly read in 1902).

Published by Strasbourg Bibliotheque

Coptic (math) divisions of n/31.

See W. Brashear, “Quisquiliae”, BASC 26 (1984) 19-22.


See Jews and Christians in Egypt; the Jewish troubles in Alexandria and the Athanasian controversy. Illustrated by texts from Greek papyri in the British Museum Edited by H. Idris Bell. With three Coptic texts, edited by W. E. Crum.

Published: Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press [1972].



CUBIT (ROD): nbj=rod?



See [B_279] critical text.


Pursue: W.F. Petrie, Gizeh (Giza) survey. Math.


(as per AEMT) The standard unit, as seen in (Kahun wood cubit), Petrie Museum UC 16747.


[B_001_House] CATNYP# *OBK 94-2555

"Mathematics in the Time of the Pharaohs.”

New York, Dover, 1972, softcover.

See pg. 220, for an image of the Cubit of King Amenhotep I.

This cubit seems to be a decorative reproduction and not useful as a tool for measurement. (Note the errant divisions of fifths of a finger.)

Also at the Science Library.


See a review of this work by T. G. H. James in JEA 61 (1975):

p. 260-262



See “Three Cubits Compared” by M. St. John, London, 2000.

A comparison of the (Turin) Amenemipt Cubit ~1300 BCE.;

(Note the errant divisions of fifths of a finger.)

(Paris 1) Maya Cubit ~1300 BCE.;

and (Paris 2) Cubit which may be a modern reproduction,

made ~1830 CE.


Study the Protector gods of the tomb of Senmut,

Four Sons of Khenty-irti:

[Khenty-irti is a god with a cult center at Khem (Letopolis).]

Haqu (Haw).

Iriemowa (He who behaves as a thief).

Maanitef (He who looks at his father).

[note that this loosely resembles the Torah/Noah/Ham story]

Irerenefdjesef (He who made his own name).


Seek [B_149] work by Richard Lepsius below.

See page 26; Tafel 1 (a)..


[B_149,8.5,ALL,IMG,SIBL] Not found in Catnyp computer records.

Instead use old catalog; volume 430, page 483.

CATNYP# VBDB “Die Alt-Aegyptische Elle und Ihre Eintheilung”,

Koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin, 1865). by Richard Lepsius.

This rare text is only available at the NYPL Science Library.

Sadly, I report plate one is absent.

Plate One shows a possible/conceptual cubit reconstruction in which:

A: Fingers 1-16 are equal to .01875 meters.

16 x .01875 = .3 meters

A = .525/28

B: Fingers 17-24 are equal to .0171875 meters.

8 x .0171875 = .1375 meters

B=(11/12) A

C: Fingers 25-28 are equal to .021875 meters

4 x .021875 = .0875 meters.

C = (7/6) A

Total of conceptual/reconstructed cubit = .525 meters

This cubit does not survive close scrutiny but LEPSIUS’s considerations are worthy of more study.

The Lepsius text [B_149] includes reproductions from rubbings and sketches of a dozen known cubits!


A new English tr. was prepared for publication by M. St. John,

and J. Degreef [January, 2001]. See [B_279]. LEPSIUS.


As this is important to me,

I worked to assist in this publication by researching and preparing accurate footnotes. (Which is not what Lepsius had done)

Parts of the following list were a preparation for the translated bibliography supplement or endnotes.


(as per AEB, 93.0946)

[B_188,8.5,IMG,PRCHS] CATNYP# *OBK+ 94-6611,

Roik, Elke, "Das Langenmasssystem im Alten Agypten", (1993).

A review of AE math and Narmer Palette proportions and the THINITE WADJI STELA.

Reference to these texts (Find them!):

Der erste EllenmeBstab wurde 1822 gefunden. (Drovetti-Elle gennant. M. A. Pochan: “L’enigme de la Grande Pyramide, BIE [?], Kairo, 1933, 280).


ZAS 42, 1905, 27. P. Leiden Amonyshymnus.

Said to be a hymn about NILOMETERS!

Note ZAS 42 is listed, found at the NYPL on microfilm only. See [B_608].


P. Lachau, H. Chevrier, Une Chapelle de Sesostris I, Kairo, 1956.


This text [B_188] includes a reduced copy of Plate one from Lepsius “Elle”.

Info on SENMUT ostracon. (#’s: 62, 69, 73, 75, 76.)

See p. 44 for transcription of Ostrakon Osireion 1, Abydos.

Detailed proportion studies. Art grids.


(as per AEB, 91/2.2062, [B_298]) Victor, Naguib, "The Rod (nbj) and Its Use in Egyptian Architecture, GM 121 (1991). Compares 1 rod = 1 1/3 royal cubits.

Analysis by rod unit of tomb M43 at el-Hawawish.



CATNYP#  *OBH 88-1131 Heft 84- ORIENTAL DIV.

“Gottinger Miszellen.”, Gottingen, 1972-present?

