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Last updated 12/25/05




See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID


BAB: publications

BAB=Bulletin de l’Academie de Belgique, Brussels.

[BAB V (1988)]

See article by J. Bingen dealing with Ptolemy I.

Bulletin bibliographique" is included in each volume, the list in the volume for 1915-1918 comprising chiefly "Publications allemandes relatives à la guerre."

From 1899-1914 the Classe des lettres et des sciences morales et politiques combined with the Classe des beaux-arts in issuing a Bulletin; publication was interrupted 1915-18 by the European war, and was resumed in 1919 with the Bulletins of the two classes in separate series. The first separate issue of the Classe des beaux-arts (published 1919) has title: Annexe aux bulletins de la Classe des beaux-arts; communications présentées à la classe en 1915-1918.

Vols. 54- also called series 5.

BAB=[possibly, more specifically]:

Bulletin de la classe des beaux-arts. academie royale de belgique. koninklijke belgische academie. bruxelles



BABATHA: (Greek) papyri from the time of Bar Kochba

[B_427,rvw,JH] CATNYP# *PEI+ 90-728

“The Documents from the Bar Kochba Period in the Cave of Letters: Greek Papyri / edited by Naphtali Lewis ; Aramaic and Nabatean signatures and subscriptions / edited by Yigael YADIN and Jonas C. Greenfield.”

Jerusalem, IES, 1989.

P. Babatha 5. Deposit: (Greek; 110 AD; from Maoza)



BABBAGE: (Innovator) and his analytical engine

Charles Babbage and the Difference Engine.



BABELFISH: (translation) tool

Douglas Adams’ dreams come true:



(as per personal correspondence; LB; 100802)

Roaf, Michael.  _Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East._ Facts of File, New York, 1998. pp124-5.

BACCHIAS or BAKCHIAS: (Greek) papyrus

(as per E. G. Turner) See “The Archives of the Temple of Soknobraisis at Bacchias”, in Yale Classical Studies, X, 1947, p. 179-281, by E.H. Gilliam.

P.Bacch.: The Archives of the Temple of Soknobraisis at Bacchias

P.Bacch. 1.: (Greek; 116 AD; from Bacchias)



BACCHIAS: (Ptolemaic) village


Bacchias: a village at the northeastern part of the FAYUM.



BACCHYLIDES: (Greek) papyrus; fragments; poems of

(as per E. G. Turner) See British Museum.

Pronounced As: bakilidz , fl. c.470 B.C., Greek lyric poet, b. Ceos; nephew of Simonides of Ceos. A contemporary of Pindar, he was patronized by Hiero I. His poetry is noted for its narrative powers, clarity, and lucidity. A number of Bacchylides' epinicia and dithyrambs were among the verses recovered from an Egyptian papyrus (text published by F. G. Kenyon, The Poems of Bacchylides, 1897).

[Y_004, rvw plates] SUMMIT# 884.9 .B11J

"Bacchylides. The Poems and Fragments."

Cambridge, 1905. NO CATNYP!


(as per MSJ; Britannica)


(fl. 5th century BC), Greek  lyric poet of the Aegean island of Ceos, nephew of the poet Simonides and a younger contemporary of the Boeotian poet  Pindar, whom he rivaled in the composition of epinician poems (odes commissioned by victors at the major athletic festivals). Little was known of Bacchylides' work until the discovery in Egypt of papyrus fragments that reached the British Museum in 1896 and were published in the following year. Of the 21 poems wholly or partially restored, 14 are epinician odes and the remainder are  dithyrambs (originally choric songs in honour of Dionysus

that became the subject of a choral competition at the Athenian festival of the Dionysia). Other fragments, supplemented by later papyrus finds, include passages from paeans (hymns in honour of Apollo and other gods) and encomiums (songs in honour of distinguished men, performed as part of an after-dinner entertainment).

A firm date is provided by Ode 5, an epinician ode written to celebrate the victory of  Hieron I, ruler of Syracuse, in the horse race at the Olympian games of 476 BC. The poem implies that Bacchylides had already visited Syracuse before this date as a guest of Hieron, whose later victories in the Pythian horse race of 470 and the Olympian chariot race of 468 he celebrated in Odes 4 and 3, respectively. This brought him into direct competition with Pindar, who also celebrated two, if not all three, of these victories in Olympian i and Pythian i and ii. Pindar's uncomplimentary remarks about rival poets have been

taken as referring to Bacchylides and Simonides. Bacchylides' style is simpler, if less sublime, than Pindar's; he excels in narrative and in clarity of expression. Like Simonides, Bacchylides wrote dithyrambs for the Dionysian festival at Athens, notably the unique Ode 18, which is semidramatic, taking the form of a dialogue between Theseus' father, Aegeus, and an answering chorus of followers. Literary historians differ as to how this literary form is related to the development of the Attic drama.


BADEN: (Greek and demotic and Coptic) papyri

(as per ZPE, D. Fowler) Seek P. Baden IV 644.

Greek (math).

(as per E. G. Turner) Seek:

“Veroffentlichungen aus den badischen Papyrus-Sammlungen”

For texts at Heidelberg. See parts 1-5, 1923-1938.

Edited by W. Spiegelberg; F. Bilabel; and G.A. Gerhard.


P.Bad. 2.1. Prescript of a document: (Greek; 225 bce)


BAHISTUN CLIFF: (Old Persian; Old Elamite; Akkadian)

tri-lingual inscriptions on the road to Hamadan

AKA Bahishtun; Basitun; Behistun; Besitun; Bisitun; Bisotun.


(as per my failing memory) Merits further study. Africa. Modern Iran.

Pursue the story of Guamata [the Liar/Impostor].

See these links:

“Zagros Mountains”; Darius [I] 521-485 B.C.;

Inscriptions in: Akkadian [Babylonian Cuneiform],

Elamite, and Old Persian [Cuneiform].

(as per EB)

First reached and translated by Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson,

an officer in the East India Company.

Born April 11, 1810 and died March 5 1895.

Virtually accomplished the translation of the Old Persian Cuneiform.

Specific calendrical data; math.


BAKCHIASTEXTE: (Greek) papyrus

(as per E. G. Turner) See also P. Lund. Univ. Bibl. 4.

See BACCHIAS AKA Kom-el-Asl, east of Philadelphia.


BAKI:(AE; NK) Hieratic letter to farmer from Thebes’ Mayor

(As per EEF; J. Carrington)


“The Mayor of Thebes: Sennefer and his lazy tenant New Kingdom (1539-1075 BC):

The mayor of the southern capital Sennefer speaks to the tenant-farmer Baki son of Kyson to the following effect. This letter is brought to you to tell you that I am coming to see you when we moor at Hu in three days' time. Do not let me find fault with you in your duties. Do not fail to have things in perfect order. Also, pick for me many plants, lotuses and flowers, and others worth offering. Further, you are to cut 5000 boards and 200 timbers; then the BOAT that will bring me can carry them, since you have not cut any wood this year - understood? On no account be slack. If you are not able to cut them you should approach Woser, the mayor of Hu. Pay attention: the herdsman of Cusae and the cowherds who are under my authority, fetch them for yourself in order to cut the wood, along with the workmen who are with you. Also, you are to order the herdsmen to prepare milk in new jars in anticipation of my arrival - understood? You are not to slack, because I know that you are a wiwi, and fond of eating in bed.

The precise meaning of the Egyptian word wiwi is unknown, but it is clear that Sennefer thinks that his tenant is ineffectual in some way. Cusae and Hu were towns on the river to the north of Thebes. The letter was intended to dismay poor Baki, but he never read it. The letter was found still rolled up and sealed, as it was when it was sent more than thirty centuries ago.”

[My thoughts; this harsh tone is very similar to that found in the HEKANAKHTE letters]

<snip> Faulkner's dictionary anything relating to 'wiwi'.

<snip> there is only 'wi'[=]'mummy-case'. Could a pun be intended? <snip>

<snip> the original hieratic. (Papyrus Berlin 10463). There is a photo <snip>


(as per EEF; moderator)

See Hannig: [B_568] has a word _wiAwiA_ "helpless, weak, slow, passive, incapable"

<snip> [See] Dr. Meeks': "L'Année Lexicographique, Égypte ancienne" [NO CATNYP]


My notes on Hannig query:

Hannig's Woerterbuch

Hannig, R.  _Grosses Handwoertebruch Aegyptisch-Deutsch_. 1995, 2000. (Mainz:van Zabern)

[B_568,rvw] CATNYP# *O-*OBOG 99-7510

Grosses Handwörterbuch Deutsch-Ägyptisch : (2800-950 v. Chr.) : die Sprache der Pharaonen / von Rainer Hannig.” Mainz : P. von Zabern, c2000.

See also Hannig's "Kulturhandbuch Aegyptens"


(as per M. Tilgner; EEF; 121402)

Re: letter from Sennefer, the Mayor of Thebes, to the tenant-farmer Baki.

Original hieratic known as: (Papyrus Berlin 10463).

Bought by Prof. Carl Schmidt in Egypt in 1935.

Now at: the Egyptian Museum in Berlin.


AEB 63.0086

CAMINOS, Ricardo A., Papyrus Berlin 10463, JEA 49 (1963), 29-37, 1 fig., 2 plates.

Editio princeps of a Berlin XVIIIth Dynasty letter (seal impression points to Amenophis II), sent by the mayor of Thebes, Sennefer (Theban Tomb No. 96) to the tenant-farmer Baki, son of Kysen. The sender informs the adressee that he will arrive in three days time at Hw.t-sxm and expects that certain preparations will be duly carried out at the moment of his coming.


see also AEB 63.0289 and K. Baer, JEA 51 (1965), 137.    J.F.B.

