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Last updated 12/25/05




See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID


AAHMOSE: (MK; AE) Pharaoh; not Ahmes of the RMP or EMLR

Notes from 120602 lecture at Met: Speaker: Stephen P. Harvey:
Early 18th Dynasty monuments (just after “expulsion” of the Hyksos).

Review/research the Stele of Tetisheri – see physical dimensions
About 6’ (?4 cubits high)
Tetisheri is grandmother to AAHMOSE (Ah – moh – seh)
Khamose is possibly Aahmose’s Uncle or Brother
See Aahmose’s pyramid temple with assymetrical corner in harmony with adjacent Aahmose-Nefertari temple (She was probably his wife and sister)
Stele found 1902 by Corelli?
Surviving casing stones of lost Aahmose Pyr. Are beveled to 62-65 degrees.
Surviving bricks (mud) stamped with various names:
1. Aahmose-Nefertari (wife of Pharaoh)
2. Neferperet (Chief treasurer of Tura Quarry) [reopened for access to fine limestone for casing stones and other projects after expulsion of Hyksos
Sometimes Aahmose’s wife called (on brick stamps) the “Mother of the king”
This suggests a coregency period during Aahmose’s reign.
See also Deir el bahari (pronounced dehr-el-bahree)
Stele (pronounced steela)
See 90 x 70 meter enclosure [SQUARE Corners!] with 4 corner buildings.
Determine cubit equivalents and alignment.
Mr. Harvey to continue digs in this area – soon?
*Notes on file with [B_568] for no reason.

AARS: organization

This developing website will display examples of pre-dynastic Saharan art:



ABAA: association

ABAA=Antiquarian Booksellers’ Association of America, Incorporated.

[B_332;HOUSE]CATNYP# JFK 89-252 2000; Membership Directory.

New York, Antiquarian Booksellers’ Association of America

[B_332;alt] See 2002 catalog from Munshiram Publishers.

Selling: [B_559]; BUDDHA



ABACUS: counting boards

See UHN:
p. 125, suan pan=Chinese ABACUS,
p. 140: ABACUS and more
gesdab-dim mu=[SUMERIAN] wooden-tablet-for-accounts
su-me-ek-ku-u=[SUMERIAN] wood-hand-rule-read.
p. 201 SALAMIS table in fig. 16.73 ~450 BCE
this item measures 149 cm x 75 cm! Some of these inscribed lines are spaced in 25 cm multiples; see CUBITS; METROLOGY (inductive)
p. 290: RUSSIAN ABACUS=SCHOTY fig. 21.78
p. 293: fig 21.86 CHINESE SUAN PAN=ABACUS
p. 294: JAPANESE SOROBAN fig. 21.87-8
P. 562: See Mesopotamian "board of sand" [arabic] "takht al turab" AKA [persian] "takhta-yi khak"
p. 588: FIBONACCI'S LIBER ABACI means "Book of the Abacus";
p. 591: woodcut image from Freiburg 1503; shows a similar ABACUS to the table of SALAMIS.;


ABBOTT (with AMBRAS, AMHERST): (hieratic, AE) papyri

(as per Thomas Eric Peet) About AE Guards on trial for Tomb Robberies.


[B_041a, 041b,PIX r05.1] See transcriptions in CATNYP# *OBQ+++(Peet, T.E.), Volume two "Great Tomb Robberies of the Twentieth Egyptian Dynasty",1930, Oxford.

Volume one contains a translation of:

ABBOTT=B.M. 10221



MAYER Papyri.


See this link to Abbott (Tomb Robberies) Papyri.


[B_042,refs,IGNR,no copy] CATNYP# *ZO-*OBKG p.v.4,no.2 Papyrus Abbott Microform, Lauth, Franz Joseph. Munich 1971. This Microform is poorly produced from a badly damaged text!

Also includes: Berlin XI, Turin, Louvre 3092;5450;3145;3080.

Another work [?] by F. Lauth on this spool refers to the Munchner Ostracon and includes the familiar image of the Ramses IV Tomb papyrus.

See alsoTURIN.


(as per F.J. Lauth) Pursue the following keywords or works/Authors:

A. "Rituel Funeraire de Pamonth" [B_090,IGNR,BOTD] Demotic, by Eugene Revillout, Paris 1880.

B. Paul Guieysse on funerary papyri?

C. Mallet [Dominique?] with/by Maspero, G.

D. Lepsius. Melanges.

E. Pierret, P. See LOUVRE and NEB-QED.

F. Neb-Qed Papyrus.

G. Oppert, Jules. See OPPERT.


[B_043,IGNR,TRNC only,no copy] CATNYP#OBR+ (Maspero, G.C.C. Enquete Judiciaire a Thebes) Maspero, Gaston [1846-1916]

"Une enquete judiciare a Thebes au temps de la XXe dynastie: etude sur la papyrus Abbott", Paris 1871.


(as per E. G. Turner) Seek “The Amherst Papyri…of…Lord Amherst of Hackney” ed by B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt, London, 1900 and 1901,

2 volumes. See also HIBEH; more work by this team


As per [note 6] the following link:


6. The "Tomb Robbery Papyri" of the twelfth century include many references to shewtyew whose affiliations, if any, remain unstated. That these merchants were independent is suggested by the fact that "the scribes are otherwise particular in referring to the affiliations of witnesses for purposes of identification" (Castle). Similarly, an earlier document, Papyrus Boulaq [BULAQ] 11, probably dating to the Eighteenth Dynasty, provides no affiliations for merchants who purchased meat and wine and, in one instance, paid in gold to the tune of 2.5 shat (see Topic III.4).


(as per G. Maspero; [B_255; MARIETTE])

See La Revue Archaeologique; Tome XVI; (1859); p. 263.




(As per EEF, A. Eyma)

JEA 4 and JEA 22 include articles of p. ABBOTT.


(As per EEF, K. Sowabada; 061102) See:

J. Phillips, 'Tomb Robbers and their Booty in Ancient Egypt' in S.E. Orel

(ed.), Death and Taxes in the Ancient Near East (Lewiston, 1992)

pp.158-192 and references L. Pomerance,

'The Possible Role of Tomb Robbers and Viziers of the 18th Dynasty

in Confusing Minoan Chronology' in G. Carratelli and G. Rizza (eds),

Anticha Cretesi. Studi in Onore di Doro Levi (Catania, 1971) 21-30.


ABBREVIATIONS: George Orwell’s linguistic nightmare

Jump to my own list of compiled abbreviations:

[B_435,ref, no copy, disposed old ones] CATNYP# *R-SIBL P365.A28

"Acronyms, initialisms & abbreviations dictionary."

My first source for problem answers.


Other sources of abbreviations.

[aramaic studies; pdf download]




ABERDEEN: (University, Greek and Latin) papyri and ostraca

(as per E. G. Turner) Seek “Catalogue of Greek and Latin Papyri and Ostraca in the Possession of the University of Aberdeen”, by E. G. Turner, 1939.


P.Aberd. 15. Edict of Severus and Caracalla.: (Greek; ~200 AD)



ABINNAEUS: (Greek) archive of

(as per E. G. Turner) ABINNAEUS was a cavalry commandant ~340-350 CE.

See British Museum and Geneva Library.

No word breaks in these papyri.

See “Select Papyri”.

AKA P. Abinn.

See also “The Abinnaeus Papyri” edited by H.I. Bell et al, 1962.


P.Abinn.: The Abinnaeus Archive: Papers of a Roman Officer in the Reign of Constantius II (Greek; ~341 AD)


(as per E. G. Turner) ABINNAEUS was a cavalry commandant ~340-350 CE.

See British Museum and Geneva Library.

*No word breaks in these papyri.

See “SELECT Papyri”.

ABRAXAS: (Greek) papyrus of

(as per E. G. Turner) (Greek/Magical) from the Anastasi collection.



ABU RAWASH: (AE) brick pyramid AKA ABU RAWWASH AKA Abu Ruwaysh



[O_014=B_081,8.5, benchmark image]

CATNYP# *OBLF+90-13448
Not at BOBST but see bobcat# DT63 .S92 1987 Non-circulating
“The Brick Pyramid at Abu Rawash number “I” by Lepsius : a preliminary study / by Nabil Swelim.” Arch. Society of Alexandria, 1987.
Volume includes numerous plates and bibliography.
See plate XXXIX b for benchmark similar to that found in MEIDUM trench [trench #17?].
Text also available via COLUMBIA and Harvard and Yale University Libraries.

also spelled ABU ROASH, ancient Egyptian site of a 4th-dynasty (c. 2575-c. 2465 BC) pyramid built by  Redjedef, usually considered the third of the seven kings of that dynasty. The site is about 5 miles (8 km) northwest of Giza (Al-Jizah) on the west bank of the Nile. Of the pyramid superstructure very little remains, and some scholars believe that it was never finished--a theory reinforced by evidence that the walls of the mortuary temple next to the pyramid were hastily made of mud brick instead of the usual cut stone; the complex was also deliberately ransacked, as Redjedef was involved in a dynastic

struggle. Nothing remains of the pyramid's valley temple, but the causeway from it to the mortuary temple can still be traced.


An Early Dynastic (c. 2925-c. 2575 BC) private cemetery has also been found at Abu Ruwaysh.



ABU SIMBEL: (OK; AE) temple at city of



[B_180b,8.5,IMG, v. 2] CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t. 82, “Hommages Serge Sauneron, Cairo, 1979."

Images of Graffites reviewed by Olivier Masson.


O. Masson refers to:

Abou-Simbel, Inscriptions grecques, cariennes et semitiques des statues de la façade”, Centre de Documentation egyptologique, Le Caire, [1959]. By A. Bernard and A. Aly.


[B_062,rvw also] CATNYP# *OBK 88-2398

“Dictionnaire de la civilisation egyptienne / par Georges Posener en collaboration avec Serge Sauneron et Jean Yoyotte.”

Paris, 1985?


(as per EEF; Dr. Benoit Lurson)

Le speos decouvert par Amelia Edwards (A. Edwards, A Thousand

Miles up the Nile, pp. 494-519) se situe au sud du Grand Temple d'Abou Simbel et forme un petit temple independant, symetrique, au sud, de la chapelle solaire situee au nord (PM VII, pp. 97-98).

    Son etude architecturale a ete faite par H. El-Achirie et J. Jacquet,

Le Grand Temple d'Abou Simbel I,1, Architecture (CEDAE, CS no

46 A), 1984, pp. 23-24. Il est egalement decrit par C. Desroches

Noblecourt, Le secret des temples de Nubie, Paris, 1999.


ABU SIR:(OK hieratic) papyri; tombs


Abu = Father (Arabic; from the Akkadian cuneiform) and Abba (Hebrew) = [respected] Father

1/2 looks like the AE glyph for 1/2, or the modern “less than” symbol “<“.

(as per S. Lorber) Seek this text: "Aspects economique des nouveaux papyrus d'Abousir"

about grain and bread and beer. NO CATNYP.

I searched in the old catalog but need help finding this.

Not found via CATNYP under:

“aspects”; ”economique”; “Abousir” or “Abou sir”.

Which suggests it is an article in a larger publication.

See SAK:

[B_541,8.5,SAK] CATNYP# OBK 91-1788

“Studien zur altagyptischen Kultur.” Berlin, 1991.

Beihefte 4


2.pp. 167-176. Posener-Kriéger, Paule. “Aspects économique des nouveaux papyrus d'Abousir,” in Sylvia Schoske (ed.), “Akten des vierten Internationalen Ägyptologen-Kongresses: München 1985”, and within SAK - Beihefte 4, pp. 167-176. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag, 1991.

Contact info for Prof. Paule Posener-Krieger noted p. 366:

12, rue Gabriel Peri

F – 91300 Massay


(as per J. Legon) Fifth Dynasty.


(as per M. Gardner) Astrological


(as per 2terres)NO CATNYP [W_019;OS;see OS2]WATSON# 533.6 B771 plQ ser5. Hieratic Papyri in the British Museum. Fifth Series: Abu Sir papyri / edited, together with complementary texts in other collections by Paule Posener-Krieger and Jean Louis de Cenival", London, 1968.

This text includes related papyri from many different countries' museum holdings: Cairo; British Museum; Petrie; East and West Berlin (Staatliche).

These clerical papyri are related to the administration of activity in a 5th dynasty temple found at the plateau of Abousir. Active during the reign of Pr 3's (Pharaohs): Kakai and Isesi. Included are: lists of names; income accounts/ expense accounts and calendar/ feast accounts. See nfr = ZERO.

A reference is made to a bi-annual cattle cencus.

See Narmer Palette.

(as per the above text) Seek biographical info of King Neferirkare.


42. Posener-Kriéger, Paule, 1976. Les Archives du temple funéraire de Néferirkare-kakaï (les papyrus d'Abousir). Traduction et commentaire. Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale du Caire, Paris.

[B_018,OS,Prchs] The Abu Sir Papyri arementioned without image in:

CATNYP# *OBR+96-4441, "Late Ramesside Letters and Communications", by Janssen, Jac.J., 1991.

This text is sometimes referred to as LRL!

Above text includes:


Leiden I and Turin P. and P. Phillipps.

(as per T. E. Peet) URK, IV, 912. Tomb of Amenemhab.


(as per freespeech)

See work by Silverman, David P, JEA 61 [B_303], 1975, Math.


(as per E. G. Turner)

Pursue the (Greek) TIMOTHEOS roll from Abusir. [See B_397]; CONSTRUCTION; PETRIE.

AKA BUSIRIS AKA Abusir-el-Malaq.