Victor, Naguib, "The Rod (nbj) and Its Use in Egyptian Architecture,

GM 121 (1991). Pages 101-110. Based loosely on approximation and conjecture and the tombs of El-Hawawish.


See also GM 124 (1991)

P69-111 includes:

p. 69, J. A. R. Legon’s “The Giza Site Plan Revisited.”

Introducing the sq root of TWO and/or 3 into the [grand master] site plan.

p. 79, H. Pitlik’s “Baustelle Cheops-Pyramide. Hohere Mathematik – oder nurein Stuck Schnur.”

Introducing the  sqd=skd=seked and astronomical/pi considerations.

p. 91, J. J. Janssen’s “Rations with Riddles.”

On: wages; hekats, oipe, khar, Metrology.

p. 99, A. Spalinger’s “Suggestive Calculations”

On: wages and again as per the above by Janssen, focused on Gardiner ostracon : 262 and IFAO 1406.


(as per AEB, 96.0953, [B_297]) Legon, John, "The Quest for the true nbj measure", DE 36, (1996).

Interpretation of the SENENMUT Ostraca. See DE [B_297].


(as per AEB, 95.1155) Rousseau, Jean, "Metrologie et coudee", DE 33 (1995), p 115-121. Metrology review.


See also Torah; Concordances.


(as per M. St. John).


(Queipo, V.V. Essai sur les systemes metriques et monetaires)

“Essai sur les systemes metriques et monetaires des anciens peuples depuis le premier temps historiques jusqu’a la fin du Khalifat d’Orient.” Paris 1859.

This four volume work is only available at the Science Library.

See volume one, info about the Paris 2 cubit.

The single plate from this volume was torn and not found.

See p. 6-9, 44-49.

The double cubit (basalt or wood?) of 14 palms is described (lengths).


(as per M. St. John).


CATNYP# *OBKM+++(Sharpe, S. Egyptian Inscriptions)

“Egyptian Inscriptions from the British Museum and other sources.

By Samuel Sharpe.”, London 1837-1841.

Note: S. Sharpe 1799-1881.

I found no images of cubits in volumes one or two, bound together.

The NYPL does not have the other volumes (three and four).

Lepsius refers to v. 2 plate 46. No cubit here.

See [R_003,similar to B_166,IMG] below.


[R_003,similar to B_166,IMG]

I found a different edition by the same title at the Wilbour Library.

Edward Moxon published this as two separate volumes in London, 1853.

Volume two sold for ten shillings!

Plate 46 shows a cubit measuring 20.675 inches,

divided into 28 [unequal] fingers.



(as per M. St. John) Pursue two other cubits at Turin.

The [2?] Cubits of Cha.

(as per RIV)

See “reperito Schiaparetti [Schiaparelli!] nella tomba di Cha”.

Dynasty XVIII, ~1500 BCE.

(as per M. St. John) Pursue another cubit possibly at the MMA.

(as per [B_180]) See Cubit MMA# 41.160.102, work by N. Scott.

Left end (looking at bevel) matches C. Coll. P. 3.

(as per M. St. John) Pursue a double folding cubit at the British Museum, dated to Horemheb’s reign. See below HARMHAB?


(as per R. Lepsius) A double folding cubit of 14 palms total length of:

1.048982 meters. At the British Museum.


(as per G. Oaten) Examine this text, “Historical Metrology”

by Algernon Edward Berriman, London, 1953.

[B_165,IMG,SIBL] CATNYP# VBDB (Berriman, A.E. Historical Metrology).

Includes image of the HARMHAB Cubit. See p. 75-76.

Found at Memphis, housed at Turin.

See work by Jomard from 1822. See Jomard.

Jomard was a mathematician with Napoleon’s expedition.

Note: This (Harmhab) is the Turin cubit of Amenemipt (or very similar).


Image of stone jar on inside cover, capacity 8+1/6 Hin.

Image of decapitated statue of Gudea with cubit, (Chaldean?)

See Reallexikon; Cubit; Rule of Gudea

Governor of Lagash ~2175 BCE. P. 5.

Image of Chaldean 30 mina (swan) weight from reign of Biblical Chaldean ruler, Merodach-Baladin.

Date his reign? P. 8.

See p. 18 for a demonstration of estimating the Earth’s circumference.

See p. 74 reference to two cubits:

1. inscribed Tutenkhamen

2. his wife Onkhesamen

Pursue images from the Petrie Collection.

See the following [Original French!] work referred to by Hussey (1836):

“Memoires sur l’Egypte pendant les Campagnes du General Buonaparte.”

By Denon, Vivant. See Denon.

See v. 2, p. 32, 279. See same volume p. 93; p. 183.

See p. 93 images of two glyph inscribed (AE?) measuring cups.

See p. 183 for image of the Oxford Prism, Sumerian King list.

Looks like a good source of Biblical dates. Cuneiform.


(as per A. E. Berriman) Pursue cubit info in Petrie’s works:

1. “Inductive Metrology”, 1877.