AEB 80.0196

GÖRG, M., Lexikalisches zum Papyrus Berlin 10463, JEA 66 (1980),


Discusses the word mrHnn citing possible links with new Babylonian marhanu 'a wood'. Also sbw rendered by Caminos as 'boards' and sabbu 'a tree' in AEB 63.0086.    E.P.U.

Color photographs of the Hieratic original is in:

Ägyptens Aufstieg zur Weltmacht, Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1987

catalog of an exhibition in the Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum, Hildesheim, 1987), p. 129


"I know that you are lethargic and enjoy eating while lying down." (Edward Wente, Letters from Ancient Egypt, Scholars Press, 1990, pp. 92-93)

"... ich weiß, daß du faul und gefräßig bist." [I know that you are lazy and greedy.] (Leben im ägyptischen Altertum. Literatur, Urkunden, Briefe aus vier Jahrtausenden, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, 1986, pp. 26-27) -

Other German translations also have "lazy".



BALDUINI: (English) codex; Henry VII

Jews need permits to live and work in a town - a “privilege” for which they have to pay the prince, bishop or town magistrate. Here, the “privilege” of the Jews of Rome is reaffirmed by Emperor Henry VII.

Miniature in the Codex Balduini, early 14th century.



BANAKI: (Greek) collections at museum of

[O_065,rvw] NO CATNYP

BOBST# PA3312 .G74 2000

Greek papyri in the Banaki Museum [Mouseion Benake] from the collections of the historical archives / edited by Eustathios Papolychroniou.”

Athens, 2000.

BARCELONA: (Greek) papyri



BARCINONENSIS: (Latin) tragedy

[Y_005,rvw text and commentary] SUMMIT# PA 6140 .A52 1988

“Alcestis Barcinonensis : text and commentary.”

Leiden, 1988.


Liberman, Gauthier "L'Alceste de Barcelone (Alcestis Barcinonensis)" RPh 72.2 (1998) 219-232 -+-


“The tragedy "Alcestis Barcinonensis", which was recently (c. 1982) found”


Title: Alcestis Barcinonensis: Text and Commentary (Mnemosyne Supplement 103) by Miroslav Marcovich ISBN: 9004086005 Publisher: Brill Academic Publishers Pub. Date: November, 1988 Format: Paperback List Price(USD): $31.50


BASEL: (Greek and Coptic) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) See “Papyruskunden der Offentlichen Bibliothek der Universitat zu Basel” by E. Rabel and W. Spiegelberg, Berlin, 1917.

P.Bas. 2. Transport of requisitioned (?) camels:

(Greek; AD 190; from Soknopaiou Nesos)


BASP: publication


CATNYP# L-11 2547

“The Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists [ASP].”

Urbana, Illinois, 1963-?

NYPL has holdings in room 108.



BATAV.: (Greek and Demotic) papyri

P.Batav. 3. Bail à ferme de la terre "La Pointe":

(Greek and Demotic; 109 bce; from Memnoneia)


BATTERY: (Arab and Roman?) ancient

But Konig's electric battery did not go away. In fact a lot more of them were found in Parthian settlements near Baghdad.

The battery Konig discovered consisted of a pottery jar 14 centimetres (5 1/2 inches) high and 8 centimetres (3 inches) in diameter with a 3.3 centimetre (1 1/2 inches) opening at the top. Inside this opening, and held in place with asphalt, was a tube made of a copper sheet. The tube was sealed at the bottom with a copper disc held in place with more asphalt. Suspended from the asphalt lid was an iron rod which hung down inside the centre of the copper roll.

BEATTY PANOPOLIS: (Greek) papyrus

(as per E. G. Turner) (Greek) P. Beatty Panop. ~350 CE.


“Papyri from Panopolis in the Chester Beatty Library”

Published by T.C. Skeat, Dublin, 1964.


Urkunden aus Panopolis:

P.Panop. 1. Lease of land: (Greek; 298 AD; Panopolis)

P.Panop.Beatty: Papyri from Panopolis in the Chester Beatty Library Dublin.

Bad link?


BEDE: the Venerable

See UHN: p. 200 re VENERABLE BEDE ~1200 CE see MS Alcobaca 394 (426), FOLIO 252.






BEHEIRA: (OK; AE) temple unearthed at Kom Al Hesn


BEINEKE: Library at Yale






BELLOWS: a tool full of hot air

(as per S. Whittet) Was introduced to AE ~1700 BCE by the HYKSOS.


(as per S. Whittet; EEF; 071102)

Re: the difference between sufficient temperatures in the making of faience and a blast furnace for iron.  It

is more than just temperature.

Particularly in regards to wootz it can be a combination of temperature

and the addition of impurities such as nitrogen or zinc.

Temperature fluctuation is worth some consideration.

A fortuitous property of accidently heating and cooling iron

appears to be the formation of fullerenes [tempered steel]

(as per EEF; S. Whittet)

Re: nitriding.

This can be done quite accidently at low temperatures (bread oven)

by the addition of legumes and other organics that concentrate nitrates.

The result is a hard non brittle edge

While the above article mention temperatures that are higher

than might be expected from a bread oven operating without a bellows

(1000 10000[?] C in a sealed crucible) in making Damascus steel it was

common to use lower temperatures over a longer time with carbon

being added by the addition of organics that in some cases contained

traces of nitrates.

In a desert country its perfectly reasonable to expect that ovens would

be fueled by straw and beanstalks rather than chopped up trees.

Legumes fix nitrogen in nodules attached to their roots.

Re: 4th dynasty had only copper, since that was the only material of that period found in tools.

<snip>sophisticated tooling and tool bits sufficiently hard to core granite. The answer for that was

diamond-tipped saws and drills.

Not to digress but abrasives need not be diamond tipped. Simply running

a bitumen covered rope through sand produces a wire saw that will cut

all but the hardest stones.

The same thing applies to drill bits. Some cores do show a hard point

was used but allowing jeweled points represent a technology that

comes at a later date; some metal working technologies that developed

quite early such as the ability to make wootz, nitriding, and the addition

of zinc and or antimony to copper would have allowed for very hard


Re: use of that wood/charcoal in kilns to make fayence or iron.

In making charcoal if a nitrogen rich organic material was used

such as bean stalks or vines the result would be a hard edge

there is also the possibility that the ancient Egyptians copper

contained enough zinc to harden the edges of their tools

the accidental creation of fullerenes in an edge by temperature

variations that allowed a bloom to repeatedly melt and cool

would also have been possible.

(as per EEF; 041904) see two furnaces discovered.


BEN SUEF: (AE; OK) Pharaonic period Tombs

122802_Find more details from Spanish Team at Ahanassya district of Beni Suef province, 60 miles south of Cairo. See SCA report [when published].

the official Egyptian State Information Service (SIS) announcement on their website:

“The Egyptian-Spanish mission unearthed an important Cemetery that dates back to an ancient era (2260-2050BC) at Ihanasia al in the southern Egyptian governorate of Beni Suef, (known as) Heraclupolis magna during the Greek era.”

the work is being carried out on behalf

of the Museo Arqueológico Nacional of Madrid


BENNU: (AE) mythological bird; symbol of Osiris

(as per E.A. Budge) See also PHOENIX (Greek)


BERKELEY: college

Many useful links provided by the following link.



=[Reports of the Society for Science History]


[B_603,012205,8.5 via Milo Gardner, PDF]
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte #26, (2003) pp.1-16:
Article [in German] by Tanja Pommerening


BERLIN: (hieratic; MK; and Greek; demotic) papyri and ostraca

(as per S. Lorber) Berlin: two [math] sources:

First is Berlin P. 10500 (sixth dynasty).

Second is Berlin P 6619 (square roots!; math) from 1850 BCE, AKA THEBES Papyrus.

See Berlin P 6619 in ZAS 38 and ZAS 40.


(as per Gillings; Peet [B_226a]) Dynasty XIX.


"Ein Mathematisches Handbuch der Alten Agypter", by Eisenlohr, Liepzig 1877. Containing the first [illegal] publishing of RMP plates. See RHIND.

(as per 2terres) NO CATNYP Pap. dem. Berlin 13603; Mainz and Papyrus of Hapi-Ankh.

(as per D. Meeks) seek demotic P. Berlin 3113

[B_008,MISC, ZAS], (as per T.E. Peet) "Zeitschrift fur agyptische Sprache"

CATNYP# *OBH+Zeitschrift, published by Schack-Schackenburg with a reference to Borchardt. 1863.

I visited this book but it was crumbling.

No images! I believe it is also preserved on Microfiche.

(Origin=Theban?) See "Story of Herdsman", Dynasty XII?

See this link to Berlin P. #3024. (At Staatliche Museum, Berlin)

[B_038,IMG,HOUSE] CATNYP# *OBKQ 75-2082

"The report about the dispute of a man with his ba : Papyrus Berlin 3024.”

Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1970, by Hans Goedicke.

With excellent images and translation.

H. Goedicke makes reference to the story of Sinuhe,

a description of a confrontation with a Beduin Sheikh.

He also refers to a Victory Song inscribed in the Sixth Dynasty tomb of Weni and The

Instruction of King Merikare.

H. Goedicke's translations include the Man’s Ba telling him:

1. "Death is the end of senseless motion"

2. "Ultimate salvation is an outflow of Divine mercy"

3. "I shall alight after you weary"


(as per EEF; G. Gibson; 112703)
There is a very clear and interesting discussion of the ka, the ba,
and other aspects of humanity in James P. Allen's grammar:
Middle Egyptian:An Introduction to the language and culture
of hieroglyphs. (Cambridge, 1999).
Chapter 7: Essay 7, "Human Nature."