The earliest surviving reference to Pythagoras' studies in Egypt appears in the work Busiris, written ca. 390 B.C. by the Greek philosopher Isocrates. See Isocrates, Vol. lll, p. 119. Harvard University Press, 1961.


(as per EEF; A. Eyma) NK tomb of “Bin-Amon” was found.


[B_347,rvw]CATNYP# *OBLF+ 97-894

Abusir III : the pyramid complex of Khentkaus / Miroslav Verner ; with contributions by Paule Posener-Krieger and Peter Janosi.”

Praha : Univeritas Carolina Pragensis : Academia, 1995.

See [B_346, B_348, by Verner]


[B_348,rvw]CATNYP# *OBL 97-2888

Abusir II : Baugraffiti der Ptahschepses-Mastaba / Miroslav Verner.”

Prague : Univeritas Carolina Pragensis : Academia, 1992.

See[B_347, B_346, by Verner] See NUBIA.

Vymazalová, Hana [autor state]: Úcetnictví v hospodárských archivech 5. dynastie (Accounts in economical archives of the fifth dynasty) editor: Onderka, P.; In: Egypt za vlády faraonu. 1. vyd. 2003. Uherské Hradište: Slovácké muzeum; s. 25-30. ISBN 80-86185-27-3. Anotace: Hospodárství zádušních chrámu, úcty. (Economy of the funerary temples, account.)


CATNYP# *OBH+(Journal of Egyptian Archaeology)
See JEA 61 (1975; p. 248-9) for a brief paper by David P. Silverman.
“Fractions in the ABU SIR papyri.”


ABYDOS: (OK; MK; AE) inscriptions; papyri;

solar barge excavations; stelae and mummies at



(as per H.O. Lange) seek "L'inscription dedicatoire du temple d'Abydos", Paris, 1867.


(as per EEF; M. St. John)

Seek Dr. Dreyer..."as yet no indication of any computationon these finds." See[B_269]; UMM EL-QAAB, MDAIK, and SCORPION.


(as per D. C. Patch; Gallery 28, Met.) seekMDAIK for recent work by Dr. Gunter Dreyer (Head of German Archaeological Institute) pre-dynastic tomb of SCORPION I (Suhag Province); math content; predynastic (~3250 BCE) flat beads with single glyphs and numbers. See[B_269]

Perhaps used like QUIPU or EXCHEQUER TALLIES?


(as per G. Oaten) See this link to a more detailed review of Dr. Dreyer's work.


See also (excavations at) Umm el Qaab.


Seek info about the tomb of Horus Aha=Menes [?] ~3000 BCE.


(as per J. Styles, EEF) Seek the following “sources of information on subsidiary burials associated with Early Dynastic royal tombs:”

Primary material: Flinders Petrie’s three volumes “Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty”; “Royal Tombs of the Earliest Dynasties”; “Tombs of the Courtiers and Oxyrhynchos”, and the second and third volumes of W.B. Emery’s “Great Tombs of the Earliest Dynasties”

Emery’s work contains field reports from Abydos, and Saqqara.

Also seek: [B_392,rvw]; Toby Wilkonson’s 1999 book , “Early Dynastic Egypt”.

[B_392,rvw]CATNYP# *OBY 99-4840

“Early Dynastic Egypt.” London, 1999, by Toby A. H. Wilkinson.


(as per EEF) See this link about Solar Barge excavations at ABYDOS.


See the link below for more about the Abydos Solar Barge.,2107,500271764-500423814-502643791-0,00.html


Review these French links (2).


(as per S. Katary, [B_100]) See “Egyptian Seagoing Ships”,

JEA 26 [B_303], (1940), pp 3-9.


(as per S. Katary, [B_100])  See F. Ll. Griffith, “The Abydos Decree of Seti I at Nauri,” JEA 13 [B_303], (1927), pp. 193-208, plates 37-43.


See this link about recent animal mummy excavations


(as per EEF 2001) A lecture will soon be given in Cairo:

"Recent Work on the Early Dynastic Royal Monuments at

Abydos" by David O'Connor (Lila Acheson Wallace Professor of Egyptian Art, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University) and Matthew Adams

(Research Scholar, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University)


(as per EEF 2001) See this link on the RAMSES II Stela.

“sold by the family of Edward Roger Pratt, of Ryston Hall, Norfolk, who brought it back to Britain in 1834.”,,2-2001551108,00.html


(as per M. St. John) Purchase CEN= “Cenotaph of Seti I at Abydos.”

1933, Frankfort.


[B_442=O_006,rvw] CATNYP# *OBL++(Capart, J. Abydos)

Abydos, le temple de Seti Ier; etude generale par Jean Capart.”

Bruxelles, 1912.

Jean Capart 1877-1947.

BOBST# NA216.A2 C162



CATNYP# *OBL++ (Mariette, A. É. Abydos)

BOBST# DT73.A16 M32 1998 Double Oversize

Abydos: description des fouilles executes sur l’emplacement de cette ville / Auguste Mariette.”

Hildesheim, New York, 1998.

Originally published: Paris, 1869-1880


See SETI I; [O_004]; Cenotaph I


122504_EEF_[Submitted by by Michael Tilgner]
* Online version of: Auguste Mariette, Catalogue général des monuments
d'Abydos découverts pendant les fouilles de cette ville, Imprimerie
nationale, Paris, 1880. VII, 596 pp., ills.


ABZU: (Research; AE) archives of



ACHAEMENIAN: (Old Persian cuneiform) inscriptions

The Achaemenian period (518-331/330 BC); Old Persian Inscriptions.


Achaemenians (Hakhâmanišiya): royal dynasty of ancient Persia, named after the legendary Achaemenes (Hakhâmaniš). Their rule lasted until 331 BCE.



A simplified family tree can be found here [link below]:


See Work(s) by Jules Oppert; [B_325,8.5,IMG,CUNE]



"Says Darius the King: by the favor of Ahura Mazda [See Zoroaster] I am such a man who is friend to right; I am not a friend to wrong. It is not my wish that the weak man should have wrong done to him by the mighty; nor is it my wish that the mighty man should have wrong done to him by the weak. What is right, that is my wish. I am not a friend to the man who follows the lie; I am not quick tempered; things which develop in my anger I hold firmly under control by my thinking power. I am firmly in control of my own [impulses]. The man who co-operates, I reward him according to his cooperation. He who does harm, him I punish according to the damage. It is not my wish that a man should do harm; nor is it my wish that he who does harm should go unpunished."


[B_325,CUNE;IMG,8.5’s,11/3/01]CATNYP# *OMH+ (Kossovich, K. A. Inscriptiones palaeo-persicae Achaemenidarum)

“Inscriptiones palaeo-persicae Achaemenidarum quot hucusque repertae sun ad apographa viatorum criticasque Chr. Lassenii, Th. Benfeyi, J. Oppertii [OPPERT] nec non Fr. Spiegelee editiones archetyporum typis primus ededit et explicavit commentarios criticos adjecit glossariumque comparativum paleo persicum subjunxit dr. Cajetans Kossowicz …”

Petropoli, 1872.

My notes and analysis of Tabula I [Darius I] on file.



CATNYP# *OMH (Pithawalla, M. B. Rock records of Darius the Great)

“Rock records of Darius the Great, by Maneck B. Pithawalla…with an introduction by H. G. Rawlinson…”

Poona, 1918.

With plates. See also ELEPHANTINE


Achaemenids , dynasty of ancient Persia. They were descended presumably from one Achaemenes, a minor ruler in a mountainous district of SW Iran. His successors, when Elam [Bahistun inscriptions in old Elamite] declined, spread their power westward.

[Link lost]


See inscriptions and translations:



ACHMIM OR AKHMIN OR AKHMIM:(OK; AE; Greek) papyrus and stelae; wood math tablets

(as per E. G. Turner) AKA PANOPOLIS.

Seek “Les papyrus grecs d’Achmim”, by P. Collart, Cairo, 1930.

See NYPL old catalog v. 148, p. 475, card 17.

[B_182a, no img,IGNR]CATNYP# *OBL, Institut Francais d’Arch. A la Bibliotheque nationale de Paris, Le Caire, 1931, “Les papyrus grecs d’Achmim”,

Tome 30 (3-4), p. 39-111? By P. Collart. [P. Collart 1902-?]

Literary papyri only, no math here.


ACHMIM Mathematical Papyrus = (Greek) P. Cair. [inv.] 10758.


(as per K.S. Brown)


(as per M. Gardner)


(as per M. Gardner) AKHMIM P. is also known as (AKA) the Cairo P.


See this other related link (post) from Milo Gardner.


See this related link (post) from David Fowler.[]


[B_040, POOR IMG,SIBL]CATNYP (forHM9 below)# JSP 76-614 (as per M. Gardner) The Akhmim Papyrus, a Hellene 500 AD to 800 AD papyrus, found along the Nile, was cited by Wilbur Knorr, Stanford History of Science Department, in:

Historia Mathematica, HM9, 1982, pp.133-171 "Fraction in Ancient Egypt and Greece.", Toronto, International Commission on the History of Mathematics.

This Greek papyrus contains two thirds tables (and other tables),

for n up to 10,000.

(The HM text is not available except at NYPL Science Library SIBL).

Above text also includes images of:

(Greek) P. Michigan 145; n/23 and n/29 tables.

(Greek) P. Michigan 146; n/(7-10) tables.


(as per W. Knorr) See work on unit fraction methods by B.L. van der Waerden.

“Die Entstehung der agyptischen Bruchrechnung.

Quellen und Studien”, B4, 359-382. See [B_341,rvw again]


Greek word Moria= parts (unit fraction parts)

W. Knorr confirms the special use of symbols for ½ and 2/3.

½ looks like the AE glyph for ½, or the modern “less than” symbol “<”.

2/3 is shown as beta’.

Introduces the procedure of Chorismos.


(as per S. Lorber) NO CATNYP, the following two items:

First is "Le Papyrus Mathematique d'Akhmim" by J. Baillet, 1892.

[B_179,IMG!,8.5] Mem.IFAO, V. 9, Fasc. 1, 1892.

"Le Papyrus Mathematique d'Akhmim" is listed in:

CATNYP’s old catalog v. 53, p. 396, card #8.

50 (unit fraction) problems in Greek from the Roman Period.

*W. Knorr cites the same.

*When I first researched this at NYPL I found instead the Coptic apocryphon. I had received the wrong tome because I did not know that MIFAO is NOT the same as Mem.IFAO.


(as per S. Lorber)

A second item from ABUSIR;

5 hekat divisions, Dynasty XII, on wooden tablets from the MK. (See [B_302]; below)

T. E. Peet mentions two wooden tablets, No.’s 25367-8, in the Cairo Museum, in RYLANDS [B_226a] but gives no citation.

See the citations from [B_230], page 216, pointing back to Peet

in: JEA IX [B_303], pp. 91 ff.


See JEA which in turn points to:


[B_304,8.5’s,IMG ]

CATNYP# (Recueil de Travaux Relatifs de la Philologie et a l’Archaeologie Egyptiennes et Assyriennes.)

See volume 28’s article by G. Daressy about AE math:

Rec. de Trav. XXVIII, pp. 62-72

“Calculs Egyptiens du Moyen Empire”

Note alternate numbers for the Akhmim wooden tablets:

[CG 25367 and 25368]

Entry numbers: 26441 and 26442! See CG; [B_302]

Note that the analysis is not centered around a real reproduction of the tablet images and that the images shown are of questionable accuracy. This text finally identified the image source text below.


Wooden Tablet IMAGES FOUND!

See CG; 1901; Daressy.

See (1901 volume)

plates LXII-LXV which contain images of CG 25366-25371


[B_302,OS;IMG;Akhmim wood tablets]

CATNYP# *OBKM+(Cairo. Musee des Antiquites Egyptiennes. Catalogue General. Ostraca hieratiques)

“Catalogue General des Antiquites Egyptiennes du Musee du Caire”

See 1901 volume with No.s 25001-25385 par M. G. Daressy

See 1930-1935 volume with No.s 25501-25832 par Jaroslav Cerny.

See 1904-1907 volume with steingefasse [stone vessels].



(from CG 25368)

As the Hieratic EXACTLY reads:

1/66 1/22 2/3 1/192 1/32 1/16 1/8 1/2   8 [checked off]

 (as per T. E. Peet) In addition to Mem.IFAO 9 see also “Un nuovo documento relativo alla logistica greco-egiziana” in: Bibliotheca Mathematica, ser. 2, V. 7, 1893, 79 ff. By Loria, G. and;

Baillet, J., (Pap. Math. Akhmim, 60)?


(as per AEB, 87.1009) Bresciani, Edda, "Ai margini della storia della medicina egiziana antica. Il caso di Padikhonsi di Akhmim", EVO 10, No.1 (1987), p. 51-55.


(as per AEB) The (Akhmim) Stele of Padikhonsi tells of a 200 BCE tooth extraction.


(as per ZPE; D. Fowler) see [B_179](1892); ~700 CE. Division tables.


(as per CATNYP; search for patterns)


CATNYP# MON+(Forrer, R., Romische und Byzantine seiden…) “

“Romische und Byzantine seidentextilen aus dem graber felde von Achmim…”

By Robert Forrer, Strassburg, 1891.

This restricted access text is only available at room 313 at the NYPL.


P.Achm. 6. Description of land: (Greek; 197 AD; from Panopolis)


CATNYP# *OAA (Archiv Orientalni) [Prague]
See ArOr 70 (2002; p. 27-42) for a paper by Hana Vymazalova.
“The Wooden Tablets from CAIRO : The Use of the Grain Unit hk3t in Ancient Egypt.”
ISSN 0044-8699

Images of CG 25637 and 25638!
A superior work to that of Peet, G. Daressy and myself!