2. “Ancient Weights and Measures”, 1926. [B_187].

3. “Wisdom of the Egyptians”, 1940. [B_397].

See Petrie.


[B_169,IGNR,NO IMG] CATNYP# *OBLF (Yeates, T. Dissertation);

“Dissertation on the antiquity, origin, and design of the principal Pyramids of Egypt, particularly…and the probable determination of the ancient Hebrew and Egyptian cubit. Also on the original form and measure of the Ark of Noah.”

London, 1833.

T. Yeates suggests 1656 pre-deluvian years.

I verified count, 1656 is correct. See Genesis. Torah

A square (Noah’s) Ark (see drawing) of unusual concept.

Various disputable Cubit truths.


[B_170,IGNR,NO IMG,MSTCL] CATNYP# *OBLF 84-1689, “Key to the Hebrew-Egyptian mystery in the source of measures originating the British inch and the ancient cubit…/ By J. Ralston Skinner.” San Diego, 1982.

J.R. Skinner also mentions 1656 pre-deluvian years.

He considers that the 150 days after the flood to leaving the Ark is a correction for Noah’s 600 years of life. (150 leap years.)

Skinner mentions that a cubit is 1.717666 feet.

So a cubit = 20.611992 inches.

This is larger than I expected.

Much Cabalistic math discussed.

He notes that the North face of a Gizeh Pyramid lies at exactly 30 degrees latitude. Please verify, see work by Dennis Rawlins, see Metrology.


(as per G. Oaten.) Pursue text with image of (pieces of) Paris Cubit No 2.:

"Nouveaux aperçus sur les «coudées votives»”, in:

[B_180a,8.5,CUBIT FRAG IMG,MAPS,MISC.] CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t. 82, “Hommages Serge Sauneron, Cairo, 1979, v. 1, p. 322. By ZIVIE, Alain-Pierre.

Zivie discusses many extant cubits:


C. Chapelle blanche NK.

C. Amenophis III.

This cubit fragment found at Tounah [el Gebel]

(Musee de Mellawi)

See MDAIK 24, 131. Plate XVIII, Gabra.

C. Osorkon = (Caire 31/12/22/2) (Karnak)

See Schlott, plate XVII.

See MDAIK 28, plate XXIV.

C. Coll Paris. 1 is from reign of Merenptah

=Maya’s Cubit=7 palms in wood.

See RdE 29, p. 218-220.

C. Coll Paris. 2 with cartouche of Nectanabo I.

C. Coll Paris. 2 is missing 4 left fingers. Damaged.

C. Coll Paris. 2 found at:

Pharbaetos (Horbeit) or (Kom Abou Yassine).

=C. Nectanebo I=7 palms in wood.

See “Supra”, p. 322, fig. 2.

See image plate XLIX, [B_180].

C. Nectanebo II. (Caire 31/12/22/1+fragments) (Karnak)

See BIFAO 71, p. 188, fig. 5.

C. Coll Paris. 3= fragments found at Hermopolis d’Ibis.

See “Supra”, p. 325, fig. 3.

See BSFE 79, 1977, 22-41, Zivie.

See image plate L, [B_180].

C. Univ. Coll Petrie (London) Basalt or schist, from 3rd intermediate period.

No. 16374 as per Petrie’s “Weights and Measures”. [B_187].

Plate XXVI, 3.

See also Schlott, “Die ausmasse”, Plate XXIII.

This is not the Kahun wood cubit.

C. MMA. 41.160.102, a small fragment.

Found at Mendes?

See N. Scott, “BMMA”.,“NSI”, 1942/43, 74.

See Schlott, Die Ausmasse, pl. XXIV.

C. MMA. 25.7.41, a small fragment.

C. Berlin (Staatliche?) # 7358. Fragment.

C. Br. Mus. 67777, a small fragment.

C. Caire 31/12/22/5, a small fragment.

A cubit found at Heliopolis, one of five now at Turin.

(as per E. Iversen; [B_203])

See Turin #6348

See six cubits from Tuts tomb.

A cubit at the British Museum #36656, See Lepsius, [B_149].


(also as per [B_180], Zivie)

See A. [Schwab-] Schlott, “Die Ausmasse Aegyptens nach altegyptischen Texten”, Tubingen, 1969. MDAIK 28, 1972, 109-113.

See also: Gabra, MDAIK 24, 1969, p. 129-135.

See also: A.P. Zivie, BIFAO 71, 1972, p. 181-188.

See also: RdE 29, 1977, 215-223.

See also: BIFAO 73, 1973, p. 27-40


(as per G. Oaten) See also Cahiers de Karnak, 10 (1995), cubit review.

[B_183=R_001,NO IMG]

CATNYP# *OBH 84-2512, “Cahiers de Karnak”,

“Quelques reflexions sur les unites de mesure utilisees en architecture a l’epoque pharaohnique.” By Jean Francois Carlotti.

*This text, volume 10, is only available at:

The Wilbour Library at the Brooklyn Museum

(verified 12/27/00).