(as per LEX)

See Hieratische P. aus der Konigl. Museen zu Berlin 1901-11.

P. 3019= political

P. 3038= medical, see Wreszinski, Liepzig, 1909

P. 3043= P. Koller

BM 5645= admonitions.

[B_037,IGNR] CATNYP# *OBH (Munchner agyptologische Studien, 18)

"Das Gesprach eines Mannes mit seinem ba, (Papyrus Berlin 3024)”

Berlin, 1969, by Barta Winfried.

Similar to H. Goedicke’s work (above), in German, with smaller images.

No copies made.

(as per EEF; 041203)

See LA V, 535-6, s.v. "Schatten" [Shadow]

[B_115,rvw] CATNYP#*OBZ 88-4462, “Le voyage de la deesse libyque : ein Text aus dem “Mutritual” des Pap. Berlin 3053 / Ursula Verhoeven, Philippe Derchain.”, Bruxelles, 1985

Includes images of the Hieratic.

(as per D. Fowler) Seek P. Berl. Leihgabe. (Math?; Greek)

(as per E. G. Turner) P. Berl. Leihg. In “Berliner Leihgabe greichischer Papyri”, by T. Kalen, Uppsala, 1932.

(as per E. G. Turner) See (Greek) P. Berl. Frisk in “Bankaten aus dem Faijum nebst anderen Berliner Papyri”, by H. Frisk Goteborg, 1931.

(as per E. G. Turner) P. Berl. Moeller in: “Greichischer Papyri aus dem Berliner Museum” by S. Moeller, Goteborg, 1929.

(as per E. G. Turner) P. Berl. Zilliacus in: “14 Berliner Papyri” by H. Zilliacus, Helsingfors, 1941.

(as per S. Katary, [B_100]) 

P. Berlin 3047

Dates to year 46 of Ramses II

Mentions lawsuit concerning land distribution.

(as per Y. Muffs) See [W_012], ELEPHANTINE.

P. Berlin 9784 (Amenophis IV, XVIII dynasty).

A legal document pertaining to the rent of a slave.

O. Berl.: (Greek)

P.Berl.Bibl.: Frammenti di papiri greci asservati nella Reale Biblioteca di Berlino

P. Berl. Bibl. 1=SB 1.421. Official orders concerning a procession

(Greek; AD 236)

P.Berl.Bork. 1: (Greek; AD 298-330; from PANOPOLIS)

Zbigniew Borkowski, Une description topographique of the immeubles A Panopolis = P.Berl.Bork., 1975

P.Berl.Brash.: Select Papyri from West-Berlin

P.Berl.Brash. 1= BGU 13.2215. List of temples.:

(Greek; AD 298-330; from PANOPOLIS/ Arsinoite)

P.Berl.Frisk: Bankakten aus dem Faijûm nebst anderen Berliner Papyri

P.Berl.Frisk 1. Bank records [accounts] from the Arsinoitês

(Greek; AD 155)

P.Berl.Leihg.: Berliner Leihgabe griechischer Papyri

P.Berl.Leihg. 1.1. Monthly reports of sitologoi from Theadelphia

(Greek; AD 164)

P.Berl.Möller: Griechische Papyri aus dem Berliner Museum

P.Berl.Moeller 1.: (Greek; AD 300; Herm<Lykopolite)

P.Berl.Sarisch.: Berliner griechische Papyri, Christliche literarische Texte und Urkunden aus dem 3. bis 8. Jh.n.Chr

P.Berl.Sarisch. 10. Letter from the Hêrôninos Archiv; from Alypios (Greek)

P.Berl.Thun.: Sitologen-Papyri aus dem Berliner Museum

P.Berl.Thun. 1.=P.Berl.Leihg. 1.1;SB 3.7193 (Late Greek)

P.Berl.Zill.: Vierzehn Berliner griechische Papyri

P.Berl.Zill. 1. Fort construction in Hêrakleopolis:

(Greek; 156 bce; from Herakleopolis)


(as per EEF; 011603)

Article: The Scribbling-Pad of Djemontefankh Son of Aafenmut,

Priest of Amonrasonter and Overseer of the King's Treasury

(P. Berlin 3048 Verso) - Koenraad Donker van Heel


"Acts of the Seventh International Conference of Demotic

Studies: Copenhagen, 23-27 August 1999", ed. by Kim Ryholt

CNI Publications 27, Museum Tusculanum Publ., 2002, pp. 401

+ 16 plates, Cloth ISBN 87-7289-648-5, $117.00.


(as per T. E. Peet; [A_002=B_092])
See VZZ and also see 6th Dynasty P. Berlin 10500 [math content; metrology].


(as per EEF; M. Tilgner; 082303)
Digitized article from the journals of the Royal Prussian Academy of
-- Adolf Erman, Gespraech eines Lebensmueden mit seiner Seele. Aus
dem Papyrus 3024 der Koeniglichen Museen, in: Abhandlungen der
Koeniglichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin
1896, Philosophische und historische Abhandlungen, Berlin, 1896,
pp. 1-77, 10 pls. [AKAW]


10 plates showing pBerlin 3024


BEROLINENSIS: (Greek) papyrus and codices

AKA P. Berol.


(as per ZPE; D. Fowler) Seek “Greek Papyri: Fractions and Tachygraphy”,

Anagennesis 3 (1983) 167-188; 200 BCE.

Fragments of tables of thirds and quarters.

See also P. Freib. i 1 in above text. Math.


[B_116,IMG,8.5] CATNYP# *OBKQ 90-9474, “L’editto di M. Sempronius Liberalis / Silvis Strassi Zaccaria.”, Trieste, 1988.

Includes image of P. Berol. 7089 (Greek ~150 CE).

[B_117,rvw] CATNYP# JFE 97-3272, “Summa codicis berolinensis : studio ed edizione di una composizione “a mosaico” / Luca Loschiavo.”, Frankfurt, 1996.

May include images of P. Berol. 8502 (in Greek).

Roman and Canon Law.

(as per E. G. Turner) See W. Schubart’s work,

“Papyri Grecae Berolinensis.”



BETH SHE’ARIM: (Hebrew) insrciptions

BEZAE: (Greek) Bible manuscript

New Testament Manuscripts

05 D; Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis; fifth century; images




BGU: (Greek studies) publication

=Aegyptische Urkunden aus den [Koniglichen] Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin, Griechische Urkunden, Berlin, 1895-?


BI: Biblical Interpretation/Publication

BI=Biblical Interpretation (but sometimes…)

[B_411,JH,8.5] CATNYP# *PDB 93-579

”Biblical Interpretation.”: 1, 3 (1993), E. J. Brill, Leiden.

“The Cult of the Dead and the Theme of Entry into the Land.”

Alan Cooper (Hebrew Union College)


Bernard R. [Raphael] Goldstein (University of Pittsburg)

*An earlier version of this paper was presented at a session devoted to “Northwest Semitic Ancestor Cults” held at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature.

Biblical consideration of paradigm:

“Why is this told as it is?”

“Polemical intent”

“trappings of amphictyony”?

Beersheba = 7 sheep!

Ref to CBQ:= new See Karel van der Toorn, “The Nature of the Biblical Teraphim in the Light of the Cuneiform Evidence,” CBQ 52 (1990), pp. 203-222. No EEF data.

Ref to HUCA=new Hebrew Union College Annual


Ref to HSM?= new NO EEF data

Reference: to elohim see shenit? See god vs gods (plural)?

Elohim [literally gods] = Deified Ancestors?

Reference: to Ugaritic Epic of Aqhat.

Considerations of the Ugaritic cult of the Dead.

Considerations of the many stele dedicated to yhwh

Ref to WMANT, 57?

Ref to OTL, 1972?

See also REIF for other works of B. R. Goldstein.


BIBLIOTECA ITALIANA: (AE) CUBIT references from serials

(as per RLIN)

BIBLIOTECA ITALIANA: Milan, 1840, Antonio Fortunato Stella


BIBLIOTECA ITALIANA: Milan, 1840, La direzione del giornale


BIBLIOTECA ITALIANA: Milan, 1816-19, Terza Edizione.

I am looking for Biblioteca Italiana di Milano.

No. XCVII and XCVIII, 1824, p. 45.

Cubit stuff.

Occasionally mistakenly cited as BIBLIOTECA ITALIANO


BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE: (MK) papyri collection

(as per S. Katary, [B_100])  

P. Bibliotheque Nationale 198, III (No. 47 LRL)

Mentions grain provisions for the workmen of the Theban Necropolis

P. Bibliotheque Nationale 199, III (No. 48 LRL)

Mentions details of Viziers role in collecting grain revenue

(as per EEF; M. Tilgner)

* Digitized book from the Bibliotheque Nationale de France:

Charles Palanque, Le Nil a l'epoque pharaonique, son role et son culte

en Egypte, Paris, 1903. 132 p.

See also OSIRIS.

BIFAO: publication

Articles of BIFAO

BIGA: (AE) graffiti; ancient island/city

(as per AEB 85.1319) Seek work about the “oldest temple of Biga”,

by Rawlins, Dennis.

This work questions the latitude placement of temples and discusses a possible knowledge of the Earth’s shape (and position in the Solar System ?).

I anticipate some math content.