Email for the Author: Hana Vymazalova


[B_303,8.5] CATNYP# *OBH+(Journal of Egyptian Archaeology)
See JEA IX (1923; p. 91-95) for a brief paper by T. E. Peet on AE Math which is an abridged lesson from his work in [B_092]; see RHIND.
“Arithmetic in the Middle Kingdom.”

Assigned as [B_606]:
Ignore (no review of the artifact!) article by Olga Kosheleva and Vladik Kreinovich:
“Egyptian Fractions Revisited.” [Partly funded by NASA!]
Olga has other articles published by the Symposium on Applied Computing. She comments on, but does not read, historical documents except as provided by other errant reports! (i.e. Boyer; Eppstein and Martin Gardner [not Milo Gardner].)
Ignore the article in all regards!


ACROPHONIC: (Greek and others)

numerals (similar in use to Roman numerals; MM=2000)

(as per D. Fowler) See math in these (Greek) papyri for examples:

P. Ryl. iii 540; See Rylands.

P. Oxy. x 1231; See Oxyrhynchos.

P. Oxy. xlii 3000; See Oxyrhynchos.

P. Herc. 1151; See Herculaneum.



See UHN: p. 185; fig 16.14 b:

Cretan; southern Arab and Greek-Attic ACROPHONIC systems.



ACROSTIC: not for the uninitiated

(as per EEF; A. Eyma; 120603)
Re: hieroglyphic acrostic writings
a XXII dyn. stela of Amenmose and another stela of the British Museum?

AEB lists one example:
which it says "can only be read acrostic wise":
the stele of Nebounnef. References:


STEWART, H. M., A Crossword Hymn to Mut, JEA 57 (1971), 87-104, 4 pl.


ZANDEE, J., An Ancient Egyptian Crossword Puzzle, Leiden, Ex Oriente
Lux, 1966 (19.6 x 26.6 cm; [VI + ] 80 p., 3 fig., frontispiece) =
Mededelingen en Verhandelingen van het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch
"Ex Oriente Lux" / Mémoires de la Société d'Études Orientales "Ex
Oriente Lux" 15.
(Zandee apparently lists other dyn. 20 examples of such a "mots croisés"



ACTENSTUCKE: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) Seek “Actenstucke aus d. Kgl. Bank zu Theban”, by U. Wilken. Ab. Berl. Akad., 1886. Now republished in UPZ 2, p. 198-229.



ADLER: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) Seek [B_385]


P.Adl. G1. Sale of vacant ground, at the office of the agoranomos: (Greek; 134 bce)



CATNYP# *OBKQ+ (Adler, E. N. Adler papyri)

BOBCAT# PA3315 .G4 Oversize.

See BOBST Archive: O 1

“The Adler papyri. Greek texts by Elkan Nathan Adler, John Gavin Tait and Dr. Fritz M. Heichelheim. The Demotic texts by the late Professor Francis Llewellyn Griffith [L.L.D., F.B.A.] With sixteen plates.”

London, Oxford, 1939.



See bobcat printout for better title and lifespans of all!

Greek and demotic texts.

Mr. Adler [1861-1946]

Mr. Tait [1896-?]

Dr. Fritz Morris Heichelheim [1901-1968]

Professor Francis Llewellyn Griffith [1862-1934]

Refers to OGIS

These Papyri were “bought” from the Arabs and believed to come from a pot from Gebelen [GEBELEIN] from one family archive ~134-89 BCE. They include many mixed cultural marriages and contacts. Loans and deeds and sales. [math]


See math content.

Jewish influence noted.

See P. Grenfell I. 43 = W. Chr. II. 57; from the Dryton Archive.

See P. Cairo Zen. 59762 (re. Sabbath)

See P. Tebt III. 17; 18 re. Jewish Loans.

See OGIS 73; 74 (re. Jewish activity in an Egyptian Temple)


Refers to the PETEHARSEMTHEUS Archive?





ADRUMETUM: (AE?)magic tablet(s) of

Obscure reference

The emerald tablets.



See Thoth.

See Hermes.

Verify if these are simply wishful thinking.

Do these exist?

Who wrote them?

When, and why?

Show me an image.



AEGYPTUS: publication



AFRICAN: mathematics

8.1. Kani, Ahmad, “Arithmetic in the Pre-Colonial Central Sudan”, in Gloria Thomas-Emeagwali, ed., Science and Technology in African History With Case Studies from Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe, and Zambia. Lewiston: E. Mellen Press, 1992.

8.2. Gerdes, Paulus. “On Mathematics in the History of Sub-Saharan Africa.” Historia Mathematica 21 (1994), no. 3, 345–376.

8.3. Gerdes, Paulus. Geometry from Africa: Mathematical and Educational Explorations. Washington, DC: The Mathematical Association of America, 1999.

8.4. Lumpkin, Beatrice. “Africa in the Mainstream of Mathematics History.” In Blacks in Science: Ancient and Modern. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1983, 100–109. Reprinted in Ethnomathematics. Challenging Eurocentrism in Mathematics Education. With a foreword by U. D’Ambrosio and an afterword by G. Gilmer. Edited by Arthur B. Powell and Marilyn Frankenstein. (SUNY Series, Reform in Mathematics Education). Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1997, 101–117.

8.5. Raum, O. F. Arithmetic in Africa. London: Evans, 1938.

8.6. Zaslavsky, Claudia. “Black African Traditional Mathematics”. Mathematics Teacher 63 (1970), 345–356.

8.7. Zaslavsky, Claudia. “Mathematics of the Yoruba People and of Their Neighbors in Southern Nigeria”. The Two-Year College Mathematics Journal 1 (1970), 76–99.

8.8. Zaslavsky, Claudia. Africa Counts: Number and Pattern in African Culture. Boston: Prindle, Weber & Schmidt, 1973; paperback, Westport, Conn.: Lawrence Hill, 1979.

8.9. Beart, Charles. Jeux et jouets de l’Ouest Africain. Dakar: IFAN, 1955. 2 vols.

8.10. Armstrong, Robert G. Yoruba Numerals. Ibadan: Oxford University Press, 1962 [worth 1 paper].

8.11. Brooke, M. “How the Shona Count”. Journal of Recreational Mathematics 6 (1973), 296–298.

8.12. Seidenberg, A. “The Diffusion of Counting Practices”. University of California Publications in Mathematics, Vol. 3. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1960, 215–299.


The above and more via this link:



AGONISTISCHE: (Greek) papyri

Pap. Agon. 1.: (Greek; AD 273; Oxyrhynchus)



AHDO: publication

Pap. Agon. 1.: (Greek; AD 273; Oxyrhynchus)

[B_433,prsu,AHDO]CATNYP# *OAA (Archives d’histoire du droit oriental) Library has Tome 1-4

“Archives d’histoire du droit oriental.”

Tome 1 [1937]; Tome 5 [1950-1]

Includes Jewish Law review.

See also LAW and JEWISH LAW .

See Papyrus Kahun II, I (MK; XII dynasty, 2000-1788 BCE.)

Legal content. See DJE I, pp. II ff.

*DJE=Documents Juridiques egyptiens; see AHDO 1 (1937) p. 3-86. and AHDO 5 (1950) p. 11-91.

AIA: (AE) Archaeological Institute of America (San Diego)



AKKADIAN: language

[B_533,NO COPY, open shelf at 219]

CATNYP# *O-*OCO 00-1354

“A concise dictionary of Akkadian / edited by Jeremy Black, Andrew George, Nicholas Postgate ; with the assistance of Tina Breckwoldt [and] Graham Cunningham, Marie-Christine Ludwig, Clemens Reichel, Jonathan Blanchard Smith, Junko Taniguchi and Cornelia Wunsch.”

Weisbaden, 1999.



CATNYP# *OCQ+ (British Museum. Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities, Dept. of. Cuneiform texts from Babylonian tablets) Part 1-

Cuneiform texts from Babylonian tablets in the British Museum.”

London, 1896-



AKSUM: (Greek, Ethiopian) inscription

~400 CE inscription(s)

See UHN: p. 246 footnote: AKSUM inscriptions in Ethiopia. Based on Greek.

The Aksumite inscriptions are rather stereotyped in style and content, being the official records of the campaigns. In general, they commence with the reasons for the campaign; these included damage to a trading caravan, DAE 10; rebellion of vassal kings or tribes, DAE 4, 6 & 7, Geza `Agmai; and a combination of rebellion and a plea for assistance from subjects under attack, DAE 11, Anfray, Caquot and Nautin 1970. Other reasons, implied in a general way by the Monumentum Adulitanum inscription, but certainly important, were the need to deal with such questions as frontier security, piracy in the Red Sea, and the security of land routes for trade.

DAE=Deutsche Aksum Expedition; hrsg. von der Generalverwaltung der Königlichen Museen zu Berlin, 1913-

Note: Aksum=Aksoum=Axum [Abyssinia]



ALALAKH: (Babylonian) tablets

Speiser, “The Alalakh Tablets,” JAOS, 74 (1954), pp. 18 ff.

Legal content.



ALBERTINI: (Greek/Latin) Tablets

(as per E. G. Turner) Tablettes Albertini = Actes prives de l’epoque vandale, ed. C. Courtois, L. Leschi, C. Perrat, C. Saumagne, Paris, 1952. 2 vols.


=Courtois, Ch., L. Leschi, Ch. Perrat, Ch. Saumagne (edd.), Tablettes Albertini, actes privés de l'époque vandale (fin du Ve siècle) (Paris 1952).


T.Alb.: Tablettes Albertini, Actes privés de l'époque Vandale

T.Alb. 1.: (Latin; AD 493?; Algeria)



ALCHEMY: ancient science

[B_422,HOUSE,SIBL] CATNYP# JSE 75-1345

"The Alchemist’s Handbook : manual for practical laboratory alchemy / by Frater Albertus. Revised Edition.”

NY, 1974



[B_424,rvw] CATNYP# JFE 94-14226

"Enochian chess of the Golden Dawn : a four-handed chess game / Chris Zalewski”

St. Paul, 1994.

See text below, also by C. L. Zalewski (affiliated with the Hermetic Society of the Golden Dawn):


[B_424alt,IGNR,HOUSE,gift from NB] NO CATNYP

“Herbs and Magic and Alchemy / Techniques from Ancient Herbal Lore.”

Great Britain, 1990, Prism Press.


[B_425,rvw,RARE] CATNYP# *KC 1685 (Cyranus. Magick of Kirani)

The magick of Kirani, king of Persia, and of Harpocration; containing the magical and medicinal vertues of stones, herbs, fishes, beasts and birds. A work much sought for by the learned, but seen by few; said to have been in the Vatican-library in Rome; but not to be found there, nor in all the famous libraries of the empire. Now published and translated into English from a copy found in a private hand.”

[London?] 1685.


See further alchemical references from the works of Carl Jung and more recently by NYPL employee Raphael Patai {as per John at 219}



ALEXANDER: (Greek) papyri

See CAIRO; [O_010, 8.5,NO IMG,BOBST]


ALEXANDRIA: (Greek) papyri; the greatest Library of all time



(as per E. G. Turner) Seek “Papyrus grecs du Musee greco-romain d’Alexandrie” ed. Anna Swiderek and Mariangela Vandoni. Warsaw, 1964.


P.Alex. inv409.: (Greek; Arsinoite; ?AD)


P.Alex.Giss. 1. Declaration of land: (Greek; KARANIS; AD 202)


[B_576,rvw] CATNYP# JFE 89-5430

“Biblioteca scomparsa / Luciano Canfora ; translated by Martin Ryle.”

London : Hutchinson Radius, c1989.

Said to contain data on surviving scrolls from the last destruction event.


Alexandria was a tiny fishing village on the northwestern delta of the Nile called Rhakotis when Alexander the Great of Macedon chose it as the site of the new capital of his burgeoning empire. But he never saw a single building rise there, dying before construction could begin



ALEXANDRINUS: (Greek) codex

Dominican Order, §II, 1(ii): Iconography of St Dominic: Life and miracles

Codex Alexandrinus (London, BL, Royal MS. 1.D. V-VIII)

Initial, manuscript


Codex Alexandrinus

A most valuable Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, so named because it was brought to Europe from Alexandria and had been the property of the patriarch of that see. For the sake of brevity, Walton, in his polyglot Bible, indicated it by the letter A and thus set the fashion of designating Biblical manuscripts by such symbols. Codex A was the first of the great uncials to become known to the learned world. When Cyril Lucar, Patriarch of Alexandria, was transferred in 1621 to the Patriarchate of Constantinople, he is believed to have brought the codex with him. Later he sent it as a present to King James I of England; James died before the gift was presented, and Charles I, in 1627, accepted it in his stead. It is now the chief glory of the British Museum in its manuscript department and is on exhibition there.




See UHN:

p. 252: (re GEMATRIA) see Arabic practice called “khisab al jumal” calculating the total.

p. 440 Sanskrit arithmetic called “samkhyana” or “sankhyana”.

P. 450 Indian Mathematician ARYABHATA on square roots. ~600 CE.

p. 451: RE ALGEBRA Sanskrit name is AVYAKTAGANITA = “science of calculating the unknown”




See also NUMBERS.



Alif, Ba, Jim, Dal, Ha, Wa, Zay, Ha, Ta, Ya, Kaf, Lam, Mim, Nun, Sad, Ayin, Fa, Dad, Qaf, Ra, Sin, Ta, Tha, Kha, Dhal, Dha, Ghayin, Shin.