See charts.

This text includes representations of fractional cubit number (unit) names.

Double palme, Poing, Sandale, Main, Palme, Demi-sandale, Doigt, Coudee royale, Coudee-remen, Coudee sacree, Grand empan, Petit empan..

(as per the above) See “MaBe und Gewichte”, LA III, 1980, col 1199-1209, by W. Helck. See LEX.

LA=From Lepsius' Abklat collection in the Berlin Museum.


See also MDAIK 46, 1990. p. 113-?


Cubit analysis by G. Oaten.


(as per G. Oaten) Seek “La Rivista” AKA RIV [or “La Rivista RIV 11”] from the Turin Museum in Italy. Mai 1961.

This magazine [R_004;IMG;CUBIT;file with B_149] was found at the Wilbour Library.

Thanks to M. St. John for the detailed translation.

See the RIV cubit I and II.

I - Wooden [acacia] Cubit, Suppl. N.8391,

of Cha. XVIII dynasty.

Not inscribed! Folding two cubits. Metallic coupling [hinged].

Notes on the discovery in:

Schiaparelli’s “Account of the Work and Results Achieved by the Archaelogical Mission in Egypt – The Intact Tomb of the architect Cha”

[Schiaparelli, G. Giovanni 1835-1910] See TORAH


II - Cubit in gold plate [wrapped wooden], recovered in the grave of Cha.

Suppl. N. 8647. XVIII dynasty.

Mentions Amenhotep II.


III - Wooden cubit [Drovetti collection], N. 6347. XIX dynasty

In honor of the deceased Amenemope.


IV – Bronze [Drovetti collection], N. 6349.


V - Basalt [Drovetti collection], N. 6348.


[R_004,magazine,HOUSE (MSJ);file with B_149]

The cover of this magazine dated May 1961, shows a device used to examine and measure the cubits of Turin Museum.

See the detailed article by Dino Senigalliesi.

Info on Turin [cubit] 6348, 523.8 mm.

An outline from a 1961 study of 5 Turin cubits. NO CATNYP.

This text gives unit names (Italian):

Dito, due dita, tre dita, palmo, mano, due palmi, spanna piccola, spanna reale, piede, remen, cubito piccola, cubito reale.


[B_172,8.5,NO IMG] CATNYP# VBA p.v. 568, “Le systeme metrique actuel d’Egypte compare au systeme francais, les nilometres tant anciens que modernes et les antiques coudees de l’Egypte. Par Mahmoud bey [of Tunis], Copenhagen, 1872.

A cubit measuring 530 mm. Interpreted from the Elephantine Nilometer.

A similar cubit from the Edfou Nilometer.

A similar (longer) cubit from the Island of Rodah.

(across from Cairo)

See Rodah.

The above text at the Science Library.


[B_173,8.5,NO IMG] CATNYP# VBA p.v. 276, “Etude de metrologie lineaire; origine scientifique des deux coudees egyptiennes de six et de sept palmes. Relations des pieds egyptien, grec, italique, romain de Goudea et d’Eratosthene avec la coudee egyptienne de six palmes et vingt-quatre doigts. Par Paul Faure..” Paris, 1909.

Note this text is inscribed (by hand with a quill pen): “a Monsieur P. Pierret, Sincere hommage, P. Faure.  32, rue du Dragon.”

Brief analysis of units by comparison and inspection of Greek buildings. Parthenon, Theseion, Erechtheion, Delphes, (temple of) Paestum and (temple of) Vista a Tivoli.


See this link by J. Legon about the nbj cubic measure.


(as per W. Muss-Arnolt) See J. Oppert in:

L’etalon des mesures assyriennes fixe par les textes cuneiformes: JA 6th S., XX (’72), 157-77, & 7th S. IV (O-N ’74) 417-86; cf ib. 7th S. VI 42; G. F. Smith in ZAS (’72) 109 ff; GGA (’78) 1041.


My thoughts on human geometry:

My forearm measures 18”

My handsbreadth (span) 9”

My palm (width) ~4”

One Bruce cubit = two spans = 4.5 palms

Not particularly useful info.


[B_203,NO IMG,8.5] CATNYP# MABB+ (Iversen, E. Canon and Proportions in Egyptian Art)

“Canon and Proportions in Egyptian Art”

London, Sidgwick and Jackson, 1955.

(See copies forwarded by E. Garner). [B_203,NO IMG,8.5]

(as per E. Garner) My copies are from the later second revision.

Warminster, 1975. (Available at Wilbour).


[B_401,8.5,E. Garner] CATNYP# *O-*OBK 01-5249

The Oxford Encylopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited by Donald B. Redford, 2001, Volume two.

(as per E. Garner) Some general notes on AE math and cubits.

OEAE=The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt by Donald B. Redford. Oxford University Press, 2001.


See also: [B_312]








See [B_028].