[B_138,OS,IMG] CATNYP# OBKM++(Egypt. Antiquities, Service des. Temples immerges de la Nubie. Temple of Bigeh)

“The Temple of Bigeh” by Blackman, Aylward M. Le Caire 1915.


This text based on results of a survey voyage of 1910.

See demotic graffiti.

Greek inscriptions.

Hieroglyph temple wall inscriptions.

Arched gateway.

See also RYLANDS; [B_093] which refers to Blackman’s work.

BILALAMA: (Cuneiform) Codex

(as per Y. Muffs) see JCS 5 1951. p. 104-122



BILGAI: (AE) stela from

(as per S. Katary, [B_100])  See ZAS 50 (1912), pp. 49-57


BILINGUAL: (Greek and Demotic) papyri

Pap.Biling.: Recueil de textes démotiques et bilingues

Pap.Biling. 13.:

(Greek and Demotic; AD 148; from Soknopaiou Nesos)

BINGEN: (late Greek period in Egypt) papyrus

at the Egyptian Museum in Berlin (Staatliche).

(as per EEF) Recent analysis of P. Bingen 45 suggests Cleopatra VII herself scrawled one Greek word (genesthoi) which translates to "so be it" or "so it shall be done" on this papyrus which states that she has authorized that a powerful Roman ally of Marc Antony is free to import goods to Egypt without tax or tariff. This (33 BCE) papyrus was recovered from mummy cartonnage.

See this link to an image.

See related links:

(as suggested by an EEF post)

Berolinensis 25 239 may also denote this same papyrus.

(as per EEF, M. Parsons)

According to the biography of Cleopatra VII by Michael Grant, Cleopatra Selene was not harmed after Octavian's victory. She was carried in the subsequent Triumphal parade in Rome, but was then given in marriage to the Numidian prince Juba II. They had a son, who succeeded Juba, but was executed by Caligula.

According to Grant's Notes,  the Roman historian Dio recorded this in book; LI.  Grant also says that Selene's likeness appears on Juba II's coinage, attested perhaps in Historia Numorum and in Bulletin d'archeologie marocaine IV.


(as per EEF, J. Habley)

After Cleopatra's death, her children with Marc Antony, Alexander Helios, Cleopatra Selene, and Ptolemy Philadelphus, were raised by Antony's widow, Octavia.  Cleopatra Selene married Juba II and was queen of Mauretania.

There is an interesting presentation (in windows media) at

which is focused specifically on the children of Antony and Cleopatra. It goes into great detail on Cleopatra Selene's husband and their offspring.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: format and compilations


See also GRAMMAR.


BIR DUNQASH: (AE) village; inscriptions

[B_406,8.5,JARCE] CATNYP# *OBH (American research Center in Egypt. Journal)

“Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt.”

Volume #33 [1996]:

“The Festival Structure of Thutmose III’s BUTO Stele.” p.69-76

By Anthony Spalinger.

Refers to his other work of more import to my query:

“Sothis and ‘Official’ CALENDAR Texts.” Pursue!

See extensive Bibliography.

BUTO Stele makes no clear-cut demarcation between the recurrent and non-recurrent feasts..”

Includes accounts of bread, beer, incense etc.; distributions by Festival vary.

“New Hieroglyphic Evidence for Pharaonic Activity in the Eastern Desert of Egypt.” P. 77 ff


See page 91 for image of this inscription:

“A well, it is 22 CUBITS distant from this mountain…”

See page 100 for image of this inscription:

“…It is 10 CUBITS distant from this inscription..”


BIR MUEILHA: (AE) village; inscriptions


BIRCH: (Author) Samuel Birch

(as per EEF; 091804)

* Online version of:
-- S. Birch (ed.), Records of the past: being English translations of
the Assyrian and Egyptian monuments, vols. I-XII, Bagster and Sons, London, 1873-1881 vols. II, IV, VI, VIII, X, XII - Egyptian texts
"Every Text here given is either now translated for the _first time_,
or has been specially revised by the Translator to the date of this

BOATS: get you about faster. See SHIPS.

(as per EEF; 091803)
<snip> a positive review of Cheryl Ward's book on AE BOATS.

Vymazalová, Hana [autor state]: Poznámky k Chufuove lodi (Notes to Chufu's boat) editor: el-Awady, T.; In: Pražské egyptologické studie. 1. vyd. 2003. Praha: Univerzita Karlova, Ceské národní egyptologické centrum, Ceský egyptologický ústav; s. 11-23. ISBN 1214-3189. Anotace: Nové objevy ke královským bárkám Staré ríše. (New discoveries concerning royal boats of the Old Kingdom.)

(as per EEF; 093004)


(as per EEF; 031905; T. Benderitter)

Amenemhat II, Hatshepsut discovery; Red Sea)

BOCKH: (Author)

[B_219,cvr only=B_149,ref,p. 2]

CATNYP# 3-VBDB (Boeckh, A. Metrologische Untersuchungen uber Gewichte)

“Metrologische Untersuchungen uber Gewichte, munzfusse und masse des altherthums in ihrem zusammenhange, von August Bockh.”

Berlin, Veit, 1838.

August Bockh, 1785-1867.

At the Science Library.

Identified via reference in [B_149]. See Lepsius.

See p. 237.


BODLEIAN: Oxford’s Library and collections

(Greek) Ostraca and manuscripts


(as per D. Fowler) See Ostraca Bodl. ii 1847; math; Greek;

dated 30 BCE – 14 CE. Land survey.

Seek Image and tr. In:

“Greek Ostraca in the Bodleian Library at Oxford ii” (1955).

O. Bodl. is AKA O. Tait. See following text:

Tait, Preaux, & others; GOBLO ii, 308.

See also O. Bodl. i 1957.3 ~200 CE. Math. Greek?

(as per E. G. Turner) O. Tait = Greek Ostraca in the Bodleian Library at Oxford and various other collections.

Vol i, by John Gavin Tait, London, 1930. [B_386,TAIT]

Vol ii, by J.G. Tait and Claire Preaux, London, 1955.

Vol iii, Indexes to vols. i and ii, ed. J. Bingen and M. Wittek, 1964.

O. BODL.: (Greek; 274 bce)



BODMER: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner)

The Greek P. Bodmer II includes (Gospel of St. John).

Codex, P. Bodmer XIV and XV include Luke and John.

See John P. Bodmer.

See the coptic books from Nag Hammadi in P. Bodmer XVII 6-800 CE.

(as per E. G. Turner) see the Publications of Bibliotheca Bodmeriana.

See P. Bodmer XVI; Exodus 1-15.


Nag Hammadi Codex VII / edited by Birger A. Pearson. (Nag Hammadi and Manichaean studies, 30). Leiden: Brill, 1996.


BOLOGNA: (AE) papyri

(as per A.H. Gardiner) seek P. Bologna 1094.

CATNYP# OBH+(Zeitschrift...) ZAS 65, 1930. Includes P. Bologna 1086. See [B_008]

(as per LEX) P. Bologna 1094, Arthur Lincke, Correspondenzen aus der Zeit der Ramessiden, Leipzig, 1878.

(as per S. Katary, [B_100])

P. Bologna 1094, 5, 8-7,1

A tax complaint by Prophet of the House of Seth at Punodjem to:

Steward (Sety).


BONONIENSIS: (Greek) papyri

P.Bon.: Papyri Bononienses

P.Bon. 10. Contract: (Greek; 46 bce)


(as per E. G. Turner) See [B_476=O_046,rvw] “Papyri Bononiensis” AKA P. Bon.

ed. O. Montevecchi. Milan, 1953.


CATNYP# *OBKQ (Bologna, Italy. Universitá. Biblioteca. Papyri Bononienses)

BOBST# PA3310 .B6

“Papyri Bononiensis (P. Bon.) / Editi e commentati da Orsalina Montevecchi.”

Milan, 1953-?.

Studies by Orsolina Montevecchi include Greek Papyri.

See University of Bologna

BOOK: search for it

Follow these links to a good source for texts.

You can’t buy them but you may find a glimpse of French books via GALLICA.

Try a Karlsruhe search

Try an Aigyptos search

Shop here. A great resource, but pricey:

Snoop here:

Search for books here!:

Search for books in HEIDI:

Search for digitized books here!:

Search for rare [Christian] books now reissued by Georgias.


ABAA=Antiquarian Booksellers’ Association of America, Incorporated.

[B_322,HOUSE] CATNYP# JFK 89-252

“Antiquarian Booksellers’ Association of America; membership directory.”

New York, 2000.

Other links offered via EEF.

(as per EEF)

<snip> in the case of exceptional discounts I suppose the

interest of the potential buyer may at times prevail:

-- Oxbow Books has a Summer sale of 83 Egyptological items,

with discounts of 50-75%. Several titles of Stephen Quirke

and of William Kelly Simpson, James Allen's “Genesis in Egypt”,

Barbara Adams' “Ancient Nekhen”, etc. See:

-- Eisenbrauns has, during July [2002], 50% off ARCE reports

and JARCE issues, see

(as per LB, personal correspondence; 080402)

Some of the best are the large museum bookstores (such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art - the corner of 5th Avenue and 82nd).  The Strand  (down on 4th Street and 828 Broadway) has a great art section, but because it carries used books you'll need to spend time digging around the piles.  Try also Ursus at 981 Madison Avenue (it's on a top floor of a hotel, of which I can't remember the name, but it's around 50th Street.  Also, Ther's Acanthus Books, at 48 West 22nd Street, #4, which specializes in antiques, Antiquarian Booksellers International, at Place des Antiquares #48, 125 East 57th Street, Argosy Bookstore at 116 East 59th Street, Hacker Art Books, at 54 West 57th Street, Harmer Johnson Books at 38 East 64th Street specializes in archaeology, Rizzoli at 31 West 57th has more textbooks, and Witterborn Art Books at 1018 Madison Avenue.