[African Muslim Pnemonics: 1-9 by ones; 10-100 by tens; 200 to 1000 by hundreds]



Alpha, Vita, Gamma, Dalda, Epsilon, Zeta, Eta, Theta, Iota, Kappa, Laula, Mu, Nu, Ksi, Omikron, Pi, Ro, Simma, Tau, Upsilon, Phi, Khi, Psi, Omega, Shai, Fai, Hori, Tjanta, Kjima, Ti. (the last 6 in Non-Greek [demotic] Symbols).



Ay, Bee, Cee, Dee, Ee, Ef, Gee, Aych, Aye, Jay, Kay, Ell, Em, En, Oh, Pee, Cue, Arr, Ess, Tee, Ewe, Vee, Double Ewe, Ex, Why, Zee.



TIGRINYA ( Tigrigna )



Ah, Bay Say, Day, uh, Ef, Gjey, Ashh, Ee, Gjee, Ka, Ell, Em, En Oh, Pay, Ku, Arr, Ess, Tay, Ooh, Vay, Doobluh Vay, Eeks, Ee Grec, Zed.





Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, Zeta, Eta, Theta, Iota, Kappa, Lambda, Mu, Nu, Xi, Omicron, Pi, Rho, Sigma, Tau, Upsilon, Phi, Chi, Psi, Omega.



Aleph bet (vet) gimel daled hay vav zayin chet tet yud koph kophsofet lamed mem memsofet nun nunsofet samech ayin pay fay tzade rosh shin sin tof tof or something like that.












See bibliography.

See Ugaritc abecedary (alphabet inscribed in cuneiform).



AMAMU: (BOTD;AE) hieroglyphic inscriptions from coffin of

(as per E.A. Wallis Budge) See work by Samuel Birch, [1813-1885] and Peter le Page Renouf [1822-1897], [B_426] below:


[B_426,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKG+++ (Egyptian texts of the earliest period)

“Egyptian texts of the earliest period from the coffin of Amamu in the British Museum; with a translation by the late Samuel Birch. Published by order of the Trustees.”

London, 1886.

Author: British Museum. Dept. of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities.

See also LD.


See also work by Maspero, “Recueil”.



AMARNA (AE 1400 BCE)(Canaanite-Akkadian) Letters; tablets; Pharonic correspondence tablets


Author: British Museum. Dept. of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities.

Purchase! “The AMARNA Letters, edited by William L. Moran.”

Oxbow review quoted: “Discovered in 1887, The Amarna Tablets contain the correspondence between the

royal court and rulers of neighboring states in the mid 14th century BC[E].” 2002 reprint from Johns Hopkins

Univerity Press.

Available from OXBOW catalog [B_332 alt]

The Amarna tablets are named after the site Tell el-Amarna (in middle Egypt) where they were discovered. The first Amarna tablets were found by local inhabitants in 1887. They form the majority of the corpus. Subsequent excavations at the site have yielded less than 50 out of the 382 itemized tablets and fragments which form the Amarna corpus known to date.

The majority of the Amarna tablets are letters. These letters were sent to the Egyptian Pharaohs Amenophis III and his son Akhenaten around the middle of the 14th century B.C. The correspondents were kings of Babylonia, Assyria, Hatti and Mitanni, minor kings and rulers of the Near East at that time, and vassals of the Egyptian Empire.

Almost immediately following their discovery, the Amarna tablets were deciphered, studied and published. Their importance as a major source for the knowledge of the history and politics of the Ancient Near East during the 14th Century B.C. was recognized. The tablets presented several difficulties to scholars. The Amarna tablets are written in Akkadian cuneiform script and present many features which are peculiar and unknown from any other Akkadian dialect. This was most evident in the letters sent from Canaan, which were written in a mixed language (Canaanite-Akkadian). The Amarna letters from Canaan have proved to be the most important source for the study of the Canaanite dialects in the pre-Israelite period.

some cities that are mentioned in the letters (e.g. Lachish, Tell es-Safi {Gath?}, Gezer, Jerusalem, Shechem, Ta’anach, Megiddo, Hazor).

Note: Moran’s English tr. Available from for about 25 dollars

Number of Tablets at:

203 in Berlin (Vorderasiatisches Museum)

49 or 50 in the Cairo Museum

95 in the British Museum

22 in the Asmolean Museum in Oxford (found by [W. M. F.] Petrie)

7 in the Louvre

9 in private collections

2 in the Metropolitan Museum New York (acquired by M. Chassinat)

See Hapiru [?]; JEWS.


[B_571,rvw] CATNYP# *OBY 91-13000

“Les Lettres d’El-Amarna : correspondence diplomatique du pharaon / traduction de William L. Moran avec la collaboration de V[olkert]. Haas et G[ernot]. Wilhelm ; traduction francaise de Dominique Collon et Henri Cazelles.”

Paris, 1987.

Y. Goren, I. Finkelstein, N. Na'aman. The expansion of the kingdom

of Amurru according to the petrographic investigations of the Amarna

tablets. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research,

Vol. 329,2003.

A general, semi-popular review of the research will be published as:

Y. Goren, I. Finkelstein, N. Na'aman. Petrographic investigation

of the Amarna tablets. Near Eastern Archaeology.

(as per EEF; Gold from Amarna)

(as per A. Eyma; EEF; 080803)
Shlomo Izre-el’s 1987 report on jargon; Canaano-Akkadian linguistics.
See El-Amarna tablets

AMENEMOPE: (AE) papyrus

(as per AEB) = BM 10474 Obverse.




Let's reread some excerpts of a papyrus which arrived

in the British Museum in 1888 under the No. 1074.”


See [B_261,Torah] pages 205-7 for other details.




“FOUNDED BY BENJAMIN FRANKLIN in 1743, the American Philosophical Society has maintained a reputation for scholarly excellence since the publication of its first Transactions in 1771. This first series recorded Society activities, elections, deaths, etc., and reported on scholarly research in various disciplines in the humanities and sciences.”


See TAPS=Transactions of the American Philosophical Society


[B_306, rvw] CATNYP# *EA.A571t (1769/71)

[See also the Parsons and Lenox collections]

Transactions of the American Philosophical Society.”



AMHERST: (AE and Greek) papyrus

[B_044,OS,IMG] CATNYP# OBKQ+ (Amherst, W. A. T.-A. Amherst Papyri) "The Amherst Papyri, being an account of the Egyptian Papyri in the collection of the Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Didlington hall, Norfolk, by Percy E. Newberry. With an appendix on a Coptic papyrus, by W. E. Crum, M. A. With twenty-four autotype plates.”

London 1899.

Refers to ASTARTE.

See also HARRIS.

The text above refers to, and includes images of:

FAYUM [Oasis] Papyrus (BOTD?);

Papyrus of PED-HOR (literary)

KHAY Papyrus (BOTD)


LEE Papyrus

All from the Amherst Collection.


[W_022=B_054,rvw] WATSON# 533.6 C17F "Le papyrus Leopold II aux Musees royaux d'art et d'histoire de Bruxelles : et le papyrus Amherst a la Pierpont Morgan Library de New York: reproduits en fac-simile / avec une transcription par Jean Capart et Alan H. Gardiner", Bruxelles, 1939.



P.Amh. 2.30. Report on a Dispute: (Greek; ~165 bce)


[B_467=O_037,IMG,See OS O1 archive]

CATNYP# *OBKQ++ (Grenfell, B. P. Amherst papyri)

BOBST# PA3304 .A5 Oversize.

“The Amherst papyri; being an account of the Greek papyri in the collection of the Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney [1835-1909], F. S. A. at Didlington hall, Norfolk, by Bernard P. Grenfell ... and Arthur S. Hunt ...Price Fifteen Shillings.”

London, 1900-1901. Two volumes with plates.

Translations of Greek papyri by:

Grenfell, Bernard Pyne [1869-1926];

Hunt, Arthur Surridge [1871-1934].

Note these [Ptolemaic, Roman, and Byzantine] papyri are now at the Pierpont Morgan collection

With Isaiah and other theological fragments.


17/See (ps-)Athanasius, Quaestiones aliae [TLG 081 = MPG 28] 789.15, Sermo in nativitatem Christi [TLG 089 = MPG 28] 960.37; John Chrysostom (?), In natalem Christi diem [TLG 214 = MPG 56] 385.33; John of Damascus, Sacra Parallela [TLG 018 = MPG 95] 1265.19 and 1349.25 -- OPOU BOULETAI QEOS NIKATAI FUSEWS TACIS.

P. Amherst 199 has the letters KATAIFUSEW.



AMHERST: (Babylonian cuneiform) tablets


CATNYP# *OCS+ (Amherst of Hackney, W. A. T. – A. Amherst tablets)

BOBST# PJ3845 .A51 Oversize.

“The Amherst tablets; being an account of the Babylonian Inscriptions in the collection of the Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney [1835-1909], F. S. A. at Didlington hall, Norfolk, by Theophilus G. Pinches, LL.D. / Part 1. Texts of the period extending to and including the reign of Bur-Sin (about 2500 B.C.[E.]) / with numerous illustrtations and five collotype plates.”

London, 1908.

With lists [of semitic named persons], (grain and livestock) accounts, labels, receipts, certificates, consignments, offerings, inventory..

*Non-semitic cuneiform language inscriptions from Lagash, influenced and resembling Mongolian and Turko-Tataric dialects.

See plate IV for example (Sumerian style) of an “envelope” (of clay) with quantified “tokens”; see UHN. [B_359].

See map of ancient Western Asia.

See list of Babylonian geographical names.



AMIENS: (AE) hieratic papyrus


(as per Y. Koenig) Seek to P. Amiens r’ 1,3?


[W_020,OS2,IMG] WATSON# 529.5Am5 P58, “La collection egyptienne du Musee de Picardie / auteurs, Olivier Perdu, Elsa Rickal ; coordination, Noel Maheo”, Paris 1994.

Accounts, math.

Image of P. AMIENS on p 190-191.


(as per AEB) Seek RAD 1-13.


(as per S. Katary, [B_100])

P. Amiens

“the longest and most detailed document relating exclusively to the transport of grain [corn] revenues.”

Mentions ships likely belonging to the House of Amun.


“the ram-headed fertility god Amun, known in Nubia as Amani



AMMON: papyrus

See also KOLN.



AMPHORAS: big jugs of love


See HIBEH; [O_008,8.5,IMG]




AMSTERDAM: (Greek) papyri and ostraca

(as per E. G. Turner) AKA P. Amst, AKA P. Gron.

See Groninganae.


O. Amst.:

See also DUKE.


P.Amst. 1.27. Edikt von C. Calvisius Statianus: (Greek; ~175 AD)



AMUN: (AE) temple to god





ANAGENNESIS: (Greek) papyri

P.Anag. pg86/87.: (Greek; from MAGDOLA)



ANAPHORIKOS: (Greek) text by Hypsicles; 175 BCE?

Anaphorikos=(on rising times); Astronomical; Math.


(as per D. Fowler, M. Gardner) PURSUE!

[B_249,8.5’s,SIBL;by permission/appt.]

CATNYP# PEB (Heliodoros Larissaeus. Damiani philosophi. [Peri optik_on])

Hypsikleos Anaphorikos = Hypsiclis anaphoricus, sive, De ascensionibus / qua Latine vulgatus per Iacobum Mentelium.”

Parisiis, Ex Officina Cramosiana, 1657.

This is the oldest (250 BCE) extant Greek text with a resemblance to

the sexagesimal system of the Babylonians. See Vatican gr. 204.

No trigonometry but clear evidence of 12 signs of zodiac.


Bibliography of Hypsicles


“…[Hypsicles] wrote a treatise on regular polyhedra. He is the author of what has been called Book XIV of EUCLID’s Elements, a work which deals with inscribing regular solids in a sphere…”

What is Medium Coeli?


See link below:

The Medium Coeli, or mid-heaven, marks the crossing and culmination of a ZODIACAL sign on the upper meridian. [Astrology]



ANASTASI or ANASTASY or ATHANASI?: (AE) hieratic papyri

AtLeydenUniversity, Dynasty XIX.


(as per E. G. Turner)

Giovanni Anastasi was the Swedish and Norwegian Consul General [to CAIRO] from 1828-?


(as per G. Robins , C. Shute) ANASTASI I = B.M. 10247; a satirical letter.


[B_039,No Img,IGNR] CATNYP# *OBR 93-3726

Papyrus Anastasi I

“Die satirische Streitschrift des Papyrus Anastasi I / Textzusammenstellung von Hans-Werner Fischer-Elfert.”

Weisbaden, 1992.

With a useful bibliography.

[B_039b,rvw]CATNYP# *OBKQ 86-388

Same title as above. Pub. 1983.

Alt title: Papyrus Anastasi I


[B_039c=B_196,rvw; See B_074]

CATNYP# *OBH (Agyptologische Abhandlungen. Bd. 44)

“…Ubersetzung und Kommentar…”

Similar title as above. Pub. 1986.

Alt title: Papyrus Anastasi I


[B_246,rvw=W_021=W_027,rvw] CATNYP# *OBR+ (Egyptian Hieratic texts) = WATSON# 533.6 G16, "Egyptian hieratic texts : series 1, literary texts of the New Kingdom / transcribed,translated and annotated by Alan H. Gardiner", Liepzig, 1911. A review of Anastasi I =BM 10247andP. KOLLER.

Referred to by [B_039], above.

NYPL has Series I, Part 1.


(as per Leiden University)

P. Anastasi IIIcontains a Ramesside frontier journal from Sile.

P. Anastasi V=BM 10244 a story of the pursuit of two runaway slaves.


P. Anastasi VI re. Edomite nomads.

(as per T.E. Peet, [B_181],p. 65)

Anastasi IV: “contains a letter from an Egyptian frontier official stationed at the eastern entrance of the Wadi Tumilat..” Mentions Pithom.