[N_001=R_007,RLIN notes to file with B_149;CUBIT IMG]

“Memoria sopra di un cubito marmoreo [MARBLE] della raccolta di monumenti Egizj ora esistente in Firenze [Florence], di proprieta del signor Nizzoli cancelliere dell’I.R. consolato Austriaco in Egitto.”

Milan: R. Instituto lombardo di scienze e lettere, 1824.

[only a small 20 page pamphlet with one large folded plate]

This pamphlet was found at the Wilbour Library 4/17/02.

This can be found at Universities of; Pennsylvania; Michigan, Minnesota and Florida. Possibly also at the Petrie Museum in London.

(as per M. St. John)

First published in BIBLIOTECA ITALIANA, anno 9, tome 33,

pages 45-59. See additional notes from M. St. John, below.

[B_149; filed with].


Then published as a 20 page pamphlet.

(as per M. St. John)

Biblioteca Italiana di Milano”. No. XCVII. XCVIII, 1824. p. 45:

Di un cubito marmoreo egizio della raccolta del Sig. Gius. Nizzoli, cancelliere del consul. Austriaco in Egitto.


Includes comparison of two cubits:

A. The Drovetti cubit with the errant 4 divisions of finger thirds. ~500mm

B. The Nizzoli cubit, seemingly better crafted. ~450mm


[B_236a,8.5,IMG, also at Wilbour (1977 reprint, Geneva)]

CATNYP# *OBKG+++(Rosellini, I., I monumenti dell’ Egitto e della Nubia)

“I monumenti dell’ Egitto e della Nubia …”

Pisa, 1832-44.

Two BIG volumes.

Volume one: “Monumenti storici”

Volume two: “Monumenti civili”

Rosellini, Ippolito, 1800-1843.

A reference from [B_149] to an image with hand glyphs.

See volume two, plate XXXIII. Harvesting wheat?


See Metrology.


[B_236b,IGNR,no copy] CATNYP# *OBKG (Rosellini, I., I monumenti dell’ Egitto e della Nubia) (Locked cage)

“I monumenti dell’ Egitto e della Nubia disegnati dalla spedizione scientifico-letteraria toscana in Egitto; distribuiti in ordine di materie, interpretati ed illustrati dal dottore Ippolito Rosellini.”

Pisa, 1832-44.

Nine volumes. Yes, nine volumes but no Leppy reference!

Part One: Monumenti storici

Contains 4 volumes in 5.

Part Two: Monumenti civili

Contains 3 volumes.

Part Three: Monumenti del culto

Contains 1 volume?


(as per EEF; J. Weingarten) See spell 132 in JF Borghouts, Ancient Egyptian Magical Texts (Leiden, 1978)

“Hail to you, baboon of seven cubits whose eyes are electrum, whose lips are fire, and each of whose words is a glowing flame.  Keep steady the swimmer, so that I may go forth in safety!”

My thought: is the Baboon an image of Thoth?


[B_281,IGNR,no copy] CATNYP# *OAC p.v.84,no.2

“The sacred cubit of the great pyramid and Solomon’s Temple; being an essay addressed to the English Palestine Exploration Fund. By Samuel Beswick…”

Strathroy, Ont., J.S. Saul, 1878.

This very badly damaged original pamphlet does contain much information that is by its specific nature very suspect.*


Mention of the Ancient Sacred [wood] Cubit of 25” as determined by:

J. [Isaac?] Newton;

Prof. Piazzi Smyth


Essay states its purpose is to prove the Cubit=17.7245 [Geometrical?] inches.


Supposedly quoting Herodotus [H]:

(H on the AE) “An Orgia is 6 feet or 4 cubits; for a foot is 4 palms and a cubit 6 palms.” –Euterpe no. 149.


(H on the Babylonians) “The width of a [Babylonian] wall is 50 cubits and its height 200 cubits; The royal cubit exceeds the common cubit by 3 fingersbreadth.” –Clio 178


(H on the Jews) “A cubit [Royal cubit or cubit rod] is a cubit and a handsbreadth.” –Ezekiel x5


The Author states the Common Cubit is the more ancient of standards.

Hence consisiting of 2 [?!] spans=6 [?!] palms=24 finger widths.

A span is 3 palms?

The Author [Beswick] begins a long unverifiable tirade about finding Pi in the Pyramid base.

Squaring the circle…

Sqrt of Pi= 17.77245385 geometrical units?

The span of 3[?] palms=12 digits was divided into tenths?

Value of 8.862?

A geometrical inch is 1.00118 British inches?


Author refers to the work of Girard.

See “Sur la Nilometre”; re Elephantine; [B_234a].