Catalog on file with AABA catalog see [B_332]

Also summer 2002 copy of oxbow book news on file with AABA catalog see [B_332]



[Dispute of a Man With His Ba]; See BM.


BOOK: learn to write well, damn it!

(as per L. Bailey)

Please refer to _The Chicago Manual of Style_,

or the _MLA Style Handbook_,

or Turabian's _A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and


or any similar writer's reference book for what is meant by

"scholarly in style."



See link for extensive images:

See Seti I sarcophagus and tomb: [B_586]; CEN

BOOK OF HOURS: (AE; MK) papyrus

(as per LEX) see BM 10569, R. Faulkner.



See ANI=BM 10470, seek Kerascher=Qerasher, and Netchemet.

AKA “The Book of Going Forth by Day”.

(as per LEX) BM 10490, Earnest Alfred T. Wallis Budge, BOTD, Fascimiles of the P. of Hunefer, Anhai, Qerasher [kerasher] and Netchemet... London, 1899.

(as per E. A. W. Budge)

See also: P. of Nu.

(as per F. Lopez) Seek works by Faulkner and Barguet.

(as per EEF) See this link to a glyph tr. of Budge’s Chapter XXX of P. of ANI.



papyrus of Nakht, BM 10471



(as per EEF; P. Robinson; 092104)
A number of MK coffins from el-Bersheh that are shown to contain
examples of the Book of Two Ways belonged to members of the nomarchal family of
Hermopolis from the late 11th and 12th Dynasty. There are also other
Coffins with these texts that belong to non-aristocratic people, such as
scribes, generals and physicians.




Obscure reference.

See excerpt below:
There is a Boraita in the name of the Rabbis: The heptad in which the Son of David cometh - in the first year, there will not be sufficient nourishment; in the second year the arrows of famine are launched; in the third, a great famine; in the fourth, neither famine nor plenty; in the fifth, great abundance, and the Star shall shine forth from the East, and this is the Star of the Messiah. And it will shine from the East for fifteen days, and if it be prolonged, it will be for the good of Israel; in the sixth, sayings (voices), and announcements (hearings); in the seventh, wars, and at the close of the seventh the Messiah is to be expected.’ A similar statement occurs at the close of a collection of three Midrashim - respectively entitled, ‘The Book of Elijah,’ ‘Chapters about the Messiah,’ and ‘The Mysteries of R. Simon, the son of Jochai’56 - where we read that a Star in the East was to appear two years before the birth of the Messiah. The statement is almost equally remarkable, whether it represents a tradition previous to the birth of Jesus, or originated after that event. But two years before the birth of Christ, which, as we have calculated, took place in December 749 a.u.c., or 5 before the Christian era, brings us to the year 747 a.u.c., or 7 before Christ, in which such a Star should appear in the East.57



(as per T. E. Peet) See “Des Grabdenkmal des Sahare”.

See [B_235b].


Codex Borgian, (Eine altmexikanische Bilderschrift der Bibliothek der Congregatio de Propaganda Fide), Herausgegeben auf Kosten Seiner Excellenz des Herzongs von Loubat. Von Dr. Eduard Seler,

(Berlin, Germany: MDCCCCIIII).


(Codex Borgian, a pre-conquest Toltec/Aztec, document from Tlaxacalan,

near the present site of Mexico City, dating between about A.D. 1350 A.D. & A.D. 1500).

[B_434,IMG,OS] CATNYP# *HBC 96-15080

“The Codex BORGIA : a full-color restoration of the ancient Mexican manuscript / Gisele Diaz and Alan Rodgers ; with an introduction and commentary by Bruce E. Byland.” New York, 1993.

See bibliography

Re: Aztec History/Calendar/Religion.

See also DRESDEN codex [B_611,OS]

BORSIPPA: (cuneiform) inscriptions

See early work by Jules Oppert; See Sennacherib and BAHISTUN; DARIUS; ACHAEMENID.

[B_087; B_290]

(as per W. Muss-Arnolt) See: Letter on the Borsippa Inscription.

(d Paris 15 My [Mai?] 60): JA XV (‘60) 443-9; against Sir H. C. Rawlinson’s claim to the priority of having translated the Borsippa Inscriptions.


BOSTON: museum of fine arts



BOSWINKEL: (Greek) papyri




BOTANY: pretty flowers

See JEWS; image from CAIRO GENIZAH!




(as per Jeff of Klear Elec., 082003)
See text called Metu-Neter

See link:


BOURIANT: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) “Les Papyrus Bouriant” ed. P. Collart, Paris 1926.

P.Bour.: Les Papyrus Bouriant

P.Bour. 10. Letter from Platôn to Nechthyrês: (Greek; 88 bce; from Pathyris)

See HIBEH; [O_008,8.5,IMG]

BOYLAN: (Author)

Patrick Boylan

See [B_050], HARRIS.

[B_164,8.5,NO IMG] CATNYP# *OBZ (Boylan, P. Thoth, the Hermes of Egypt),

Thoth the Hermes of Egypt; a study of some aspects of theological thought in

ancient Egypt, by Patrick Boylan.” Oxford, 1922.

For details see HERMES and THOTH.

BPAW: publications

BPAW=Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin.

Sitzungberichte. (formerly Monatsberichte).

(CATNYP# *EE P934), [B_200].

See also APAW.

[B_200] CATNYP# EE P934 1836-1921. (NYPL lacks: 1875; no. 44, Nov. 4, 1915).

Author: Preussische (Deutsche) Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin.

Title: “Sitzungberichte” (formerly Monatsberichte).

Berlin, 1843.

See pages 177-203 and see three plates.

Article: “R. Lepsius, uber den Bau der Pyramiden

(Cairo im Mai 1843.)”

A detailed analysis of the construction of the Pyramids at Giza.

With mention of: Elephantine Nilometer; Metropolis of Memphis; Saqarra/Sakkara Pyramids; Dahschur Pyramids; Sphinxes of Memphis and Thebes; Obelisks; Jomard; Herodotus; Perring; General Minutoli;

In the night of 11/12 March, 1822, the ship "Gottfried" was wrecked off the German north coast. It carried a cargo of 90 crates with Egyptian antiquities, collected by General Minutoli and destined for the Egyptian Museum in Berlin. The ship went down somewhere 'between Heligoland and Cuxhaven,' and in the present article a more precise determination is attempted. In the days following the accident, some mummies with their coffins washed ashore. They were later auctioned off, but it is impossible to trace their present whereabouts. W.H.

Pyramids at Abu Roasch; Pyramid at Abu Sir; Pyramid at Meidum; Zeigelpyramide at Illahun; the Hyksos…

A great place to start.

See also from this same titled volume of 1851.

An article is abridged and found on pages 371-373.

See Gotterkreis; APAW.

See mention of these works:

“Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften”

“Sitzungberichte der kaiserl. Akademie der Wissenschaften”

“Fontes rarum Austriacarum. Osterreichische Geschichtsquellen.”

“Monumenti antichi inediti posseduti da Raffaele Barone”

“Bulletin de la Societe geologique de France”

“Memoires de la Societe de Physique et d’Histoire naturelle de Geneve.”

Within the 1851 volume (Pages 369-370)

I also note mention of these works:

“Notice historique et bibliographique sur les travaux de Maine de Biran 1851”

“Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou

“Memoires de la Societe des sciences, lettres et arts de Nancy”

“Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy”

and others.

See Metrology.


See pages 203-209 and see the above three plates.

Article: “Entdeckung des Labyrinths in Agypten durch den Prof. Lepsius*.”

(Auf den Ruinem des Labyrinths, 20 Juni 1843.)

With mention of: Lac Moeris Pyramid; Jomard und Coutelle; Perring; Colonel Vyse; Clot Bey; Berket el Kerun; Herodotus

See Lepsius, [B_238]

Published by the Academy under different [Academy] names!

From 1836-1949.

Quite a mess. *None published 1939-1947?

Volumes for 1836-1837 are called 1-2 Jahrg [yearbook].

1. Koniglich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin.

(not available at NYPL.)1836-1918, no. 44?

2. Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1918, no. 45-1938?

3. Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 1948-1949.

4. Bericht uber die zur Bekanntmachung geeigniten Verhandlungen. 1836-1855?

[B_231] CATNYP# EE P934s (Indices for the above)1836-1881,



See UHN: p. 62: bone from the Magdalenian Era [19,000-12,000 BCE]

four sets of notches  “3”  “7” “9”  “5”




BREMER: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) See “Die Bremer Papyri (Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften)” [APAW]

Ed. U. Wilcken. Berlin, 1936

P.Brem. 1. Report from the Jewish war:

(Greek; 115 AD; from Herm<Apollonopolite Heptakomias)


BREMNER: (AE; hieratic) papyrus

(as per G. Moeller) seek Bremner P.

(as per Y. Koenig) (see BULAQ) Seek the Bremner-Rhind (Medicinal?) Papyrus (B.M.10188) and mentions works by Marriete.

(as per Y. Koenig) See Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca III, 3, 23.

[B_064,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKG (Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca. no.3),

"Papyrus Bremner-Rhind. The papyrus Bremner-Rhind, (British Museum no. 10188) / [transcribed by] Raymond O. Faulkner."

Bruxelles 1933.

[B_118,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKQ 00-10105, “Etude grammaticale du papyrus

Bremner-Rhind / Jaqueline Lustman.”, Paris, 1999.