(as per AEB, 93.0931) [B_114, NO IMG,8.5] CATNYP#JSE 96-831Couchoud, Sylvia, "Mathematiques egyptiennes. Recherches sur les connaissances mathematiques de l'Egypte pharaonique", Paris, 1993.

Describes P. Anastasi I as a ~1200 BCE Ramesside document

A review of AE math and the Anastasi I Math PROBLEMS.

Problem one with bricks and ramps.

Problem two with the transport of an obelisk, labor.

Problem three with the erection of a statue, labor.

Which I did not find!

See “Late Egyptian Miscellanies” two different texts and authors.:

Sir Alan H. Gardiner.

Ricardo Caminos.

Suggested parts to explore:

(14, 2-17, 1)

(Anastasi I, 2-17, 1)

See the excellent list of glyphs that represent math functions.

Only available at the Science Library at 34th and Madison.

This text reviews some problems from the RMP, See Rhind.

Also: Berlin, Demotic papyri, Kahun (Kahoun) and Moscou (Moscow). Note: No English in this text!


See this French link which specifies the suggested math in P. Anastasi:


Also see P. Dem. BM. 10520, Work by Couchoud, Sylvia, on a double

arithmetic progression. See [B_114]


(as per AEB) P. Anastasi IV=BM 10249 an AE account of tooth decay, the "tooth worm".


(as per F. Chabas) P. Anastasi V is a letter from Son to Father.


(as perLEX) P. Anastasi VI=BM 10245


(as per E. G. Turner)

The following are from the collection of Consul Anastasi:

P. Leiden X and P. Holmiensis.

Which include chemical and alchemical prescriptions.

The MITHRAS liturgy?

The papyrus of ABRAXAS.


(as per S. Katary, [B_100])

P. Anastasi VI, 26

Mentions assessment, “Chief Assessing Master”.

P. Anastasi V, 27, 6

Mentions assessment, “Chief Assessing Master”.

10069 (Anastasi IX)............................MSS.IVB.73
10248 (Anastasi VIII)..........................MSS.IVB.74

(as per EEF; E. Morris) Oren has excavated forts at Bir el-'Abd and Haruba along the Northern Sinai, and Dothan has excavated Deir el-Balah.  Just recently Jim Hoffmeier has also discovered what looks to be another of these fortresses at Tell Borg.  In terms of textual information, Seti's battle scene at Karnak, of course, depicts the forts and gives their names, and P. Anastasi I also provides a list of the Sinai forts.



ANHAI: (BOTD; AE) papyrus

(as per LEX) P. Anhai, BOTD,is similar to P. Hunefer.


(as per E.A. Budge) See B.M. 10472.

Lady Anhai was a singer in the Temple of Amen (Amon?) at Thebes.



ANI:(Theban Period in Egypt) papyrus

[B_310,House; BOTD] “The Book of the dead : the papyrus of Ani in the British Museum : the Egyptian text with interlinear transliteration and translation, a running translation, introd., etc. / by E. A. Wallis Budge.” by E. A. Wallis Budge.”

New York, Dover, 1967, softcover.

CATNYP# *O-*OBZM 88-6938

This text appears is out of date but includes great detail on funerary papyri.

See Khonsu-hetep.

AN or ANIwere other name forms of Ra the Sun God.

BM 10470, Book of the Dead. 78 feet long; from about 1400 BCE.

See these related links.:


(as per AEMT) Pursue other, lesser known versions of BOTD:

Ahmose; Anhay=Anhai; Irtyru (BM EA9912); Khar; Nebamun; Nebseny=Nebseni; Nestanebtisheru; Nu; Psamtek; and Tjenena.


(as per AEB) See "Fascimile of the P. of Ani in the British Museum, The BOTD", London 1890.


(as per EEF) Visit these links:




ANNU: (AE Priests of college at) town of

(as per E.A. Wallis Budge) AKA City of ON (see the Old Testament);

AKA Aven and Beth-Shemesh (see the Old Testament);

AKA City of Heliopolis(by the Greeks).

The Priests of Annu are said to have prepared and revised

versions of the BOTD as early as the fifth Dynasty.

See the TORAH; Pyramid Texts.

See “Recuiel de Travaux” [See B_304] by Maspero and Mariette, Paris, 1882-1893. See the coffin of Amamu.

See works by Herodotus and Strabo.


(as per PM) Beth-Shemesh AKA ‘Ain Shems AKA Rumeila (Outside Egypt).

Scarabs found here:

Tuthmosis III;

Amenophis I, II, III;

Rameses I, II, III;

Sethos I.

See Ain Shems Excavation 5.

(as per PM) See north Temple of Ramses III, attributed to Ramses II.

Dedicated to Astarte.

In Tell el-Hosn [Beisan/ Bethshan], Palestine?

See work by Rowe, “Four Canaanite Temples”. [B_375],


[B_375,no copy,IGNR] CATNYP# *PWC+ (University of Pennsylvania. University Museum. Palestine Section. Publications. V. 2.)

“Four Canaanite temples of Beth-shan…”

[AKA Bet She’an]

By Alan Rowe and Gerald Milnes Fitzgerald. Philadelphia, 1940.

Viewed on 051003. Too vague for my purposes.


(as perEEF;J. Gohary)

Labib Habachi [1906-?] published 17 Akhenaten blocks from Heliopolis reused in Cairo city walls between Bab al-Futuh and Bab al-Nasr, and in the minaret of  Al-Hakim Mosque, in 'Akhenaten in Heliopolis', BABA 12 (1971), pp.35-45, Festschrift Ricke.


ANTEF: (BOTD; AE) coffin inscriptions

(as per E.A. Budge) BOTD.

See also coffin inscriptions.




ANTIKYTHERA: (Ancient Greek) navigation/astronomical tool found near island of

Found in the Mediterranean Sea.

See MMA; 2002.


Tony Freeth, The Antikythera Mechanism II: is it Posidonius' Orrery?

MMA International Journal: Vol. 2, No 2 (2002).

In 1901 divers working off the isle of Antikythera found the remains of a clocklike mechanism 2,000 years old. The mechanism now appears to have been a device for calculating the motions of stars and planets by Derek J. de Solla Price [See KESKINTO]

From June 1959 Scientific American p.60-7

…identifiable objects come from Rhodes and Cos…

General plan of all gearing, composite diagram from De Solla Price, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society Vol 64 No 7 (1974).


ANTINOOPOLIS: (Greek and Latin) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) See “The Antinoopolis Papyri”:

Volume One; ed. C.H. Roberts, London, 1950

Volume Two; J.W.B. Barns, H. Zilliacus. London 1960.

Volume Three; J.W.B. Barns, H. Zilliacus. London 1966.

AKA P. Ant.

AKA ANTINOE AKA el-Sheik Ibada.

(Across the Nile from Hermopolis).


P.Ant. 1.31. Official Letter: (Greek; AD 347)


See old NYPL catalog: Volume 225; page 43; cards 6 & 7.
ANTINOOPOLIS is on the east bank of the Nile;
south of Beni Hassan.


ANZU: (Sumerian) epic of; See GILGAMESH; See STACT; NO CATNYP

“The Standard Babylonian Epic of ANZU.”

By Amar Annus, STACT v.III, 2001.

See GILGAMESH (Akkadian) [B_514,rvw] CATNYP# *OCY 99-4737

“The Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh : cuneiform text, transliteration, glossary, indices and sign list / by Simo Parpola ; with the assistance of Mikko Luukko and Kalle Fabritius.

[Helsinki], The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 1997.

From the STACT series, volume 1.

Available from OXBOW catalog [B_332 alt]

APA: (BOTD; AE) Stele of

(as per E.A. Budge) See lines 5-8 of the BOTD.

See work by Ledrain.



APAW: a masterful collection of (miscellaneous archaeological) works


APAW=Konigliche Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Abhandlungen. Philosophische-historische Klasse.

(CATNYP# *EE P921), [B_199].

1852 volume, printed in 1853, under the title:

“Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin.”

See article titled:

“Uber den ersten Aegyptischen Gotterkreis und seine geschichtlich – mythologische Enstehung.” By Karl Richard Lepsius

See Mention of: Herodotus; Pantheon; Champollion; Dionysos, Herakles; Leto; Buto; Pantheon Aegyptorum; Prichard; Thoth; Hermes; Zoroastrische Glaubenslehre; Poseidon; Prometheus; Manethos; P. Turiner; Fragmenten des Joannes Antiochenus; Bockh; Hephaistos; Ammon-Ra; Plutarch; Wilkinson [handbook for travellers, 1847 [See B_391]; Philae; Dendera; Strabo; Ammon; Abydos; Heliopolis; Jablonski; Luxor; Joseph; Moses; Rosetta stone; Karnak; Rosellini; Burton; Leemans; Letronne…


See article titled: “Uber die zwolfte Aegyptische Konigsdynastie.”

By (Hrn.) LEPSIUS.

Pages 425-453. (There is no page 454).

Gelesen in der Koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften am 5. Januar 1852.

With mention of: Hyksos; Champollion; Young; Mr. Le duc de Blacas; Abydos; Bankes; Cailliaud; Burton’s Excerpta hieroglyphica; Wilkinson’s Handbook for Travellers in Egypt (1847) [See B_391]; Mimaut; Millingen; Rosetta stone; P. Sallier; P. Anastasi; Prisse; Bulletin des Sciences; Drovetti; Turin P.; Rosellini; RA; [LD] Denkmaeler…


See article titled:

“Uber einige Ergebnisse der agyptischen Denkmaler fur die Kenntnifs der Ptolemaergeschichte.”


Pages 455-506. See Demotic on plates.

Gelesen in der Koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften am 29. Juli 1852.

With mention of: Young; Strabo; Hieronymus; Cleopatra; Letronne; Vaillant, Heyne; Drumann; Sharpe; Rosetta stone; Demotic P.; Bockh; Leemans; P. Casati zu Paris; P. Anastasi zu Leyden; St. Martin’s entry in  Journal des Sav.; RA; Berliner P.; Champollion-Figeac; Bankes; Turiner P.; P. von H. Scott; Brugsch; Wilkinson; Strabo; Jomard; Philae; Forschall; Pap. Grey bei Young; Sarcophagi; Stele des Anemhi; Alexander; Dionysos ...


[B_199alt, REJECT,01] CATNYP# JFD 75-7486

“Opuscula academia berolinensia : gesammelte Abhandlungen zur klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, Byzantinistik und Romanischen Philologie 1826-1871.”

Liepzig, 1974.

Subject is Midieval/Romance/Classical/Byzantine literature.

Author, Immanuel Bekker, 1785-1871.

In my pursuit of Leppy references from [B_149] I noticed this text was related to, but not the same as [B_199] above.


[B_199alt, REJECT,02] CATNYP# *OOY 75-1409

“Sprachwissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der deutschen Turfan-Forschung; Text-Editionen und Interpretationen von Albert August von Le Coq [et al.] Gesammelte Berliner Akademieschriften 1908-1938. Mit Vorwort von Georg Hazai. [Unveranderter Nachdruck aus den Abhandlungen und Sitzungsberichten der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften]”

Liepzig, 1972.

Subject is Uighur language and manuscripts

Author, Albert August von Le Coq, 1860-1930.

In my pursuit of Leppy references from [B_149] I noticed this text was related to, but not the same as [B_199] above.



APHRODITOPOLIS: (Greek; AE) ancient city of

(as per E. G. Turner) AKA Atfieh. AKA Atfih.





APIS:(AE) Ceremonial (Deified) Bull.


See P. VINDOB. 3873.See also SERAPEUM.

See PAMPREPIOS; [B_521=O_075,rvw]; VINDOB.



APIS: Search here for (historical; philological) papyri



APOKRIMATA: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) Seek “Decisions of Septimus Severus on Legal Matters,”

Edited by W. L. Westermann and A. A. Schiller. NY, 1954.

AKA P. Col. 123 AKA P. Col. vi.

See chapter VIII n. 34.

APOKRIMATA is occasionally used in lieu of P. Col. vi.


See COL. papyri.



APOLLONIUS: (Greek) Mathematician




APOLLONOS: (Greek and Coptic) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) Seek “Papyrus grecs de Apollonos Ano”,

ed. R. Remondon, Cairo 1953.


[B_180b, 8.5,IMG, v. 2] CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t. 82, “Hommages Serge Sauneron, Cairo, 1979.

Image of P. Apoll. 106, (requisitions navales) in V. 2, Plate II.

Image of P. Apoll. 107, (achats de combustibles) in V. 2, Plate III.


P. Apoll. 1. Exercice de rédaction d'entagion et de reçus au nom de l' émir Ou)oeiq

(Greek; ~AD 700; from Apollonopolis Magna)






See Pyk Belady: 0.57827 meters?

Within very close tolerances, we can thus say that the distance traveled by light in the Hindu kashta is equal to 30 Greek or geographic feet, 25 remen cubits, 20 geographic cubits, 16 Pyk beladys, 11 megalithic yards and 5 Brasse or fathoms. Alternatively, the distance traveled by light in five Hindu kashtas is equal to 154 Egyptian feet, 150 Greek or geographic feet, 125 Remen cubits, 100 Geographic cubits, 88 Royal cubits, 80 Pyke Beladys, 55 Megalithic yards and 25 Brasse or fathoms. Considering that the above-mentioned 25 remen cubits exactly equal 1/200 minutes of terrestrial arc at a latitude of 45 degrees, and 125 Remen cubits equal 1/40 minutes of terrestrial arc, it would seem that a kashta is a remarkably useful unit of time for geomantic engineering.