Beswick does admirably compile the following:


Turin C., Wilkinson, 20.5730

Turin C.            , Jomard, 20.5786

Another Turin, Jomard, 20.6180

Another Turin, Jomard, 20.6584

Memphis, Jomard, 20.4729

Nilometer (Eleph.), Jomard, 20.7484

Nilometer (Eleph.), Wilkinson, 20.6250

Nilometer (Eleph.), by others?, 20.6990

Pyramids (Gizeh), Perring, 20.6280

Thebes, Harris, 20.6500

Pyramid Cubits?, Sir Newton, 20.6280

Pyramid Cubits?, Beswick, 20.7030

Royal DBL@ B.M., British Museum, 41.3980

<MEAN> = 20.6397


Unfortunately this small work is muddied with odd ideas:

365.2422 days X 25?=9131.0550 = length of Side of Khufu?


See “Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid.” See [B_284].


As per Beswick, Herodotus says the third pyramid was:

3 PLETHRA in length = 370 AE feet?


A discussion of the dimensions and arrangement of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is also unclear.


As per Beswick the FULL SPAN is called SABAR from two roots:

SAAH and BARA. SAAH is to measure or distribute. BARA is a foundation or a basis.


As per Beswick (I Samuel XVI.4) Goliath was six cubits and one span tall. By interpretation he arrives at ~9’6”.


[B_284,NO COPY,IGNR] “Our inheritance in the Great Pyramid, New and enl. Ed., including all the most important discoveries up to the present time, with seventeen explanatory plates, by Piazzi Smyth. F.R.S.E., F.R.A.S.”

London, 1874.

Published: W. Isbistler & Co., 56, Ludgate Hill, London.

I have filed the paper on the Megalithic Yard from John Neal at the Secret Academy with the above work by Charles Piazzi Smyth. For obvious reasons.

Author is Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819-1900).

A Pyramidiot like Beswick above. Yes indeed.

Smyth refers to The late John Taylor [Died 1864].

Taylor’s work was “The Great Pyramid, why was it built, and who built it?”

Published in 1859 by Longmans and Co.


See Smyth’s pages 281 on the Sacred Hebrew Cubit

Page 244 on AE Cubit measure


Smyth does note all the following varied spellings for Giza:




Also refers to Cairo as El-Kahireh.


Sounding out the ancient Egyptian words to find the cubit:

MAH; MEH; MAI; MAHI and later about 700 BCE? = AMMAT?

Also HU?


References to work on the Persian [Shushan] Cubit in Herodotus’s times:

[322-600 BCE?] See work by Dr. Brandis of Berlin?


Numerous references to Quiepo; Vyse; Wilkinson [See 1847 Travellers Guide; B_391] and Isaac Newton.

Smyth specifies that he has included fragments of Newton’s dissertation on the Sacred Cubit in his earlier three volume work of a similar title.?


[B_299,8.5’s] CATNYP# NCF (Greaves, J. Miscellaneous works)

“Miscellaneous works of Mr. John Greaves [1602-1652]…To which are added: I. Reflections on the Pyramidographia…; II. A dissertation upon the Sacred Cubit of the Jews…; III. Tracts upon various subjects…; IV. A description of the grand seignor’s seraglio. To the whole is prefix’d an historical and critical account of the life and writings of the author, pub. By Thomas Birch [1705-1766].” London, 1737, two volumes. (800 pages)


            I. Pyramidographia: A description of Egypt’s Pyramids.

II.With discourse on Roman foot and Denarius.

III. Tracts; Letters; Poems

IV. Turkish Emporer’s Court

            Volume 2 [of 2] Includes Isaac Newton’s Dissertation!

“A Dissertation upon the Sacred Cubit of the Jews and the Cubits of the several Nations ; in which, from the dimensions of the greatest Egyptian Pyramid, as taken by Mr. John Greaves, the antient [ancient] Cubit of Memphis is determined.”/ “Translated from the Latin of Sir Isaac Newton, not yet published.”

The above tr. from the Latin of Isaac Newton is “possibly” genuine.

Note the “possibly” useful references below:

24 finger and 6 palm; 18 inch Roman and Greek Cubits.

Roman and Greek Foot of 4 Palms =[?] 15 digits

See Vitruvius Lib 3 [?].

See Hero in Isagoge


Suidas in vocibus…

Side of Pyramid [Cheops/Khufu] = 400 “simple” Cubits.

See page 411 for analysis of Kings hall.

Schoeni of AE and Parasangoe of Persians was a quantity of whole cubits.

See testimonies of Artemidorus and Strabo.

See testimonies of Herodotus and Xenophon, Hesychius, Suidas, Agathias.

See the Drusian Foot at Tongeren, Germany.

Find more of the opinion of Villalpandus.

See Jewish Calamus or Reed.

Moses; Cubit of Man?

See work of Josephus.

A Greek Cubit “approached nearer to 4 Jewish Palms than to 5 or 3.”

See Cubit proportion defined in Mishnaioth, Tract de Ghaburim, cap. 4. [Hay] in Comment.

A “Sabbath day’s journey” not to exceed 2000 Cubits [paces].

See St. Jerome writing to Algasia,.

See Akiba, Simeon [the Just] and Hillel in harmony.

Erasmus reads “Passus” [not pedes] in St. Jerome.

See Numbers 35 [Census].