BRITISH MUSEUM: papyri collections; See BM

Follow this link to the British Museum.


British Museum

Great Russell Street, London WC1B 3DG

tel.: +44 20 7323 8299, e-mail:

(as per W. Knorr; L. Bailey) See B.M. 10794; Demotic; math; Demotic.

Tables for n/90 and n/150. See work by R.A. Parker.

[B_337b] “Demotic mathematical Papyri”, Providence, 1972


(as per S. Katary, [B_100])

P. British Museum 10412

A letter from Scribe of the Necropolis (Nesamenope) to:

The Chantress of Amun Mutenope

A request for a land apportionment

10069 (Anastasi IX)=MSS.IVB.73

10202 (Hood)=39

10248 (Anastasi VIII)=MSS.IVB.74



See British Museum [B_222]. BM=British Museum (usually!)

[B_222,ref] CATNYP# *GXB+ (British Museum. Printed books. (dept. of) Catalogue of printed books)

“Catalogue of printed books. A-Rz.

London, 1881-1889.

400 parts in 88 volumes

[B_223,ref, IGNR] CATNYP# *GXB (British Museum. Manuscripts. Dept. of Catalogo di manoscritti italiani)

“Catalogo di manoscritti italiani esistenti nel Museo britannico di Londra.”

Torino, 1890.

Subject: Italian Manuscripts.           

This may point to lost Italian things.

(Visited on 1/5/02) Not particularly useful unless seeking medieval italian manuscripts.



CATNYP# OBH (Agyptologische Abhandlungen, Bd. 33)

“Der spatagyptische Papyrus BM 10808 / von Jurgen Osing.”

Weisbaden, 1976.

BOBCAT# PJ1805 .O8 Non-circulating.


(as per Math Forum; J. Hannah; 091002)
I've just finished reviewing Jens Hoyrup's ``Lengths, widths, surfaces.
A portrait of Old Babylonian Algebra and Its Kin'' (Springer, 2002)
<snip; see> BM 34568 (problem 12), and Hoyrup
attributes (p.391) it to the Seleucid era so it's quite late. However
he also gives earlier examples, including what he calls by far the
earliest ``the pole against the wall'' problem: BM 85196, problem 9
(page 275) - <snip; trigonometry?>. This seems to
be Old Babylonian so it's well before Pythagoras (2000-1600 BC).



See link to BM 85196 source text:
Tekst 4: Babylonernes geometri Flere af de babylonske lertavler afslo/rer, at babylonerne havde kendskab til forskellige geometriske resultater. Lertavlen BM 85196 (BM = British Museum) indeholder fx en opgave om en bjaelke, der st*ar op ad en mur, men som for neden er gledet lidt ud fra muren (se figuren nedenfor). Teksten er fra [Neugebauer 1935, pp. 47-48].


[B_610,IGNR,NO COPY] CATNYP# MTM (Casson, S. Essays in
Aegean Archaeology, presented to Sir Arthur Evans in honour of his
75th birthday)
“Essays in Aegean Archaeology, presented to Sir Arthur Evans in honour
of his 75th birthday”
Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1927.

See but ignore [no math] The Egyptian Writing- Board B.M. 5647,

bearing Keftiu [possibly semitic] names, by T. E. Peet. Pages 90-101.






BROOKLYN: (AE) and Greek and Latin papyri and ostraca

Parker, R. and Cerny, "A Saite Oracle Papyrus from

Thebes, in the Brooklyn Museum, papyrus# 47.218.3, Brown University Press,

Providence, 1962. NO CATNYP.

[B_045,IMG,8.5's] CATNYP#OBKQ 72-679, (as per Y. Koenig) see P. Brooklyn 47.218.50 (II, 9) "Le Papyrus Magique Illustre de Brooklyn", by Sauneron with Posener.

The images strongly resemble the structure of European (1600 CE) alchemical "art".

11/5/00, At the Brooklyn Museum I viewed a portion of what I believe was the magical papyrus.  The quality of the handwriting was poor.

(as per LEX) P. Brooklyn 47218156

See also Aramaic (Jewish law) papyri from ELEPHANTINE Island at the Brooklyn Museum.

See also Military colony papyrus (from Elephantine?).

I viewed a small hieratic portion 11/5/00.

See also the collection of cuneiform wall tablets at the Egyptian Gallery.

P.Brook.: Greek and Latin Papyri, Ostraca, and Wooden Tablets in the Collection of the Brooklyn Museum

P.Brook. 3. Petition to a Stratêgos: (Greek; AD 137; from Soknopaiou Nesos)


BROWN: university; JOSIAH search; cuneiform collection

BRUCE: (other Bruces)

See the BRUCE Museum in Connecticut near Interstate 95.

I have no idea what is in there!

[B_400;HOUSE] CATNYP# MWES (Bruce, L.) 85-1585

“The almost Unpublished Lenny Bruce / From the private collection of Kitty Bruce.” Pub. Running Press, PA, 1984.

See sarcasm attain new heights.


BRUCE CUBIT: not in common use!

In centimeters:


bruce body span to bruce cubit [forearm] =

~3+3/4 bruce cubits = a bruce body span

see 2.5 Buddha’s cubits [Haatha] =  One Buddha Hatthapasa

3.75:2.25 = 17:9 = 1.8888…maybe something for the Pyramidiots but not for me.



BRUGSCH: (Author)

Heinrich Karl Brugsch 1827-1894.

(as per ZAS, index# 0287) Seek work by Heinrich Brugsch, Seek ZAS 12.

“Ueber den mathematischen Papyrus im britischen Museum zu London”, 1874.

(as per ZAS, index# 1179) Seek ZAS 37, 1899. Medical/Dental papyrus.

(as per T. E. Peet) See “Thesaurus”.

[B_240=R_005,8.5=B_149,ref] “Geographie des alten Agyptens”, Theil I.

See Metrology.

See Cubits.

CATNYP# *OBQ (Brugsch, H. K. Geographische Inschriften altagyptischer

Denkmaler) “Geographische Inschriften altagyptischer Denkmaler”.

Liepzig, 1857-60. 3 volumes.

[B_240] Finally found at the WILBOUR.

Title: “Geographische Inschriften Altagyptischer Denkmaler gesammelt wahrend der auf befehl seiner majestat des konigs Friedrich Wilhelm IV. Von Preussen unternommenen Wissenschaftlichen Reise in Agypten…”

Leipzig, 1857.

Also in this volume and also on the title page:

“Die Geographie des alten Agyptens nach den Altagyptischer Denkmalern…”

See plate with cubit fragment.

Compare pages 97 and 142. See cubit fragment of Harris collection on plate (Taf.) XVI.

The plate shows these series of inscriptions:

1/11, 1/12, 1/13, 1/14, 1/15, 1/15, 1/24?

120, 1303+1/11, 350, “Millions”,

300,006=or more probable=800,000,

1,100,005=or more probable=1,500,000

So this suggests this as intended?







What do you make of this? Do tell.


[B_237,rvw] CATNYP# *OBOG+ (Brugsch, H. C. Dictionnaire geographique de l'ancienne Egypte)

"Dictionnaire geographique de l'ancienne Egypte, contenant par ordre alphabetique la nomenclature comparee des noms propres geographiques qui se rencontrent sur les monuments et dans les papyrus, notamment les noms des prefectures et de leurs chefs-lieux, des temples et sanctuaires, etc., compose par Henri Brugsch bey."

Leipzig, (J.C. Heinrichs), 1879-[80]?

[B_241,rvw] CATNYP# *OBK (Brugsch, H. C. Aegyptologie)

“Die Aegyptologie Abriss der entzifferungen und forschungen auf dem gebiete

der Agyptischen schrift, sprache und alterthumskunde von Prof. Dr. Heinrich

Brugsch.” Leipzig, 1891.



BRUSS.-BERL.: (Greek) ostraca

(as per E. G. Turner) O. Bruss.-Berl. = Ostraka aus Brussel und Berlin, ed. P. Viereck, Berlin-Leipzig, 1922.


BRUXELLES or Brussells: (demotic) papyri and (Greek) ostraca


(as per D. Meeks)

Seek Spiegelberg’s review of demotic papyrus Bruxelles 5, I.


[W_023,rvw] WATSON# 534.3 B64. "Le papyrus Nefer Renpet : Un Livre des Morts de la XVIIIme dynastie aux Musees royaux du cinquantenaire a Bruxelles / par Louis Speleers.." Bruxelles, 1917.

(as per M. Coenen; [B_069], DENON) Seek P. Dem. Brux E 8258; A letter of recommendation.

(as per Duke Univ.) Seek P.Oxy. Census. Math?

The Census Register P.Oxy. 984: The Reverse of Pindar's Paeans, ed. R.S. Bagnall, B.W. Frier and I.C. Rutherford. (Pap.Brux. 29). Brussels 1997.

(as per E. G. Turner) See P. Brux 7616 in “Recherches sur le recensement dans l’Egypt romaine, by C. Preaux and M. Hombert, Papyrologica Lugduno Batava, v, 1952.

O. Brux:

P.Brux.: Papyri Bruxellenses Graecae

P.Brux. 1.1. Census declaration from Therêsis: (Greek; AD 174)

(minimal math content)


BRYN MAWR: University; (Greek) papyri

Bryn Mawr College

101 North Merion Avenue

Bryn Mawr, PA  19010-2899

Tel 610.526.5000


BSAI: British School of Archaeology in Iraq.