See Pik:


See this scholarly link:

Ibn Khurdabih (846 A.D.) gives the following account of Sallaam's expedition, who was sent to report on the Iron Gate by Khalif Wathiq.
"Sallaam's interpreter related to me that when Al-Wathiq bi-'llah dreamt that the wall built by Dhu'l-Qarnain between us and Gog & Magog was opened, and he sought a man to send out to the place, in order to gain news of it, Ashnas said "There is no-one here except Sallaam's interpreter who is fitted for the business, and Salaam spoke 30 languages. So, says Sallaam, Wathiq summoned me and said "I wish you to go out to the rampart that you may actually see it and bring me news of it."
After some time journeying, Sallaam came to a "lofty mountain on which was a fortress. And the rampart which Dhu'l-Qarnain built is in a broad opening between two mountains, the breadth of which is two hundred CUBITs [300ft or 100m]. That was the road through which they (Gog & Magog) issued and spread over the earth. And he dug the foundation of it to the depth of 30 CUBITs, and built it of iron and copper until it reached to the surface of the ground. Then he raised two side pillars near to the mountains on both sides of the opening 25 CUBITs broad, and 50 CUBITs high, which projected at the base to ten CUBITs beyond the gate. The while was built with iron bricks, covered with copper, each a CUBIT and a half by a CUBIT and a half, and four finger breadth high. There was an iron lintel 120 CUBITs long and 5 CUBITs broad, which rested on each end on the pillars, projecting 10 CUBITs beyond them. Above the lentel was a structure of iron covered with copper to the top of the mountains. The height of the structure extending as far as the eye could reach, about 60 CUBITs above the lentels. Above it were iron pinnacles, each having as the side, two horns bent towards each other. The length of each pinnacle was five CUBITs and the breadth four. There were 37 pinnacles upon the structure. Then the gate had two doors which lowered, each 50 CUBITs broad by 75 CUBITs high, and 5 CUBITs thick. The upright of the doors turned on pivots upon a level with the lintels, and no air could penetrate either by the gate, or from the mountains. The whole being built as in one piece. On the gate was a bolt 7 CUBITs long and a fathom round which two men could not draw. The height of the bolt from the ground was 25 CUBITs. Five CUBITs above the bolt was a lock longer than the bolt, the two staples of which were each 2 CUBITs long. To the lock a key was hung a CUBIT and a half long with 12 wards, each ward like the pestle of a mortar. The key was 4 spans round and was suspended from a chain 8 CUBITs long and 4 spans round which was riveted to the gate. The ring to which the chain was attached was like the ring of a ballista. The threshold of the gate was 10 CUBITs broad, with a length of 100 CUBITs, excluding the space under the two pillars, the visible part of which was 5 CUBITs. ... In one of the two fortresses, were the builders implements, with which the rampart had been built, consisting of iron cauldrons, and iron ladles. On each trivet, 4 cauldrons like those in which soap is boiled (could be placed).
There was also the remainder of the iron bricks which were sticking together with rust.
Sallaam says: "I said to those of the fortress which were present, 'Has anything at all of this rampart been damaged?' They answered 'Nothing except this crack.' Now the crack was in breadth as thin as a thread. I said 'Do you put anything in it?' They replied 'No! For the thickness of the rampart is 5 CUBITs which are equal each to one and a half Iraqian CUBITs'. Sallaam said: "So I approached, and taking my knife out of my boot, I scraped in the fissure and got out as much as half a drachm, and tied it up in a cloth to show it to Al-Wathiq bi-'llah. At the top of the right door of the rampart was written in iron characters in the ancient language "But when the promise of my Lord shall come to pass, He shall turn it to dust and the promise of my Lord is true".[6]
Was this the gate that was mentioned in the Qur'an? Was this gate sufficient to block the hoards of Gog and Magog? Sallaam single handed with his knife managed to scrape out as much as half a drachm with his little knife. Could not the multitudes of Gog and Magog dig the whole thing out of existence in one day? The Qur'anic description of the structure is that it is so strong and impregnable that they can not even dig it or scale it.
Yusuf Ali mocks the brains of his readers in the following words:
"We now come to the iron gate which corresponds exactly to the Qur'anic description, and has the best claim to be connected with Alexander's story. It is near another Derbend in Central Asia, Hissar District, about 150 miles south east of Bukhara. A very narrow defile, with overhanging rocks, occurs on the main route between Turkistan and India. Latitude 38 degrees north; longitude 67 degrees east. It is now called in Turki "Buzghol-Khana" (Goat-house), but was formerly known as the "iron gate" (Arabic "Bab-ul-hadid"; Persian "Dar-i-ahaani"; Chinese "T' There is no iron gate there now, but there was one in the seventh century, when the Chinese traveller Hiouen Tsiang saw it on his journey to India. He saw two folding gates cased with iron and hung with bells. Nearby is a lake named Iskander Kul, connecting the locality with Alexander the Great. ... We also know from Muqaddasi, the Arab traveller and geographer who wrote about A.H. 375 (A.D. 985-6) that the 'Abbasi-Khalifa Wathiq (842-846 A.D.) sent out a mission to Central Asia to report on this iron gate. They found a defile 150 yards wide: on two jams made with bricks of iron, welded together with molten led were hung two huge gates which were kept closed. Nothing could correspond more exactly with the description in xviii 95-96."[7]
Notice that Yusuf Ali says "There is no iron gate there now". Whatever happened to this massive structure that is mentioned in the Qur'an and the Hadith and was seen by an army of Muslims and it was at least made of two doors each 50 CUBITs broad by 75 CUBITs high, and 5 CUBITs thick? And what of the Qur'anic verse (Q. 21:96-97) that says that the gate will remain till the time of the end, just before the Last Day?
More radically we have to ask whether there ever was a dam and a gate that enclosed the people of Gog and Magog behind the mountains at any time.
Blocking a gap between two mountains is huge task. Such a structure would have been by far larger than the greatest of all the pyramids. Had the Qur'an spoken of the pyramids, no questions would have be raised. Most people have seen a movie, a photo, or even a documentary showing the pyramids. However, when the Qur'an speaks of such a huge and massive structure that blocked the way of the millions of Gog and Magog, all that Yusuf Ali can provide us with in way of evidence is the testimony of people from days gone by and the huge gate itself has gone with the wind.
Can you imagine anyone giving as the only evidence for the existence of these pyramids a traveller's claims to have seen them in the seventh century although there is not even a trace left of those pyramids now?
Had there been a dam and an iron gate as described by the Qur'an, that site would attract millions of people to see. And with the imprisoned people of Gog and Magog behind them, that would have been also a constant physical reminder of the coming judgement of God and the Last Day as it was written in the Qur'an:
Until the Gog and Magog (people) are let through (their barrier), and they swiftly swarm from every hill.
Then will the True Promise draw nigh (of fulfilment).
Then behold! The eyes of the Unbelievers will fixedly stare in horror: "Ah! Woe to us! we were indeed heedless of this; nay we truly did wrong!" (Q. 21:96-97, Yusuf Ali's translation)
So where did the story of this dam and the iron gate and Gog and Magog come from?
The story came from a legend, a myth that has no historical reality, called the "Romance of Alexander". Telling these kinds of legends was a popular pastime of ancient people. It is equivalent to movies nowadays.
"The episode of the building of the gate against Gog and Magog is found in the Christian legend concerning Alexander, and in the poetic version of Jacob of Serugh which was written not later than A.D. 521. The Koran was written over a century after this version".[8]
Other versions have sprung up since then. Here is one version of those legends. From Carl Muller's edition of the "Pseudo-Callisthenes", in Cod. B (III, cap. 29 ed. Didot, p. 112 seq.) the report about Gog and Magog appears as follows:
"I found there the part is introduced into a letter from Alexander to his mother... I found there many people who ate flesh of human beings and drank their blood like water; since they did not bury their dead, but ate them up. And seeing people so wicked, and fearing that by this manner of feeding they would pollute the earth with their vile depravity, I petitioned the exalted Deity, and proceeding forcibly against them, I put the majority of them to the sword, and brought their land under subjection. From all sides arose loud complaints of them from the highest to the lowest. Hearing that Alexander the King of the Macedonians had come thither, they said, "He will kill all, lay waste our towns and overwhelm them". So taking to flight they followed one another, one people pressing upon another and all driving one another to flight. Of these there were twenty-two kings, and I pursued them with my troops until they entrenched themselves in the two great mountains which are called "The Breasts of the North". There is no other outlet or inlet in these great mountains since they reach in height above the clouds of the heavens, and the mountains stretch so far that they are as two walls right and left towards the north to the Great Sea, which is .... and the land of darkness. And I thought of all means of depriving them of the outlet through the great mountains into which they had driven. Now the inlet between the great mountains was 46 Royal ells. Again, with all my heart I petitioned the exalted Deity, and he heard my prayer. And the exalted Deity commanded the two mountains and they moved and approached each other to a distance of twelve ells, and there I made .... copper gates 12 ells broad, and 60 ells high, and smeared them over within and without with ... so that neither fire nor iron, nor any other means should be able to loosen the copper; since fire was put out against it, and iron was shattered. Within these gates, I made another construction of stones, each of which was eleven ells broad, 20 ells high, and 60 ells thick. And having done this I finished the construction by putting mixed tin and lead over the stones, and smearing .... over the whole, so that no one might be able to do anything against the gates. I called them the Caspian Gates. Twenty and Two Kings did I shut up therein."[9]
There are many versions of these legends, and it was only natural for people to look for this monumental dam and gate. The following sums up the disappointment and the folly for such endeavours:
`Since people began exploring the world they looked for Alexander's gate. Professor Andrew Runni Anderson had this to say about Alexander's gate:
"The gate itself had wandered from the Caspian Gates to the pass of Dariel, from the pass of Dariel to the pass of Derbend, as well as to the far north; nay, it had travelled even as far as remote eastern or north-eastern Asia, gathering in strength and increasing in size as it went, and actually carrying the mountains of Caspia with it. Then, as the full light of modern day come on, the Alexander Romance ceased to be regarded as history, and with it Alexander's Gate passed into the realm of fairyland."'[10]
Dear reader, forget about the legends for the time being. Suppose there were no legends and that the Qur'an did not borrow the story from a legend.
The facts are this: The Qur'an mentioned a huge impregnable structure that will last to the end of times, but this structure is no where to be found. It does not exist and did not exist. The absence of this colossal structure brings to question the validity of the Qur'an.
God gave us eyes to see. He placed two of them, not in the head of another so that this other person might see for us, but God placed our eyes in our own heads so that we could see for ourselves. Likewise He gave us a brain to think, He placed it in our own heads, not in the head of another person, so that he might do the thinking for us. So let us use our own eyes and our own brains to find the truth for ourselves. God will not judge us according to what others saw and thought but He will judge us according to what we saw and what we thought.
Dear reader, do you think that a dam and a gate of any size will stop any nation from scaling up the surrounding mountains? Primitive people have been climbing mountains since the dawn of civilisation. Besides, with satellites we have mapped out every inch of planet earth. Where are these millions that are locked up behind the mountains? The whole story as mentioned in the Qur'an does not fit the simple facts of life. It indeed belongs to the realm of fairyland.
That does not mean there is no God and no day of judgement. On the contrary, there is a faithful God that can be trusted and a day of judgement coming. You can read about the true God and His true mercy in the Book called the Bible. The Book that God sent before the Qur'an.
Had it been from other than God, they would surely have found therein much discrepancy. (Q. 4:82)


1. Sahih Muslim, Book 40, Number 6931.
2. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 88, Number 249.
3. Sahih Muslim, Book 40, Number 7016.
4. Sahih Muslim, Book 40, Number 7015.
5. Ibn Kathir, commenting on Q. 18:92-96.
6. C.E. Wilson "The Wall of Alexander Against Gog and Magog; and the Expedition Sent out To Find it by the Khaliph Wathiq, in 842 A.D." Hirth Anniversary Volume, Asia Major, London: Probsthain and Co, 1922, pp. 593-595.
7. The Holy Qur'an, Translation and Commentary by Yusuf Ali, Appendix 7, page 762 (1983).
8. Iskandarnamah - A Persian Medieval Alexander-Romance, Translated by Minoo D. Southgate, Columbia University Press, New York, 1978. p201.
9. C.E. Wilson "The Wall of Alexander Against Gog and Magog; and the Expedition Sent out To Find it by the Khaliph Wathiq, in 842 A.D." Hirth Anniversary Volume, Asia Major, London: Probsthain and Co, 1922, pp. 577-579.
10. Alexander's Gate, Gog and Magog, and the enclosed nations, Andrew Runni Anderson, the Medieval Accademy of America, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1932, pp.103,104.



ARAD: (cuneiform) letters [30 kilometers Northeast of Beersheba]




ARAMAIC: bibliography

Download the extensive pdf file.




Find out more about: James Lowdermilk (Egyptian Study Society) A Commentary on the Study of Ancient Egyptian Mathematics.



CATNYP# *OBH 02-349

“Bulletin of the American Research Center in Egypt”

Cairo, 2001 [#180]; 2002 [#182]

My archive includes #182 [spring-summer 2002]

ARCERIANUS: (Roman) codex

The works of Frontinus are all of a technical nature, written, as he tells us, partly for his own instruction, and partly for the advantage of others. The first of these was probably a treatise on the Art of Surveying, of which fragments are extant. It consisted originally of two books, and the excerpts, collected by Lachmann, treat the following subjects: de agrorum qualitate, de controversiis, de limitibus, de controversiis agrorum. The work is known to us principally through the codex Arcerianus at Wolfenbüttel, dating probably from the sixth or not later than the seventh century, which appears to have been a book used by the Roman State employees and contains treatises on Roman law and land surveying, including some pages of Frontinus. Various citations in other authors from this work of Frontinus point to the latter as a pioneer in this practical work of the Roman surveyor, and to his writings as the standard authority for many years.*.html#8.9


ARCHIMEDES: (Greek) master

(as per M. Gardner)

[B_247,8.5,PRCHS] CATNYP# JSE 89-475

Title: Archimedes / English

AKA “Archimedes / by E. J. Dijksterhuis ; translated by C. Dikshoorn ; with a new bibliographic essay by Wilbur R. Knorr.”