“The Sacred Cubit [of the Jews] therefore was less than 27 Roman Unciae, but not less than 24 Unciae..”

“…two Cubits, which the Talmudists say were engrav’d on the sides of the city of Susan

[Sushan or Shushan, Persia]…”

“I am inclined therefore to think that the Cubit of Memphis, at the time when the Jews went Down into Aegypt, was equal to 5 Palms of the Chaldoeo-Hebraic Cubit…”

See the Cubit of Samos?

“Mersennus in his treatise “de Mensuris”, Prop. I. Cor. 4. writes thus: “I find that the Cubit, (upon which a learned Jewish writer, which I received by the favour of the illustrious Hugenius, Knight of the order of St. Michael, supposes the dimensions of the Temple were formed,) answers to 23 1/4 of our inches, so that it wants 1/4 of an inch of two of our Feet…”

Cubit of Moses = 25.6 inches?

Interpreted Cubit from Solomon’s “brazen sea”.

One Bath = 12 Roman Congii?


See this reference to a palette of King Den (Dynasty 0 or 1) with 1200 cubits or 1200 rods of fine Libyan oil.


See this loosely related link to glyphs for early Pharaohs.


See this 525 mm Cubit!




[B_394,IGNR, Given to CJP, no copy] CATNYP# *OBK 93-5540

“Serpent in the Sky: the high wisdom of ancient Egypt / John Anthony West.” Wheaton, Illinois, 1993.

This book is based on the works of the formerly debunked pyramidiot Schwaller de Lubicz and his Granddaughter.

As the content was found to be non-scientific and mystical I gave my copy to a friend who has numerous Atlantis and Alien concerns.

(i. e. the target demographic has been sated.)





See also RYLANDS; [B_093] quoting the works of PLINY.

[p. 206] “It was the similarity of periodic phases of the moon and of womankind…”

[p. 206] “But incidentally the moon determined the earliest subdivision of time into months ; and the moon-goddess lenct the sanctity of her divine attributes to the number twenty-eight.”


The calculation of the length of the Royal Cubit has been under study since Sir Isaac Newton sent Proffesor Greaves from Cambridge to measure the Kings chamber in the Great Pyramid in 1639. It is based on Egyptian cubit rods in museums and also on the work of Sir William Flinders Petrie, Colonel Vyse and many others.

see Livio C. Stecchini The accuracy of Temple construction is not merely a matter of civil engineering skill but also of astronomical knowledge. This is a complex subject and …



[B_557,8.5,SIBL] CATNYP# OEH (Newton, I. Isaaci Newtoni, equitis aurati)

From old card catalog: v. 528 p. 88 c. 11-12

Found by this title:

“Isaaci Newtoni…opuscula mathematica, philosiphica et philologica. Collegit partimque latine vertit ac recensuit Joh. Castillioneus…Accessit commentariolus de vita auctoris.”

Lausannae Genevae, 1744.

Three volumes:

Tomus Primus: Mathematica

Tomus Secundus: Philosophica

Tomus Tertius: Philologica

Title page of third volume:

“Isaaci Newtoni, equitis aurati, opuscula mathematica, philosiphica et philologica. Collegit partimque Latine vertit ac recensuit Joh. Castillioneus jurisconsultus tomus tertius / Continens Philologica. / noviora cecinit / Lausannae & Genevae, Apud Marcum-Michaelum Bousquet & Socios. / MDCCXLIV.”

[last entry in this Tome is the following; pages 491-510 and plate showing section sketch of great hallway within Cheops Pyramid.  See also English tr. By John Greaves B_299 ]

“Opusculum XXVI. Isaaci Newtoni / Dissertatio de Sacro Judaeorum Cubito et de Cubito Aliarum Gentium. / Edita Anglice in Miscellaneis Operibus / Johannis Gravii.”

Entry has this supplemental title:

“Isaaci Newtoni / Dissertatio / De Sacro Judaeorum Cubito, atque de Cubitis aliarum Gentium nonnullarum ; in qua ex maxima Aegypticarum Pyramidum dimensionibus, quales Johannes Gravius invenit, antiquus Memphis definitur.”

Footnote refers to “Mishnaioth” Tract. De Ghaburim, caption 4. [Chai] in commentary. NO CATNYP

Footnote refers to Josephus in “Prologo Belli Judaici.” NO CATNYP


(as per EEF thread; Nov.-Dec. 2002)

the 18th Dynasty basalt cubit rod in the collection of the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden [Rijksmuseum van Oudheden]:

It measures: 53 cm long, 3.3 cm wide and 2.2 cm thick.

Registration number is Inv. AD54.

Schlott-Schwab, A. 1981. _Die Ausmaße Ägyptens nach altägyptischen

Texten_. ÄAT 3. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.

Schwab-Schlott, A. 1972. "Altägyptische Texte über die Ausmaße

Ägyptens." _MDAIK_ 28:109-113.