BU NJEM: (Latin) ostraca

O. Bu Djem AKA O. Bu Njem:





BUBASTOS: (Greek) papyri

P.Bub.: Die verkohlten Papyri aus Bubastos

P.Bub. 1.1. Correspondence from the dioikêtês Klaudios Seouêrianos to the stratêgos of the Boubasteitês:

(Greek; AD 224; from Boubastos)


BUCHEUM: (AE; NK) texts; (Greek) ostraca

[Greek] O. Buch.:


BUCHEUM: (AE; NK) texts and ostraca

See: R. Mond and O. Myers, The Bucheum II = O.Bucheum, 1934

(as per ERBB)

A number of items from the excavation of 'Bucheum' at Armant were given to the Wellcome Historical Medical Museum by the Egypt Exploration Society in the early 1930s, including the articulated skeleton of a cow-mummy on a large section (3m x 2m of plaster & wood, and a life-size reconstruction of the mummy of a Buchis bull.

BUDAPEST: (magical; Greek?) papyrus

(as per Y. Koenig) P. Magic Budapest IV, 10.? Magic; Jewish?

[B_065,NO IMG,8.5's, JH] CATNYP# *PRM 73-6450, "Das altjudische Zauberwesen. Budapest, 1898." [Westmead, Eng., Gregg International Publishers, 1970].

Text is in German with Ancient Greek.

Search Keywords:

Ro-ach ha kadosh;



Sukkoth (festival of tents)=THUKA (Village of tents?);

Plinnius XXIX;




Refers to Greek papyri:

P. Paris (Zeile) 86; 1609; 1896; 3025

See P. Paris 3025 for Jewish Thoth reference.

See also P. London XLIV.104 by Wessely I 129?

The above text includes a study of Jewish TETRAGRAMS and ACROSTICS.

Also, a study of Chaldean and Ancient Babylonian calendar influences whilst Jews were in exile there. Jews influenced by, and influencing: Assyria, Syria, Persia (Iran), Greece and Rome.

Seek information about the Babylonian Talmud from 500 CE?

See the Babylonian Talmud, Sota, Albright?

As per [B_280,rvw,JH] seek [M] “Babylonian Talmud Munich Codex”

Reprint from Jerusalem, 1971. and seek other text:

Codex Assemani LXVI.?

To date, 10/9/01, I have no copies from this text.

See Revue Encyclopedique.




with this bit:

Taung (cubit) mite and thit are Myanmar measurements.

[C=] 1 Taung = 18 inches

1 mite = 6 inches [=1/3 C]

1 thit = the breadth of a finger



CATNYP# JFM 92-420 [shelved at room 108]


A quarterly publication [1991-]

Not a good source for more on lalitavistara sutra.


[Buddha general information]


Printed to file with; in place of [B_560]

this one says cubit about a hundred times



The township adjoining the Kutub Minar is known as Mehrauli. That is a Sanskrit word Mihira-awali. It signifies the town- ship where the well known astronomer Mihira of Vikramaditya's court lived along with his helpers, mathematicians and technicians. They used the so-called Kutub tower as an observation post for astronomical study. Around the tower were pavilions dedicated to the 27 constel- lations of the Hindu Zodiac.

See Keskinto


See UHN: p. 424 lalitavistara sutra.P. 424: on Buddha : Buddha’s response to the marriage quiz in “Lalitavistara Sutra”

describes an Indian cubit of 24 digits equal to two handspans; see greek cubit.

Also 4 cubits is an Arc [or a Bow]

See astronomy (ancient).

See Indian cosmology references to constellations i.e. [AE] decans.

(as per SIBL reference desk librarians) see Tricycle publisher of journal (held at 42nd st rm 108) on buddhism and the socratic method, seek electric or print index (religion/philosophy). Found and not helpfulSee UHN: p. 424 lalitavistara sutra.P. 424: on Buddha : Buddha’s response to the marriage quiz in “Lalitavistara Sutra”

describes an Indian cubit of 24 digits equal to two handspans; see greek cubit.

Also 4 cubits is an Arc [or a Bow]

See astronomy (ancient).

See Indian cosmology references to constellations i.e. [AE] decans.

(as per SIBL reference desk librarians) see Tricycle publisher of journal (held at 42nd st rm 108) on buddhism and the socratic method, seek electric or print index (religion/philosophy). Found and not helpful


See hattha and hatthapasa

And: Sugata-span: an ancient measure ( also from the Pali) based on the length of the Buddha's cubit or forearm.


Based on the Dharani-raja sutra  as spoken by the Buddha to King Isvara, this was one of five teachings given by Maitreya to Asanga in Tushita heaven. Considered too profound to be passed on during Asanga's lifetime, the Gyü Lamaí  was concealed in a stupa and rediscovered by Maitripa, Marpa's guru. Maitreya appeared to Maitripa to clarify difficult points and Maitripa spread these teachings widely. Essentially, this teaching consists of:


 1. Buddha
 2. Dharma
 3. Sangha
 4. Buddha-nature
 5. Buddhahood
 6. Buddha Qualities
 7. Buddha Activities





BULAQ: (AE) papyri and stele

(as per S. Lorber)

Bulaq papyrus 18: Look in ZAS 57, by Schack-Schackenburg.

(as per S. Lorber) see also Bulaq 10.

(as per T.E. Peet) see Boulaq 18 in [B_8+,IMG] ZAS 57, 1922, 51-68.

[B_019,OS,NO IMG] CATNYP #OBKQ++/Spiegelberg.W, Rechnungen aus der Zeit Setis I,"Papyrus Rollin" and pursue a reference to [Auguste?] Mariette.

(as per 2terres) Hieratic, Boulaq III, Louvre 5.158 NO CATNYP.

Embalmment ritual.

(as per LEX) Boulaq XI (tr. by T.E. Peet) in MELANGES, MASPERO.

[B_036,8.5’s] CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t.87, "Le Papyrus Boulaq 6: tr,

traduction et commentaire / Yvan Koenig, 1981.

See plate VIII for a numerical calendar reference and image.

See Recto on Plate VII; Calendar.

Little or no other math.

[B_180a,8.5,IMG,TR] CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t. 82, “Hommages Serge Sauneron, Cairo, 1979.

See work by Y. Koenig and math in Plate XXXII.

(as per Y. Koenig) Seek "The Historical Records of Ramses III"

and "The Texts of Medinet-Habu", p.55, note 24b. NO CATNYP. See MEDINET-HABU.

[W_015] WATSON# 88-B1106 "Guide du visiteur au Musee de Boulaq/ par Gaston Maspero." Published in Boulaq 1883. See MASPERO.

(as per LEX) P. Boulaq I-XXIII Auguste Mariette, Les P. egyptiens du Musee de Boulaq, Bd 1-3, Paris, 1871-86

(as per ZAS index) Seek Stele of Ramses IV at Musee de Boulaq.

As per [note 6] the following link:

6. The "Tomb Robbery Papyri" of the twelfth century include many references to shewtyew whose affiliations, if any, remain unstated. That these merchants were independent is suggested by the fact that "the scribes are otherwise particular in referring to the affiliations of witnesses for purposes of identification" (Castle). Similarly, an earlier document, Papyrus Boulaq 11, probably dating to the Eighteenth Dynasty, provides no affiliations for merchants who purchased meat and wine and, in one instance, paid in gold to the tune of 2.5 shat (see Topic III.4).

Hymne à Ammon-Ra: des papyrus égyptiens du musée
de Boulaq, Librairie A. Franck, Paris, 1874. XXXII, 304 pp. -
Hieroglyphic transcription and translation of:
pKairo [Cairo] 58038 (= Boulaq 17)

(as per EEF; Z. Horváth; 082504)
What is referred to as Papyrus Boulaq 18, actually consists of two,
apparently related documents from the 13th Dynasty (most probably
Sobekhotep II), which are conventionally labelled as the "larger"
and the "smaller manuscript".
As far as I know, none of them has yet been fully published. (My latest
information on the topic is that Shafik Allam has just been preparing
an ultimate edition.)
The researcher has to rely on the facsimiles published by Mariette
(Mariette, A.: Les papyrus égyptiens du Musée de Boulaq II. paris,
1872) which should be complemented by the transcriptions and a German translation of preliminary character from Alexander Scharff in ZÄS 57 (1922) 51-68 + plates ("Ein Rechnungsbuch des königlichen Hofes aus der 13. Dynastie")
Studies and articles on the document are too numerous to list here, but
I would like to recommend Stephen Quirke's book, which is partly based on his dissertation, The Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom. The Hieratic Documents. New Malden, 1990. There you will find an extensive study on the papyrus, new and important contributions to our understanding of the document, transcriptions as well as translations of certain parts of the manuscript and some corrections in the transcription based on paleographical grounds. A detailed and quite updated bibliography will also serve you.


(as per EEF; 082604)
* Maria Michela Luiselli, Der Amun-Re Hymnus des P. Boulaq 17
(P.Kairo CG 58038) (Kleine aegyptische Texte 14) Harrassowitz,
Wiesbaden, 2004. XXII, 123 pp., ISBN 3-447-04841-7, EUR 38,-
[D] / sFr 66,- / ca. US $ 47,-
This papyrus from the time of Amenhotep II contains an older hymn
to Amun, a hymn that had its echos in the Aton hymns of the
Amarna Period, and was very popular in Deir el-Medina (dyn. 19).
Hieroglyphic transliteration, transcription, translation, and


BULLAE: (Sumerian) math nuggets

BULLETIN DES SCIENCES: about 200 similar titles from France ~1828

I owe many thanks to Temple University and Harvard University Libraries for allowing me access to these very hard to find texts.