Princeton, N.J., 1987.

At the Science Library.

See rules on proportion and the Cattle problem (Problema Bovinum) and the screw (Cochlias or Limacon) and Planetariums? Water Clocks!.

Archimedes said to have been born 287 BCE.

This work gives credit and acknowledgement to two prior works:

1. T.L. Heath “The Works of Archimedes”

2. P. Ver Eecke “Les Oeuvre Completes d’Archimede”

See also Codex Ottobonianus Latinus 1850 with its errors.

See Marshall Clagett’s “Archimedes in the Middle Ages”

Note: Archimedes used Milesian (or similar) symbols.


See also EUCLID [B_569; HOUSE]

See also [B_390; KESKINTO]
on the sale of a surviving manuscript [a medieval copy]


[B_613,pursue,SIBL] CATNYP# JSK-77-64
Archimedes in the Middle Ages, edited by Marshall Clagett.”
Wisconsin, 1964-84 6 volumes.
Verify Archy’s use of Milesian Symbols
Find reference to his own system [not adopted] for N>10K
Find references and biblio for all images

ARGOS: search here for Medieval data



ARISTOTLE: (Greek) Scientist, Philosopher

[B_384,rvw] CATNYP# JFK 00-30 no. 325 1973 Vol. 1

Aristotle / edited and translated by Harold P. Cooke.”

Cambridge, 1926-1991, Nine volumes.

See alternate house version, Aristotle and Demetrius on Style.


NO CATNYP [Ignore]:

“Aristotle: On the Parts of Animals I-IV.”

By James G. Lennox, Oxford, 2001.

See alternates at NYPL with All surviving works translated.

Above available from OXBOW catalog [B_332 alt]

[B_516,rvw] CATNYP# JFK 00-30 no. 73, etc.

“Aristotle / edited and translated by Harold P. Cooke.

Cambridge, 1926-1991.


1. The categories. On interpretation.

2. Posterior analytics.

3. On sophistical refutations.

4. The physics

5. The physics

6. On the heavens - xref astronomy

7. Meteorologica

8. On the soul / parva naturalia.

9. Historia animalium I-III.

10. Historia animalium IV.

11. History of animals VII-X.

12. Parts of animals.

13. Generation of animals.

14. Minor works.

15. Problems I-XXI.

16. Problems XXII-XXXVIII.

17. The metaphysics I-IX.

18. metaphysics X-XIV.

19. The Nicomachean ethics

20. The Athenian constitution

21. Politics.

22. The “art” of rhetoric.

23. The poetics / “Longinus” on the sublime / Demetrius on style see my alt house text.


[B_599, alt HOUSE]
CATNYP# YAEH (Politica Jowett) (Aristotle. Politics of Aristotle. 1885)
“The Politics of Aristotle.”
Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1885.


ARISTARCHUS: (Greek) mathematician

AKA Aristarque de Samos

See [B_390; KESKINTO]


ARSINOE: (Greek) papyrus

(as per E. G. Turner) AKA (Greek) P. HAWARA.

ARSINOE AKA Medinet-el-Fayyum.



ARTSCROLL: publisher of Judaica Studies

See ABAA catalog on file; See TORAH; TALMUD

See December 2002 catalog on file with [B_332]


(Aarya-Bhatt) is the first known astronomer to have initiated a continuous counting of solar days, designating each day with a number. This 'count of days' is termed the 'ahargana.' His epoch began at the beginning of the Mahayuga. To avoid excessively large numbers later astronomers changed the beginning of the epoch to the Kali era, commencing at midnight of 17-18 February of 3102 B.C.


ASAW: publication

Often mixed in collections with SPAW.


ASAW=Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig (Berlin) [B_358a]


[B_358a, Todd @ 219 assists, 12/9/01, acquired 1/12/02,no img] CATNYP# *EE S122 (Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Leipzig, Philologisch-Historische Klasse. Abhandlungen)

Library has Bd. 1-?

“Abhandlungen der Koniglich Sächsischen Gesselschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Philologisch-Historische Klasse.”

Leipzig, Akademie Verlag. 1850-? 1993?

See Old NYPL Catalog Vol. 636, Page 509, card #13!

1897 Band XVII Contains Hultsch's:

"Die Elemente der agyptischen Theilungsrechnung von Friedrich Hultsch, mitglied der Kigl. Sachs. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. Erste Abhandlungen.”

In: “Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Sachs. Gesellschaft d. Wiss., phil-hist. Classe.” Band xvii, Leipzig, Bei S. Hirzel, 1897.

[3 cover pages and p. 1-192; ALL.]

Found [also?] in SPAW?

Hultsch on reading the Hyksos period AE RHIND papyrus refers to:

[p 3-192] Milesian analyses throughout and Eisenlohr’s 1877 RMP work on many occasions.


[p 3-50; 135-7; 144; 169-170; 187] J. Baillet’s work on the Greek Akhmin math papyri.

See also: “Giornale di Mathematichi di Battaglini.” XXXII (1894).

And: “Bibliotheca Mathematica”, 1892, S. 97 ff.; 1893, S. 79 ff.

[p 3-50;] Petrie’s Kahun math papyri

[p 3-50; 135] Muhaffy’s work on the PETRIE papyri.

[p. 3] PSBA 1891 [RMP]

[p.3-4; 50; 131] Reference to Rodet’s work in JA VII Serie, Bd. 18 S. 186.

[p. 3-20; 24] Von Erman’s work(s)

[p. 3-32] Works of Garthausen on Greek papyri.; Palaographie.

[p. 4; 24; 30; 34; 56-7; 122; 179-180] Reference to Griffith’s PSBA of 1894,

[p. 6] Works by Tannery (see KESKINTO).

“Bulletin des Sciences Mathem.” 2 Serie, VIII, 1884

See also “Notice sur les deux lettres de arithmetiques de Nicholas Rhabdas.”

[1886] in Notices et extraits des Manuscrits. XXXII, 4, S. 54 ff.

[p. 7; 150] See also “Berliner Philol. Wochenschrift.” 1894 s. 1329

[p. 8] Reference to DIOPHANTUS and PITAGORAS

[p. 11; 19-20; 30] Brugsch’s Grammar and Thesaurus.

[p.17; 24; 52; 117; 153; 167; 172; 175] Reference to Cantor’s work; Vorles.

[p. 18] H. Hankel’s: “Zur Geshichte der Mathematik.”

[p. 18] Harris papyri.

[p. 19; 24] Lepsius’s analysis of inscriptions at EDFU.

[p. 21; 30; 76] Reference to Griffith’s PSBA of 1894 [RMP].

[p. 22; 158-60] Reference to Jamblichos/Nikomachos [IAMBICHUS/Nicomachus] work by Pistelli [see also p. 8]. [other related works by Boeth?; Joann Friedlein; Hoche; Dirichlet]


[p. 30] Gardthausen’s work ”Greichische Palaographie.”

[p. 30] Mahaffy’s work ”The Flinders Petrie Papyri.”

[p. 30; 33-4] Lepsius’s work in ZAS 1865, s. 104 f.

[p. 31] Montfaucon’s Greek Paleography

[p. 32] Woisin’s work: “De Graecorum notis numeralibus.” S. 50

[p. 33] Dumichen’s work in ZAS, 1865.

[p. 40-41] Griffith’s PSBA entries of 1892.

[p. 41-2; 45] Discussion of CUBITS.

[p. 42; 46] Discussion of Arura [Aroura]

[p. 44] Wilcken’s work on Greek ostraca and the KENYON papyri.

[p. 46-7] Discussion of Ro [rho]. Ro=1/320 hkt [a daily dry volume ration unit]

[p. 49] 7:22 as [~1/Pi] 1/(3+1/7), = [1/6 + 1/11 + 1/22 + 1/66] = 21/66

[p. 52] Reference to Eisenlohr’s work in JA VII Serie, Bd. 19 [1882] S. 518. With Schack.

S. 167.


[p. 58] Reference to ARCHIMEDES and HERO.

[p. 59] Reference toArchim. Opera ed Heiberg.

[p. 59; 122] Reference to Heronis Alex. Geom. et Stereom. Ed. Hultsch.

[p. 64; 118] Reference to Forstemann’s “Historische Untersuchungen.” Leipzig, 1894.

[p. 68] Reference to Griffith’s PSBA of 1892, S. 436 ff.

[p. 91] Reference to the square root of 3: [1+ 1/2] > sqrt3 < [1 + 1/2 + 1/4]

[p. 91] Reference to the works of Theodorus and Plato

[p. 95; 122; 159] Reference to Hultsch’s article on ARCHIMEDES in Pauly-Wissowa’s “Realencyclopadie der class. Altertumswissenschaft, Bd. II”


[p. 105; 158] “2) Oder in allgemeiner Fassung a:m > a:n, wenn m<n. Diesem Satze hat spater Eukleides Elem. [EUCLID’s “Elements”] V Propos. 8 die Fassung…”


[p. 117] Reference to the Arabic ”mokhraj”; [LCD] Rodet’s work in JA VII Serie, Bd. 18 S. 215.

[p. 147] article heading: “Uebersicht uber die Lehre von den Zerlegungen.”

[p. 159] Reference to Hiller’s work: “Exposit. rer. Mathem.” S. 45 f.

[p. 160] Reference to Allatius’s work.?

[p. 167; 173] Reference to Leonardo von Pisa’s work: “Liber Abaci.”



[B_358b,rvw] CATNYP# L-10 7170

“Sitzungberichte der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Philologisch-Historische Klasse.”

Continues: “Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Philologisch-Historische Klasse. Berichte uber die Verhandlungen (in Old Catalog); Library has ?1962-?1974-?

Gift of the Dewitt Wallace Endowment Fund.





ASHMOLEAN: Institute

and (AE/Greek) papyri and (Greek/Demotic) ostraca and collections



O. Ashm.:


P.Ashm. 1.3.:

([recto] Greek and [verso] Demotic; ~115 bce; from HAWARA)


Diane Bergman (formerly Director of the Wilbour Library of the BMA) now at the Ashmolean.



ASHOKA: (INDIAN) ancient stainless steel pillar

The author draws attention to the Ashoka Pillar at the Kuth Minar in Delhi, India. It is a 10 metres high iron pillar weighing six tonnes, and has been standing there since AD 413 at the latest, yet it shows only the minutest trace of rusting . It has taken modern technology a long time to come up with stainless steel. King Chandragupta's men seem to have had a head start back then.


Clarification/debunk of ashoka

See also ASOKA: older/other asoka considerations.



ASKEWIANUS: (Coptic/Gnostic) Codex

Referenced in ZAS 42; p. 140. Text is available at WILBOUR Library.


Until recently, only a few pieces of Gnostic literature were known to exist. These included Shepherd of Men, Asclepius, Codex Askewianus, Codex Brucianus, Gospel of Mary, Secret Gospel of John, Odes of Solomon and the Hymn of the Pearl. Knowledge about this movement had been inferred mainly from extensive attacks that were made on Gnosticism by Christian heresiologists (writers against heresy) of the second and early third century. These included Irenaeus (130? - 200? CE), Clement of Alexandria (145? - 213?), Tertullian (160? - 225?) and Hippolytus (170? - 236). Unfortunately, the heresy hunters were not particularly accurate or objective in their analysis of Gnosticism



ASOKA: (Brahmi) inscriptions


Although some authorities insist that this Indian arithmetic had been developed in Alexandria, had traveled to India via sea-routes from Egypt to northwest India, then through Persia to Baghdad, al-Khowarizmi explained in a book published in about 825 and later translated into Latin, Liber Algorismi de numero Indorum, that Indian numerals were adopted in Baghdad after certain of their astronomical tables had been translated there. Other research has uncovered our 'Arabian' numbers in the ancient Indian inscriptions of Asoka, Nana Ghat and in the Nasik caves.




The earliest preserved examples of the number system which is still in use today are found on several stone columns erected in India by King Ashoka in about 250 B.C.E.4 Similar inscriptions are found in caves near Poona (100 B.C.E.) and Nasik (200 C.E.).5 These earliest Indian numerals appear in a script called brahmi.



[B_491,rvw,Catnyp listed but shows NO CALL#!]

CATNYP# [?!]

“American Studies in Papyrology”

Chico, California, 1966?-?


Some volumes published [1966-?] by the American Society of Papyrologists.



CATNYP# *OBKQ+ 73-515

“Proceedings [of the 12th ASP conference of 1970]; edited by Deborah H. Samuel.”

Toronto, 1970


ASSA: (AE;OK) Pharaoh and/or King

The use of papyrus as a writing material goes back to extreme antiquity. The oldest written papyrus known to be in existence is, according to Kenyon (The Paleography of Greek Papyri, Oxford, 1899), an account-sheet belonging to the reign of the Egyptian king Assa, which is conjecturally dated circa 2600 B.C.