The ÄAT 3 vol. has about 15 royal examples with drawings of all faces

and extensive discussion regarding the texts. The MDAIK article has

photos of 7 royal examples (drawings in ÄAT 3 of course). These

rods were used as royal offerings/dedications, and not for building



Yields 4 wooden items!

a fragment



(as per EEF; E. Moyer) courses 1.htm Rod Assessment.htm Rod A.htm Cubit Rod.htm Strange.htm Slopes.htm Rods B.htm


(As per Dr. M. Smith; EEF; 112002; [my thoughts])
Are you familiar with the 18th Dynasty basalt cubit rod in the
Collection of the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden - Rijksmuseum van
It measures: 53 cm long, 3.3 cm wide and 2.2 cm thick.
Registration number is Inv. AD54.
It was one if the items in an international touring exhibtion 'Life and Death Under the Pharaohs'.
[with regard to this cubit rod being dedicatory and not a builders tool]
<snip> non-functional <snip> but you may find it worth a look.


(As per N. Koroleva; EEF; 110203)

<snip>the four Sons of Horus. In some sources their father is Horus, the Son of Isis. In the other - Horus the Great. Is Isis always their mother? What are
the rites in which they are involved?
In funerary rituals they are the guards of the viscera, but they are
associated with different goddesses and cardinal points.
For example R.Wilkinson (in "The Complete Gods of AE") gives the following:
The orientation of Tutankhamun's canopic chest is quite different:
There are cases where they are also mixed...
So, what is the reason? <snip>


See also the Four Sons of Khenty-irti


(As per E. Moyer; EEF; 022604)
Please note that this work is incomplete, and will be improved as time


Priskin, Gyula. n.d. Cryptic numerals on cubit rods. Unpublished manuscript.


CATNYP# *OAC (Isis) 1936
“On a Curious Subdivision of the Egyptian Cubit.” By George Sarton.
Isis, Volume 25, No. 2, September 1936, pages 399-402.

Two MMA CUBIT fragments briefly discussed.



CEMMATZOTZOPAZTLI: cemmâtzotzopaztli: mesure de longueur, une coudée.=CUBIT!=Matl?

Codex Zempaola said to include a unit “matl” used to describe the great lengths of the earth. METROLOGY. See TROANO

f=7b rabbinical statement from unspecified source*?

If c=24f then c=168b; see BUDDHA’s CUBIT.

*Bibliography: B. Zuckermann, Ueber Talmudische Gewichte und Münzen, Breslau, 1862;

idem, Das Jüdische Maassystem und Seine Beziehungen zum Griechischen und Römischen, in Breslauer Jahresbericht, ib. 1867; Scheftel, 'Erek Millin, Berdychev, 1905.J. J.

As per MSJ 062505_Warren 'The Ancient Cubit and Our Weights and Measures' (1903)

(as per EEF; 070705; M. Tilgner)


See also:


(as per personal correspondence; S. Whittet; 000005)
I was looking at your math origins pages on cubits and saw that cubit 2
breaks the Egyptian rod out by its length in cubits, feet and palms by
reading in the third register from the top, the first column, hk3 ruler
sixth register, the first column hds instructor
fourth register, the first column, anpu (Cynopolis) 2 royal cubits = 14
fourth register the second column, Mehmahetch (Hebennu) 2 royal cubits
= 14 palms
fifth register, the second column, cubit (7 palms) and foot (4 palms)
(11 palms)
sixth register, the second column, 13 palms and 1/11 (1 palm) = 2
cubits = 14 palms
fourth register the third column, Un (Hermopolis) 2 royal cubits plus 2
palms = 16 palms
fifth register, the third column, cubit (7 palms) and foot (4 palms)
(11 palms)
sixth register, the third column, 3 remen (15 palms) and 1/12 (1 palm)
= 16 palms
fourth register the fourth column, Atef Pehu (Cusae) 2 royal cubits
plus 3 palms = 17 palms
fifth register, the fourth column, cubit (7 palms) and foot (4 palms)
(11 palms)
sixth register, the fourth column, 2 nibw (16 palms) and 1/12 (1 palm)
= 17 palms
third register from the top, the fifth column, one rod
fourth register the fifth column, Atef Khent (Herakleopolis Magna) 2
royal cubits plus 3 palms = 17 palms
fifth register, the fifth column, cubit (7 palms)
sixth register, the fifth column, 3 cubits (18 palms) less 1 part (1
palm) = 17 palms


See link below to an excerpt from the Talmud: Mishnah
, which unfortunately does not answer your
question yet demonstrates the complexity and
unlikelihood of a universal answer [as to CUBIT LENGTH].
and continued at:


CUNEIFORM: chicken scratch

*VAT12593 research 2600 BCE.
JEMDET NASR 3000 bce proto math
URUK 3000bce math ration text



CURRENCY: modern currency conversion tool


CUSTOMS: (Greek) papyri

P.Customs: Customs Duties in Graeco-Roman Egypt


P.Customs 4. Customhouse Receipt: (Greek; AD 43; from Bacchias)

Math; Accounts?




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