All of this pertains to CUBITS and was directed to me by the footnotes from Lepsius’ [B_149].

Note: As many as nine different series (sections) were published concurrently with this title, or one nearly identical, during the years 1810-1890.

Most prepared by the same group(s) of persons and published by the Imperial Publisher (Paris).

Most sections with more than ten volumes each.

All of the entries under this heading are to be kept in my archive with [B_224].














Au BUREAU DU BULLETIN, rue de l'abbaye, n. 3;

Chez MM. Treuttel et Wurtz, rue de Bourbon, n. 17; et

meme maison de commerce, a Strasbourg, rue des Serruriers;

a Londres, 30, Soho-Square;

Chez MM. Dufour et d'Ocagne, quai Voltaire, n. 13; et meme

maison de commerce, a Amsterdam;

Et chez M. Bossange pere, rue de Richelieu, n. 60.


[tome] entry#322 [NOT 332!] found in Tome 1, pages 281-291.

[only tome 1 and 2 are from 1824.]

322. Observations sur les Coudees Egyptiennes decouvertes dans les ruines de Memphis. By JJ Champy-Figgy

I copied the plate (of course).

It is just a CUBIT fragment from the 1/12 to 1/16ths.

With all the usual conflicts/variances.














Au BUREAU DU BULLETIN, rue de l'abbaye, n. 3;

Chez MM. Dufour et Ocagne, quai Voltaire, n. 13; et meme

maison de commerce, a Amsterdam;

Chez MM. Treuttel et Wurtz, rue de Bourbon, n. 17; et

meme maison de commerce, a Strasbourg, rue des Serruriers;

a Londres, 30, Soho-Square;

Et chez M. Bossange pere, rue de Richelieu, n. 60.


[1824] Tome Deuxieme

[tome] entry# 25.

25. Supplement aux Observations sur les Coudees Egyptiennes, decouvertes dans les ruines de Memphis. (Supra, tom. 1er., n. 332.)

[This is the original source of the 332 TYPO!]

[It is not Leppy's fault- This time!]

I found this entry in this tome on pages 20-23.

By JJ Champy-Figgy

(as per M. St. John, Re: the above)

Leppy’s Page 15  Footnote 4 quoting Champollion-Figeac on the subject of the

whereabouts of the slate or green basalt cubit acquired by Raffaelli. A

second [Leppy] reference, on the same page of [B_149], relates to a drawing of the cubit 'taken from the Bulletin' without mentioning which one of the 1824 issues.








De Monseigneur le Dauphin,









Au BUREAU CENTRAL DU BULLETIN, rue de l'abbaye, n. 3;

Chez MM. DONDEY-DUPRE, pere et fils, rue Saint-Louis,

au Marais, n. 46, et rue de Richelieu, n. 47 bis.

Paris et Amsterdam, chez MM. Dufour et d'Ocagne;

Paris, Strasbourg et Londres, chez MM. Treuttel et Wurtz.


[Tome 9] entry# 31

Found on pages 34-40.

31. NOTICE SUR QUELQUES ETALONS DE L'ANCIENNE COUDEE EGYPTIENNE RECEMMENT DECOUVERTS. Memoire lu a l'Academie Royale des Sciences, le 10 novemb. 1827, par M. Girard. See also [B_234a].

(Extrait textuel).

I also copied this and the cover and content pages of this and the cover and content pages of the only other tome from 1828, tome 10. See [T_003b].

[Which BTW, yields no cubit goodies.]

[T_003b,cvr only,with contents page,file with B_224]


Tome Dixieme.

[B_224,8.5’s,IS NOT=T_001;IS NOT=H_001] CATNYP# 3-VA (Bulletin des sciences technologiques) Library [said to] have: T. 1 (1824)- t. 19 (1831).

Paris, 1824-31.

Found at the Science Library.

Not useful but interesting.

[B_225,8.5’s,IS NOT=T_001;IS NOT=H_001] CATNYP# OEA (Bulletin des sciences mathematiques, astronomiques, physiques et chemiques) Library [said to] have: T. 1- t. 16. Annex

Paris, 1824-31.

Found at the Science Library.

Not useful but interesting.

BUTO: (AE; MK) cult of (LE) Town of; calendrical stela found at

(as per M. Brandt, EEF) Seek book by A.S. Bomhard:

[B_HOUSE] Le Calendrier egyptien. See CALENDAR.

This stela was found by the University of Tanta.


“On this stela, Thutmosis III is shown making offerings to the local goddess Wadjet represented with the head of a lion.”… “…heliacal rising of Sothis

See also:

Shafia Bedier, Ein Stiftungsdekret Thutmosis III aus Buto, Mayrence, 1994.

J. Leclant et G. Clerc, Fouilles en Egypte et au Soudan, Orientalia 58.

(as per JARCE index) See:

1996; #33; p.69-76; p. 77; p. 91. See [B_406]

1999; #36; p. 100-101

(as per E.A. Budge) See Legend of Isis seeking Horus at Buto.

See Herodotus' accounts of Egyptian pilgrimage to Buto.

A strange hieroglyphic stele records various forms of pilgrimage there.


[B_406,8.5,JARCE] CATNYP# *OBH (American research Center in Egypt. Journal)

“Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt.”

Volume #33 [1996]:

“The Festival Structure of Thutmose III’s BUTO Stele.” p.69-76

By Anthony Spalinger.

Refers to his other work of more import to my query:

“Sothis and ‘Official’ CALENDAR Texts.” Pursue!

See extensive Bibliography.

BUTO Stele makes no clear-cut demarcation between the recurrent and non-recurrent feasts..”

Includes accounts of bread, beer, incense etc.; distributions by Festival vary.

“New Hieroglyphic Evidence for Pharaonic Activity in the Eastern Desert of Egypt.” P. 77 ff


See page 91 for image of this inscription:

“A well, it is 22 CUBITS distant from this mountain…”

See page 100 for image of this inscription:

“…It is 10 CUBITS distant from this inscription..”

(as per EB)

also called UTO, EDJO, WADJET, or WADJIT, cobra goddess of ancient Egypt. Depicted as a cobra twined around a

papyrus stem, she was the tutelary goddess of Lower Egypt. Buto and Nekhbet, the vulture-goddess of Upper Egypt, were

the protective goddesses of the king and were sometimes represented together on the king's diadem, symbolizing his reign over

all of Egypt. The form of the rearing cobra of Buto on a crown is termed the uraeus. In mythology, Buto was nurse to the

infant god Horus and helped Isis, his mother, protect him from his treacherous uncle, Seth, when she took refuge in the Delta

swamps. The similarity of this myth to the Greek story of Leto and Apollo on Delos probably resulted in the later identification

of Buto with Leto.


Buto is also the Greek form of the ancient Egyptian Per Wadjit (Coptic Pouto, “House of Wadjit”), the name of the capital of

the 6th Lower Egyptian nome (province), modern Tall al-Fara'in, of which the goddess was the local deity.

BVAP: project

BVAP=BVAP=Beth Shean Valley Archaeological Project

Area Supervisor, Akhziv Excavations 2002: Paul James Cowie

BYBLOS SYLLABIC TEXTS: (Phoenician) syllabary from modern Jebeil

See work by Mendenhall, George, E.

“a group of nine texts carved in stone or stamped on copper plates. It was clear that the writing system was syllabic, not alphabetic, and was very closely related to Egyptian hieroglyphic characters.”

Circa 1800 BCE?

The Byblos Syllabary (by Steve Bett)

Nine text stamped on copper plates or spatulas and carved in stone were excavated at the modern site of Jebeil, ancient Byblos, by the French expedition under the direction of Prof. M. Dunand, during the years 1928 to 1932. They were published in 1945 in the monograph titled Byblia Grammata. The language recorded on these 9 texts would have been translated quickly had it been in reasonable conformity to known archaic Semitic dialects. They fall into the category of inscriptions in which both the writing system and the language are unknown. Because of this, it took 37 years for the first translation to appear. 

Mendenhall believes that the language is a primitive one, not crude but rather the source from which subsequent dialects evolved and specialized. Mendenhall thinks that the texts are early bronze age: pre-Hyksos and pre Egyptian Middle Empire: probably around 2400 b.c. 

According to Mendenhall, the thesis that the Canaanite alphabet was derived from the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system is too simplistic. The derivation was indirect in the sense that the designers of the syllabary were aware of Egyptian and borrowed the pictorial shapes but not the associated name and sound. The snake symbol, for instance, was given the native name, *nahas. The phonetic value was the first syllable of that name, and its epigraphic function was to signal the syllable na instead of the Egyptian word and syllable *ukraeus or *djet.


Colless, Brian E. The syllabic inscriptions of Byblos: Miscellaneous texts. IN: Abr-Nahrain 34 (1997) p. 42-57. Louvain: 1997.

[available at the Wilbour Library]

(as per AEB) 93.0160

HOCH, James E., The Byblos Syllabary: Bridging the Gap between Egyptian Hieroglyphs and Semitic Alphabets, JSSEA 20 (1990), [1993], 115-124.

As was established by Mendenhall, the acrophonic principle is a regular feature of the Byblos syllabary script. Following this principle, a number of new identifications are proposed (see also AEB 92.0191) The script was likely developed between the O.K. and M.K., the basic forms having been established before the XIIth Dynasty. The origin was probably connected with that of the Egyptian system of group writing, which seems to have been devised in the O.K. There is a surprisingly close connection to the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet. A number of signs can, moreover, be identified with later Canaanite counterparts. Other signs survive in Old South Arabic (Sabaean) and Ethiopic scripts.


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