Book The oldest in the world. That by Ptah-Hotep, the Egyptian, compiled in the reign of Assa, about B.C. 3366. This MS. is preserved in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. It is written on papyrus in hieratic characters, and is a compilation of moral, political, and religious aphorisms. It strongly insists on reverence to women, politeness, and monotheism. Ptah-Hotep was a prince of the blood, and lived to the age of 110 years


[My thoughts: apparently the Prisse Papyrus AKA the teachings or precepts of Ptah-hotep is originally from the reign of ASSA; See M. Lichtheim’s tr.!]



ASSYRIAN ASTROLOGY: (Assyrian) cuneiform tablets


CATNYP# *OCQ 93-3651

“Astrological reports to Assyrian Kings / edited by Hermann Hunger ; illustrations edited by Julian Reade and Simo Parpola.”

Helsinki, 1992

Volume VIII of the State Archives of Assyria [SAA]

SAA: published by the Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project of the Academy of Finland in co-operation with Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft / Editor in Chief Simo Parpola / Managing Editor Robert M. Whiting / Editorial Committee Frederick Mario Fales, Simo Parpola, Nicholas Postgate, Julian Reade, Robert M. Whiting

Note from p. XII: range of included tablets dates central from 708-648 BCE.

Figure 1: star chart from Niniveh; fragments

Figure 3: Taurus on Seleucid Tablet

Page 41: If in Nisan (1) the Sun is surrounded by a halo in the morning…flood will come

Figure 4: Round; pizza-type slices; Assyrian star map

Figure 5: Fragment of Omen tablet, Assurbanipal

Figure 7a-d: Ivory prism from Niniveh, for computing daylight seasonal periods.

Page 151: Lunar Halo on Full Moon Day, a good omen.

Page 152: Full Moon on 14th Day, a good omen.

Figure 15: Seleucid astrological tablet, [in this case Mercury but elsewhere Jupiter and Venus] shown as

an 8-pointed star

Figure 17: Astral symbols on boundary stone, 7-pointed star

Figure 18: Astral symbols on boundary stone, 4 or 5-pointed star

Figure 21: Samas[h] Temple inscription, sun 4-points, venus 8-points

Page 260: Mars in Cancer, not Retrograde; [Mars] it will not become stationery and not tarry.

Page 270: Jupiter near Regulus; Jupiter’s radiance a good omen; 3 [stellar] fingers

Page 274-5: Venus near Saturn; a bad omen; 1 [stellar] cubit.



ASTARTE: (Semitic god); papyrus

Pursue, NO CATNYP: Gardiner, AH,

The Astarte Papyrus, Griffiths Institute, Oxford, 1936.


(as per EEF) Associated with Venus.


(as per P.E. Newberry) Literary.


(as per ZAS) Tribute of the Sea?, from XIX or XX Dynasty, ASTARTE=Phoenician Goddess, Hieratic.


(as per AEB) Associated with Canaanite God Yammu.


[B_063,NO IMG, IGNR] CATNYP# *OCY (Plessis, J. Etude sur les textes concernant Istar-Astarte), "Etude sur les textes concernant Istar-Astarte; recherches sur sa nature et son culte dans le monde semitique et dans la Bible." Paris, P. Geuthner, 1921. By Joseph Plessis.

(as per J. Plessis):

Astarte is a semitic divinity, not decisively Babylonian in nature.


The Hebrew use of numerals to represent “15” is shown by (9+6) to avoid the name of God with (10+5).


The Hebrew use of numerals to represent “16” is shown by

(9+7) to avoid the name of God with (10+6).


(My thoughts) See P. Derveni (Greek) in which it is a pious act to avoid the name of God.


“et avec mododities differentes elle preside a la fecundite

dans le monde et protégé les humans”

To date I have no copies from this text.


See the TORAH [B_143]; Genesis XXXI. 30; Rachel’s theft of Laban’s house gods (Idols). Images of Astarte.


WATSONLINE yields nothing.


See these related links:


[B_228,8.5,PRCHS] CATNYP# *OCZ (Pritchard, J. B. Ancient Near East)

“The ancient Near East; an anthology of texts and pictures. Translators and annotators: W. F. Albright [and others].”

Princeton, 1958

See refences to ISHTAR and MERNEPTAH stele.

See also JEWS.


See also RYLANDS; [B_093] for images of Ishtar/ ASTARTE.


The Beginning of the “Astarte Papyrus”“. Publication of papyrus Bibliothèque Nationale Nr 202, which contains the beginning of the “Astarte papyrus”… DocNouvPub/Periodiques/BIFAO_100.htm

a dead link with a clue? From BIFAO



ASTROLABE: (ancient) device

See UHN: P. 518 ASTROLABE; Pope Sylvester II (Gerbert of Aurillac) acquired an Arab ASTROLABE during his time in Spain.

See Astronomy



ASTRONOMY: (ancient)

(suggested contacts)

John Steele, Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, Tel: 0191-3742139, Email:


Annette Imhausen, Dibner Institute, 38 Memorial Drive, Cambridge, MA

02139, USA, Email:


Christopher Walker, Department of the Ancient Near East, The British

Museum, London, WC1B 3DG, Tel: 020-73238382, Email:


[B_418,rvw,RARE] CATNYP# *KB 1579 (Monte, G. Gvidivbaldi e Marchionibvs Montis Planisphaeriorvm vniversalivm theorica)

“Gvidivbaldi e Marchionibvs Montis Planisphaeriorvm vniversalivm theorica.”

Pisavri, Apud Hieronymum Corcordiam, 1579.

See alternate HOUSE version of Planisphere: [B_418b,OS]

“Cambridge Starfinder / The Complete Astronomy Map & Guide Pack.”

Include: Planisphere [42 N. Latitude]; Moon map; Star chart.



[B_419,rvw,SIBL] CATNYP# VXF (Kerigan, T. Young navigator’s guide)

“The young navigator’s guide to the sidereal and planetary parts of nautical astronomy: being the theory and practice of finding the latitude, the longitude, and the variation of the compass by the fixed stars and planets. To which is prefixed the description and the use of the new celestial planisphere. By Thomas Kerigan ….”

London, 1821.

See alternate HOUSE version of Planisphere: [B_418b]

Logarithms; math.


[B_420,rvw,RARE] CATNYP# *KB 1569 (Danti, I. Trattato Dell’Vso Et Della Fabrica Dell’ Astrolabio)

“Trattato Dell’Vso Et Della Fabrica Dell’ astrolabio. Di F. Egnatio Danti dell’Or di S. Domenico. Con lL’aggivnta Del Planisferio Del Roias. All’Illustriss. Et Reveren. S. Don Ferdinando Cardinal De Medici.”

Florence, 1569.

See alternate HOUSE version of Planisphere: [B_418b]

Diagrams; tables; math.


See also MATH: before 1601


(as per AEB):

(AEB 84.1129) Abraham, George, The Motion of Mars in Egyptian Planetary Tables, Archive for the History of Exact Science, Berlin-Heidelberg 30 (1984), 1-6.


(AEB 92.1040) Christiansen, H. Dalgas, Decanal Star Tables for Lunar Houses in Egypt?, Centaurus, Copenhagen 35 (1992), 1-27.


(AEB 92.1053) Spalinger, Anthony, Additions and Queries, GM 128 (1992), 87-94.


(AEB 94.1170) Spalinger, Anthony J., Preface, in: Revolutions in Time, XI-XVI.


(AEB 94.1171) Spalinger, Anthony J., Thoth and the Calendars, in: Revolutions in Time, 45-60.


(AEB 94.1172) Spalinger, Anthony, Under the Moon of Earth, in: Revolutions in Time, 61-83


(AEB 94.1173) Wells, R.A., Re and the Calendars, in: Revolutions in Time, 1-37.


(AEB 95.1140) Bibe, Celia, La Arithmetica Faraonica (II), Aegyptus Antiqua, Buenos Aires 9 (1995), 2-7.


(New AEB) Depuydt, L., Civil Calendar and Lunar Calendar in Ancient Egypt, Peeters Publishers, Leuven, (1997-2000?).



I have reviewed this carefully and found the following errors in the English version:

1. See Part 2; Venus:

2. Venus

As a pregnant woman, Kallisto would have to change from a companion in the attendants of Artemis to another goddess, the goddess of the sexual love, Aphrodite, embodied in the planet Venus. Venus and Moon have synchronicities in their synodic periods: 73 x 8 = 584; 584 x 8 = 365 x 8 (8 normal years!) = 29.5 x 99 (-0.5)!

This should read 584 x 5 = 365 x 8 (8 vague years!) = 29.5 x 99 (-0.5) = almost exactly 99 Lunar Months!


See also the Mayan “Dresden Codex” also appears to refer to a Great Year, which includes the same Venus considerations. Compare this to Oinopides.

At this section:

14. Astronomical inscription from Keskinto / Rhodes / Greece

Note that I recently acquired copies of the source text by Hiller von Gaertringen:

Inscriptiones Gracae, <Rhodos>, fasc. I, item 913, cf. corrigenda on p. 217.

The corrigenda is by Paul Tannery which seems to be your source or secondary source.

My analysis of this inscription finds that while Tannery may have chosen the values more correctly, there is significant disharmony in the two readings.

A source photo has not been located and feel that obscure context and damaged content will prevent any progress, I am not confident this inscription agrees with Tannery or Hiller v. G.

In effect the inscription may be damaged beyond interpretation.

I have not yet found the later analysis by M. Lippman. [No analysis by Lippman exists; BF; 052103]

the year of 704 from a document of Suabraed of Essex (copied from an ancient document from Chartres now in the British Museum). There are some older documents, like one from King Aethelbert of Kent dated 605 (Codex diplomaticus aevi sextae III), but these are assumed to be later copies or forgeries.

But let us let Dionysius himself tell us how…new yearly counting…

Keskinto is mentioned here.

Jewish contributions:

See UHN:p. 520-1: See Jewish astronomers in Arab lands

See Mashallah

Sanad ibn ‘Ali

Sahl at Tabari, from Khurasan.

Sahl ibn Bishr, from Khurasan.


(as per K. Gadre; EEF; 072703)
For tracking the heliacal risings of Sirius


(as per EEF; Dr. A. Maravelia; 090104)
…to have a look at the (recent) mainstream bibliography on those topics
(decans and decanal stars), I could recommend the following:


1. * Kákosy, L.: «Decans in Late-Egyptian Religion», Oikumene, 3, 1982, 163-91.


2. * Locher, K.: «Probable Identification of the Ancient Egyptian Circumpolar Constellations», Archaeoastronomy 9 (suppl. to JHA, 16), 1985, S152-53.


3. * Locher, K.: «The Ancient Egyptian Constellation Group "The Lion between the Two Crocodiles" and the Bird», Archaeoastronomy 15 (suppl. to JHA, 21), 1990, S49-51.


4. * Locher, K.: «New Identifications of Ancient Egyptian Constellations, discussed at the 5th International Congress of Egyptology, Cairo 1988», RdA (Suppl.), 9, Roma 1991, 216-17 & pls. LXI-LXIII.


5. * Locher, K.: «New Arguments for the Celestial Location of the Decanal Belt and for the Origins of the sAH-Hieroglyph», Atti VI Congresso Internazionale di Egittologia, II, Torino (Il Comitato Organizzativo) 1993a, 279-84.


6. * Locher, K.: «The Decans of Ancient Egypt: Timekeepers for Worship, or Worshipped beyond Time?», Oxford V Conference on Archaeoastronomy, Santa Fe NM 1996, in press.


7. * Belmonte, J.A.: «A Celestial Map of the Ancient Egyptian Firmament», Ad Astra per Aspera et per Ludum: European Arcaeoastronomy and the Orientation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin: Papers from a Session, held at the European Association of Archæologists 8th Annual Meeting in Thessaloniki 2002 (Maravelia, A.-A., ed.), Oxford (Archaeopress / BAR International Series, 1154) 2003b, 31-36.

…read Mme K. Gadre's decan study. In my 2nd PhD
in Egyptology, "Les astres dans les textes religieux en Egypte antique
et dans les hymnes orphiques helleniques" (currently in publication,
hopefully to appear sometime in 2005 or early 2006), I have presented extended Tables including the frequency of occurence of various astronomical and cosmovisional terms, star names also included. Some of the results are:


1. Of the five known planets, considered virtually as stars by the
Egyptians, Mercury (sbgw/stX) is met once in the PT and once in the
CT, & Venus (nTr-dwAy, sbA-wAty) is met 25 times in the PT
and 14 times in the CT; I also found a quite possible reference to
Mars (Hr-dSr) in the CT.


2. The Great Star (sbA aA) is met twice in the PT, while the stellar
luminaries AxAx are found twice in the PT and thrice in the CT.


3. Other stars, like waA (once in the CT), nxxw (9 times in the PT,
once in the CT), iAd (once in the PT, 5 times in the CT) are also
met, together with some rare references to asterisms and/or decans
(nr-iHw, xAw, srwt, & c.).


4. Sothis (spdt) is met 27 times in the PT and 21 times in the CT and elsewhere.

ATHENIENSIS: (Greek) papyri

P.Athen.: Papyri Societatis Archaeologicae Atheniensis


P.Athen. 1.: AKA P.Zen.Pestm. 23. Letter from Amyntas to Zênôn

(Greek; 257 bce; from PHILADELPHIA)


P.Athen.Xyla: P.Sta.Xyla: The Byzantine Papyri of the Greek Papyrological Society.

P.Athen.Xyla 1: (Greek Receipt for the Exchange of Goods)



AURELIUS ISODORUS: (400 CE; Greek) archive


AUST. HERR.: (Greek) papyri

P.Aust.Herr.: P.Trophitis: New Ptolemaic Texts Relating to Egyptian Alimentary and Sale Contracts. Greek Abstracts from a Kibotos Archive.


P.Aust.Herr. 1.: (Greek; 160 bce; Arsinoite)


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